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A Study on the Setting Process and Formational Characteristics of the Seonyu Eight Scenic in Gogunsan Islands (고군산 선유팔경(仙遊八景)의 설정과정과 집경(集景) 특성)

  • Jung, Woo-Jin;Hwang, Guk-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.32-50
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    • 2019
  • The present study examines the circumstances around the establishment of the Seonyu Eight Scenic Spots (仙遊八景) in Gogunsan Islands and the characteristics of the landscape of each viewing point. The study conclusions are as follows. First, since the scenic spots were first established in 1969, their content and sequences have been changed several times, and their names have also been changed to some extent. Until the 1970s, these scenic spots did not have official names for them and were often specified as 'Gogunsan Eight Scenic Spots', and excluded 'the Musan Twelve Peaks (巫山十二峰)'. In addition, viewing points of the eight scenic spots varied across periods. This suggests that, for the early form of Seonyu Eight Scenic Spots, the picturesque scenery of Gogunsan Islands, and Seonyudo Island in particular, was chosen, while eight scenic spots in its vicinity were regarded. Second, the Seonyu Eight Scenic Spots of the early 2000s, which has all eight scenic spots of now, follows the nomenclature of the traditional eight scenic spots by specifying the sequence number with a refined name in four syllables. Its first scenic spot was Mangju Waterfall (望主瀑布) and its eighth scenic spot was Seonyu Sunset (仙遊落照); currently, the first scenic spot is Seonyu Sunset and the second scenic spot is Mangju Waterfall. Such change in the sequence of viewing points resulted from differences in representative landscape resources between the periods. Third, the lack of structure and finesse due to continuous changes is directed related to the identity issue of the Seonyu Eight Scenic Spots. Above all, it is unclear by whom and when Seonyu Eight Scenic Spots was established, and there are clear traces of following the eight scenic spots in the neighboring areas such as Okgu (沃溝) and Impi (臨陂)'s Eight Scenic Spots. Moreover, it is evaluated to have an unrefined, incomplete structure due to the lack of clarity in the knowledge and information about viewing objects, when to view, and historical and cultural background. Fourth, the first scenic spot, Seonyu Sunset, has the image that dominates the entire Eight Scenic Spots. The temporary landscape, the sunset, became the best view because it was perceived as the entirety of the landscape created by the fusion of the beautiful natural elements of Seonyudo Island. Therefore, there is ample room for raising the value of other landscape resources of Gogunsan Islands by utilizing the existing perception of exploring the entire landscape of Seonyudo Island and Gogunsan Islands starting with Seonyu Sunset. This likely requires additional work to imbue each viewing point with identity and completion.

The Structual Restoration on Gyeongju-Style Piled Stone-Type Wooden Chamber Tombs (경주식 적석목곽묘의 구조복원 재고)

