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A Study on Residents' Satisfaction Degree of Differentiated Elements in Outdoor Space of Apartment Housing (아파트 옥외공간 차별화 요소에 대한 주민 만족도 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 서주환;김도경;최성숙;김대환
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.98-108
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this research is to help outdoor space planning reflected real needs of apartment residents in the differentiation elements of outdoor space, by using USC trade-off game in three apartment complexes in Seoul. This game method was used to evaluate their preference, reliability of preference degree, satisfaction degree, requirement elements such as improvement, sacrifice, maintenance of present condition, and payment possibility for improving and maintaining present condition, in addition to their preference and payment possibility of differentiation of outdoor space in the apartment complex in the future. From the statical analysis, we found the following results: 1. Reliability of preference degree was valid, inasmuch as the first elements they preferred were the almost same as the last things. 2. Elements of preference were pedestrian ways, pedestrian security facilities, various athletic facilities, and variety and high-class facilities in a play ground. 3. Satisfaction degree of differentiation elements of outdoor space was low not only in total complexes but also in each complex. As a result of analysis, these elements were not satisfied with residents. 4. Most of the differentiation elements of outdoor space in three apartment complexes, except planting traditional trees, were required to improve and maintain present condition. The cost to improve and maintain these elements able to pay by them was about 2.18 million won. Through this result, these elements were not options but prerequisites for planning outdoor space in apartment complexes. 5. In the future preference elements of differentiation of outdoor space in apartment complexes were pedestrian and jogging ways, places with water, various athletic places and facilities, multi-function resting places, green spaces in experiences, pedestrian security facilities, various athletic facilities, variety and high-class facilities in a play ground, and payment possibility for these elements was about 3.20 million won.

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A Development of Checklist for Applying Neuro Architecture Factors - Focused on Medical space (신경건축학적 요소 적용을 위한 체크리스트 개발 연구 - 의료공간을 중심으로)

  • Noh, Taerin;Suh, Swookyung
    • Journal of The Korea Institute of Healthcare Architecture
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the neuro architecture items and detailed elements that can be considered for each detailed space in the future medical space design development through the development of a checklist of neuro architecture elements that can be utilized in medical space design. Methods:: This study first develops the neuro architecture element through theoretical research and prepares the basic plan for the checklist through consultation with the employees of the design company in which the researcher works. Finally, a checklist was developed through a survey of nine experts, including designers, hospital staff, and professors. Results: The result of this study 1) The neuro architecture component was developed in seven categories: light, color, sound, air, image, nature, ergonomic furniture and equipment. 2) Specifically, it consists of 49 elements including 7 light elements, 7 color elements, 5 sound elements, 4 air elements, 11 image elements, 6 elements in nature, 9 elements in ergonomic furniture and equipment. It was. 3) Although each of the detailed elements is more preferred according to the space, in general, all the elements should be considered in the context of the hospital space design. Implications: The checklist on the neuro architecture element will enable the development of the most faithful design as an efficient and useful tool for applying the neuro architecture philosophy that considers human beings in hospital design and pursues healing and happiness.

A study on Characteristics of Chinese Style Reflected in the Vivienne Tam Collection (비비안 탐 컬렉션에 나타난 중국풍 디자인 특성 연구)

  • Jiang, Lanying;Park, Juhee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.527-539
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    • 2019
  • This study examined the Chinese style in the Vivienne Tam collection as well as explored diversity and modern interpretation of a Chinese style used in modern fashion. The study also investigated the concept and history of the Chinese style as well as analyzed the Chinese style in the collection based on a consideration of a Chinese element that is the basic structure with an understanding of Vivienne Tam and general collection themes. As a result of research, the Chinese style appeared in the Vivienne Tam collection was comprehensive with 43 Chinese elements including Animals, Flower & Grass among the Nature elements, Mythology Religion among the Figure elements, Historical Artifacts, Clothing, Oral Literature, Entertainment, Fine Arts. Technique, Folk holiday among Culture elements and Philosophy among Spirit elements, which accounted for 57.6% of the collection. The formative characteristics that included Chinese elements were extended, abstracted, distorted or transformed; in addition, some abstract elements were embodied into animals, images and certain particular forms to present a theme. In addition to two-dimensional method to print Chinese elements on fabric, they were also expressed as a three-dimensional texture or a silhouette, achieving clear and bold harmony. The aesthetic characteristic is a mixture of Eastern and Western way of thinking. Her costume has a political and historical meaning beyond the imitation of elements that represent the development of a pleasant and interesting design.