  • Gweon, Yong Dae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.66-87
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    • 2009
  • The definition of the structure of wooden chamber tomb(piled stone-type) is as follows. It is a tomb with wooden chamber, and stones were piled on top of the wooden chamber, and then a wooden structure was placed on top of the piled stones, and more stones were piled on top of the wooden structure, and sealed with clay. Of course this definition can vary according to periods, the buried, etc. Gyeongju-style piled stone type wooden chamber tombs have some distinguished characteristics compared to general definition of piled stone type wooden chamber tombs. Outside the wooden chamber, either stone embankments or filled-in stones were layed out, and pilet-in stones are positioned right above the wooden chamber, and almost every class used this type, and finally, it is exclusively found in Gyeongju area. First generations of this Gyeongju-style piled stone type wooden chamber tombs appeared in first half of 5th century. These tombs inherited characteristics like ground plan, wooden chamber, double chamber(inner chamber and outer chamber), piled stones, burial of the living with the dead, piled stones, from precedent wooden chamber tombs. However these tombs have explicit new characteristics which are not found in the precedent wooden chamber tombs such as stone embankments, wooden pillars, piled stones(above ground level), soil tumuluses. stone embankments and wooden pillars are exclusively found on great piled stone type above-ground level wooden chamber tombs such as the Hwangnamdaechong(皇南大塚). Stone embankments, wooden pillars, piled stones(above ground level) are all elements of building process of soil tumuluses. stone embankments support outer wall of above-ground level wooden chambers and disperse the weight of tumuluses. Wooden pillars functioned as auxiliary supports with wooden structures to prevent the collapse of stone embankments. Piled stones are consists of stones of regular size, placed on the wooden structure. And after the piled stones were sealed with clay, tumulus was built with soil. Piled stones are unique characteristics which reflects the environment of Gyeongju area. Piled stone type wooden chamber tombs are located on the vast and plain river basin of Hyeongsan river(兄山江). Which makes vast source of sands and pebbles. Therefore, tumulus of these tombs contains large amount of sands and are prone to collapse if soil tumulus was built directly on the wooden structure. Consequently, to maintain external shape of the tumulus and to prevent collapse of inner structure, piled stones and clay-sealing was made. In this way, they can prevent total collapse of the tombs even if the tumulus was washed away. The soil tumulus is a characteristic which emerges when a nation or political entity reaches certain growing stage. It can be said that after birth of a nation, growing stage follows and social structure will change, and a newly emerged ruling class starts building new tombs, instead of precedent wooden chamber tombs. In this process, soil tumulus was built and the size and structure of the tombs differ according to the ruling class. Ground plan, stone embankments, number of the persons buried alive with the dead, quantity and quality of artifacts reflect social status of the ruling class. In conclusion, Gyeongju-style piled stone type wooden chamber tombs emerged with different characteristics from the precedent wooden chamber tombs when Shilla reached growing stage.

Exploring the Future Direction of School Population Education through Analysis of National Curriculum: Focused on the 7th Curriculum through 2015-Revised Curriculum (교육과정 분석을 통한 학교 인구교육의 미래 방향 탐색: 제7차 교육과정 ~ 2015 개정 교육과정을 중심으로)

  • Wang, Seok-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.141-157
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the content of national-level curriculum documents for the purpose of reviewing the overall status of population education in elementary and secondary schools in South Korea. Based on the results of the analysis, directions for the future of population education at school were proposed. Both the 2007-Revised Curriculum and the 2009-Revised Curriculum contain the contents of population education as a 'Cross-curricular learning topic' in the general curriculum influenced by the low birth rate and ageing society, yet not in the current 2015-Revised Curriculum. Furthermore, when the curriculum documents for the ten common subjects corresponding to the 'National Common Basic Curriculum' proposed by the 7th Curriculum were examined, only 'Home Economics' curriculum at the secondary school level and 'Social Studies' curriculum at the elementary and the secondary school levels adequately reflected the subject goals, characteristics, contents and achievement standards that correspond to those of population education. Based on the results of the curriculum analysis, the following five directions for population education at school are drawn. First, the purpose of population education at school should be stated using gender-neutral terms of 'response to low-birth and aging society' and it has to be emphasized that it is not to intervene in natural childbirth. Second, the subject which deals directly with the goals, content elements, and achievement standards of population education should be designated as the leading subject for population education. Third, with its inter-disciplinary nature, population education should be able to provide quality contents for convergence education. Fourth, the government should provide policy support to the leading subjects for population education so that more high schools may select the subjects as elective courses. Fifth, teacher education should be improved to enhance teachers' perceptions on population. This study asserts that 'Home economics,' which deals with human daily lives, is an optimal subject that can reflect population education in connection with real life. To this end, policy support should be provided for 'Home economics' so that it may fulfill the mission as a leading subject of population education.

Development of Teaching-Learning Plans Applying ARCS Motivation Strategies for Food Safety Education (ARCS 동기유발 전략을 적용한 식품 안전 교육 교수·학습 과정안 개발)

  • Kim, Yewon;Yu, Nan Sook;Lee, Gyeongsuk
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.135-153
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to develop teaching-learning plans applying ARCS strategies for food safety education, focusing on units related to the 'food selection and safe cooking'. To achieve this purpose, this study was conducted in the following order of analysis, design, development, assessment I, revision I, assessment II, revision II, and completion. In the analysis stage, 2015 revised curriculum and middle school technology-home economics textbooks(12 kinds) contents of 'food selection and safe cooking' among content elements of core concept 'safety' were analyzed. In the design and development stages, teaching-learning plans, teaching-learning materials, and evaluation rubric for teaching-learning outcomes using the ARCS motivation strategy were developed. In the phases of assessment I and revision I, evaluation items were selected as open-ended questions about food safety education factors and ARCS strategies, and their validities were verified by four experts. The teaching-learning plans for nine lessons were revised based on the feedbacks such as evaluation plans considering the correspondence between instruction and evaluation, strategy to reinforce intrinsic motivation, correction of improper contents composition, and so on. In the phases of assessment II and revision II, the validity of the three items, including relevance of each teaching-learning to food safety education, suitability of learning goals, and appropriateness of motivation strategy, was verified by seven experts. The final teaching-learning plans for 10 lessons were developed by revising and supplementing the data by compiling opinions of the assessment II. It is expected that this study can contribute to food safety education for middle school students, and that teaching-learning plans which apply ARCS strategies for food safety education will be used as good references for school teachers and curriculum developers.

Resolution Method of Hazard Factor for Life Safety in Rental Housing Complex (임대주택단지의 생활안전 위해요인 해소방안)

  • Sohn, Jeong-Rak;Cho, Gun-Hee;Kim, Jin-Won;Song, Sang-Hoon
    • LHI Journal of Land, Housing, and Urban Affairs
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2017
  • The government has been constructing and supplying public rental housing to ordinary people in order to stabilize housing since 1989. However, the public rental houses initially supplied to ordinary people are at high risk for safety accidents due to the deterioration of the facilities. Therefore, this study is aimed to propose a solution to solve the life safety hazards of the old rental housing complex as a follow-up study of Analysis of Accident Patterns and Hazard Factor for Life Safety in Rental Housing Complex. Types of life safety accidents that occur in public rental housing complexes are sliding, falling, crash, falling objects, breakage, fire accidents, traffic accidents and criminal accidents. The types of safety accidents that occur in rental housing complexes analyzed in this study are sliding, crashes, falling objects, and fire accidents. Although the incidence of safety accidents such as falling, breakage, traffic accidents and crime accidents in public rental housing complexes is low, these types are likely to cause safety accidents. The method of this study utilized interviews and seminar results, and it suggested ways to solve the life safety hazards in rental housing complexes. Interviews were conducted with residents and managers of rental housing complexes. Seminars were conducted twice with experts in construction, maintenance, asset management, housing welfare and safety. Through interviews and seminars, this study categorizes the life safety hazards that occur in rental housing complexes by types of accidents and suggests ways to resolve them as follows. (1) sliding ; use of flooring materials with high friction coefficient, installation of safety devices such as safety handles, implementation of maintenance, safety inspections and safety education, etc. (2) falling ; supplementation of safety facilities, Improvement of the design method of the falling parts, Safety education, etc. (3) crash ; increase the effective width of the elevator door, increase the effective width of the lamp, improve the lamp type (U type ${\rightarrow}$ I type), etc. (4) falling objects and breakage ; design of furniture considering the usability of residents, replacement of old facilities, enhancement of safety consciousness of residents, safety education, etc. (5) fire accidents ; installation of fire safety equipment, improvement by emergency evacuation, safety inspection and safety education, etc. (6) traffic accidents ; securing parking spaces, installing safety facilities, conducting safety education, etc. (7) criminal accidents; improvement of CCTV pixels, installation of street lights, removal of blind spots in the complex, securing of security, etc. The roles of suppliers, administrators and users of public rental housing proposed in this study are summarized as follows. Suppliers of rental housing should take into consideration the risk factors that may arise not only in the design and construction but also in the maintenance phase and should consider the possibility of easily repairing old facilities considering the life cycle of rental housing. Next, Administrators of rental housing should consider the safety of the users of the rental housing, conduct safety checks from time to time, and immediately remove any hazardous elements within the apartment complex. Finally, the users of the rental housing needs to form a sense of ownership of all the facilities in the rental housing complex, and efforts should be made not to cause safety accidents caused by the user's carelessness. The results of this study can provide the necessary information to enable residents of rental housing complexes to live a safe and comfortable residential life. It is also expected that this information will be used to reduce the incidence of safety accidents in rental housing complexes.