Identification and Phylogeny of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus HERV-W LTR Family in Cancer Cells

  • Yi, Joo-Mi;Kim, Hwan-Mook;Kim, Heui-Soo
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2002
  • The long terminal repeats (LTRs) of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) have been found to be coexpressed with sequences of closely located genes. It has been suggested that the LTR elements have contributed to the structural change or genetic variation of human genome connected to various diseases and evolution. We examined the HERV-W LTR elements in various cancer cells (2F7, A43l , A549, HepG2, MIA-PaCa-2, PC-3, RT4, SiHa, U-937, and UO-31). Using genomic DNA from the cancer cells, we performed PCR amplification and identified twelve new HERV-W LTR elements. Those LTR elements showed a high degree of sequence similarity (88-99%) with HERV-W LTR (AF072500). A phylogenetic tree obtained by the neighbor-joining method revealed that HERV-W LTR elements could be mainly divided into two groups through evolutionary divergence. Three HERV-W LTR elements (RT4-2, A43l-1, and UO3l-2) belonged to Group 1, whereas nine LTR elements (2F7-2, A549-1, A549-3, HepG2-3, MP2-2, PC3-1, SiHa-8, SiHa-10, and U937-1) belonged to Group 11. Taken together, our new sequence data of the HERV-W LTR elements may contribute to an understanding of tissue-specific cancer by genomic instability of LTR integration.

Uptake of Some Toxic Elements by Wild Plants in Siwaqa Area/Central Jordan

  • Bzour, Asma Fayyad;Khoury, Hani Nicola;Oran, Sawsan Attalah
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.148-156
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    • 2017
  • The wide distribution of redox-sensitive elements (RSE) as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and strontium (Sr) in the top soil of Siwaqa area are related to the weathering action of alkaline surface and groundwater on the parent rocks. The bioavailability, distribution, sorption, and ecotoxicity of As, Cd, Se, and Sr, of the wild plants and top soils in the study area were investigated. A total number of 23 surface soil samples and 23 plant samples were collected and analyzed for the most toxic elements. The uptake of elements by plants was dependent on the plant species and the concentration of elements in the soil. For example, Sr was the highest concentration in soil samples and plants, while Se was the lowest concentration in soil samples and pants. For the plants, the results showed that Bellevalia sp. had the highest elements uptake, while Allium rothii had the lowest elements uptake. The results of this work provide a valuable knowledge for understanding the bioavailability of some toxic elements in the soil and plants of Central Jordan. The results are expected to be of great help for the Jordanian Uranium Mining Company during their environmental risk assessments.

THE EFFECTS OF MESH STYLE ON THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR ARTIFICIAL HIP JOINTS

  • Shin, Jae-Min;Lee, Dong-Sun;Kim, Sung-Ki;Jeong, Da-Rae;Lee, Hyun-Geun;Kim, Jun-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, a good quality mesh generation for the finite element method is investigated for artificial hip joint simulations. In general, bad meshes with a large aspect ratio or mixed elements can give rise to excessively long computational running times and extremely high errors. Typically, hexahedral elements outperform tetrahedral elements during three-dimensional contact analysis using the finite element method. Therefore, it is essential to mesh biologic structures with hexahedral elements. Four meshing schemes for the finite element analysis of an artificial hip joint are presented and compared: (1) tetrahedral elements, (2) wedge and hexahedral elements, (3) open cubic box hexahedral elements, and (4) proposed hexahedral elements. The proposed meshing scheme is to partition a part before seeding so that we have a high quality three-dimensional mesh which consists of only hexahedral elements. The von Mises stress distributions were obtained and analyzed. We also performed mesh refinement convergence tests for all four cases.

A Study on Expressive Methods and Application of Aesthetics Factors for Design of Hosing Space with the Differentiation (주거공간의 차별화된 디자인을 위한 심미적요소의 표현방법 및 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Ji-Eun;Jeong, Ji-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to develop basic data for the design of the housing space for unit that factors in the sentiment of the residents by using aesthetic elements and expression method to search for the ways to design housing space for differentiated unit. The results are as follows: First, aesthetic elements in the aesthetic element in the unit housing space for unit can be classified into basic elements and detailed elements. Second, it is possible to classify into distortion, mixing, superposition and juxtaposition methods. Third, use of the 'material' for 'wall' is recommended when designing differentiated housing space by using basic elements. At this time, expression using the method of 'mixing' is effective for inducing differentiation. In particular, elements that can perceive the difference in time are mixed, to add on slight differentiation. Fourth, 'illumination' and 'material' are used when designing differentiated housing space by using detailed elements. Fifth, preference degree of the expression method is manifested differently depending on the selected elements. Lastly, this study conducted a study on the preference level of the aesthetic elements and expression method targeting the experts alone to differentiate the design of the residential space for unit.

A Study on the Meaning Function of Symbol Design based on The Comic Dual Forces and The Five Elements (음양오행(陰陽五行) 사상에 의한 심볼디자인의 의미적용 가능성 연구)

  • 장은석;김재희
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 1999
  • The modern is image age, and The visually expressed symbols have much influence on individuals or enterprises and have an effect on the variety of individual and the innovation of management. Espacially, the symbols carry on the axis composing total image. According to the reason of positive & negative five elements, this paper analysised and studied the meaning of symbol design which analysis the thoughtful, abstract and formal meaning. This is the most fundmental elements and principals and means the good symbol composed harmoniously the positive & negative five elements give good image. Namely, the symbols of the Eum & Yan which applied the philosophical reason of the Orient thought became good image. The lively elements of design composed the reason of Eum & Yang have effect on auspicious and upgrade one step to the dimension of symbol design. The purpose of this paper analysises and understands the meaning of symbol was composed the positive & negative five elements. In the point of view of modern design. the overlOOking elements of the symbol(line, form, space etc) reminded and established the new model which the new idea approached by the thought of the positive & negative five elements.

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A Pilot Study of Bender Elements in Stiffness Measurements of Civil Engineering Materials (벤더 엘리멘트를 이용한 토목재료의 강성측정에 대한 적용성 연구)

  • Mok, Young-Jin;Jung, Jae-Woo;Jang, In-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.308-319
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    • 2005
  • Piezo-ceramics are special materials which transform energy between mechanical and electrical forms. Bender-elements are composite materials consisting of thin piezo-ceramics and elastic shims, and are widely used as actuators and transducers in the field of electronics, robotics, autos and mechatronics utilizing the effectiveness of energy transformation capability. In geotechnical engineering, commercial bender-elements are used in laboratory as source and receiver in the measurements of soil stiffness. The elements were built by using various metal shims sandwiched between piezo-ceramics and coating over the composite in the research. A pair of elements were buried in a concrete block and used as source and receiver to measure the stiffness of the concrete. The test results were verified by comparing with the resonant column testing results. In a preliminary stage of the development of an in-situ seismic testing equipment using bender-elements for soft clay materials, shear waves were generated and measured by burying the elements in the barrel of kaolinite and water mixture. The measured shear wave signals were so distinct for the first-arrival pick that applicability of the elements in the field measurements is very promising.

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The Importance and Preference of Eco-Friendly Design Elements Related to Residential Space - Focused on the Residents in Gimhae - (주건공간 관련 친환경 디자인 요소의 중요도와 선호 - 김해지역 아파트 거주자를 대상으로 -)

  • Park, Jin-Kyoung;Oh, Chan-Ohk
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.86-94
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of eco-friendly design elements related to residential space by residents and what element they prefer. To achieve this, 18 eco-friendly design elements related to residential space were selected from the Green Building Certification Criteria and the relevant research papers. These elements were categorized into four areas; the ecological environment area (4 elements), the indoor environmental climate one (4 elements), the energy and resource saving one (6 ones), and the material one(4 ones). On the base of these 18 elements, the importance degree of each element was examined by using 5-point Likert scale. The subjects were 299 housewives living in apartment houses in Jangyu new town, Gimhae. The subjects perceived strongly the importance of eco-friendly design elements, but many of them did not know about Green Building Certification Criteria. Overall importance of 18 elements by the residents was very high. Also, the indoor environmental climate area was considered as the most important one, followed by the energy and resource saving area, the material area, and the ecological environment one.

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