A Case Study on the Growth of Learners through the Changemaker TEMPS Program (체인지메이커(Changemaker) TEMPS 프로그램을 통한 학습자의 성장에 대한 사례연구)

  • Kim, Nam Eun;Heo, Young Sun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of Changemaker education and to investigate the significance of Changemaker education in home economics education through a study of growth of learners applying the TEMPS program. To this end, first, the concept of Changemaker education was defined. Changemaker education is an education that changes society in a positive direction through a process of thinking about, learning about, making, and participating(playing) in various problems that we face in real life and drawing out solutions and share he solutions with others. Second, in this reasearch, the direction of Changemaker education is to make them interested in social problems and solve it and to make both the family and the career life happy and healthy by collaborating with other people. The scope of the contents is defined as "the selection of the content elements of the five domains of the child family, diet nutrition, clothing, housing and consumer life". As a way of teaching, we suggested that the TEMPS phase is followed so that the session purpose is achieved. Third, the Changemaker program consists of five steps of TEMPS among the five key ideas of Changemaker education. T(Thinking) is the step of understanding the problem and thinking about how to solve it, and E(Education) is getting the background for the next step. M(Making) is a step to create a target for problem solving, and P(Participation) and P(Play) are steps to Participation and enjoy. S(Share) is a step of changing the society through the result display, SNS sharing, and class presentation. In this study, 12 programs for middle school and 15 programs for high school were developed on the basis of TEMPS level. Each of the programs consists of 2 to 12 unit hours, which add up to 68 hours in the middle school program and 68 in high school. The learners who participated in the Changemaker program for one year (March 2, 2018~December 31, 2018) will experience improvement in many aspects including the linkage of life and education, practical ability, self-directed learning, self-esteem, sense of achievement and self-reflection, sensory observation, and so on.

Trace Metals in Surface Sediments of Garolim Bay, Korea (가로림만 표층 퇴적물 내 미량금속 분포 특성)

  • PARK, KYOUNGKYU;CHOI, MANSIK;JOE, DONGJIN;JANG, DONGJUN;PARK, SOJUNG
    • The Sea
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.9-25
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    • 2020
  • In 2010 and 2015, total 77 surface sediment samples were collected to assess the anthropogenic effects of trace metals in surface sediments of Garolim Bay, and the physical characteristics (particle size and specific surface area) and geochemical components (major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Ba) and trace metals (Mn, Cs, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb), organic carbon and calcium carbonate) were analyzed. Mean grain size of Garolim Bay surface sediments ranged from 0.51-5.58 Ø (mean 3.98 Ø) and increased from the inlet of bay to the inner bay, and from the waterway to the land. Most of the metal concentrations except for some elements showed the similar distribution to those of mean grain size and specific surface area. As the particle size decreased and the specific surface area increased, the metal concentration increased. In order to estimate the factors controlling the concentration of trace metals, factor analysis was performed, and three factors were extracted (92.7% of the total variation). Factor 1 accounted for 71.3% of the total variation, which was a grain size factor. Factor 2 accounted for 14.2% of the total variation, Factor 3 accounted for 7.2% of the total variance. Enrichment factor was calculated using the particle size corrected background concentration. Metals with a enrichment factor of 1.5 or higher and the number of samples were 4 for Cr (St. 1, 16, 27, 39) and 1 for Pb (St. 39), but there were little differences in the concentrations of 1M HCl leached metals for these metals. The percentage of 1M HCl leached fraction to total metal concentration decreased in the order of Pb~Co>Cu>Zn~Mn>Ni>Cr. Comparing this value with contaminated and clean sediments in other coastal areas, the percentages for each metal were similar regardless of the trace metal levels in all regions. This fact might be resulted from the reaction between the 1M HCl solution and the different sediment constituents, indicating that there is a limit to apply this percentage of leached metal to the estimation of the contamination extent.

A Study on the Application of Block Chain Technology on EVMS (EVMS 업무의 블록체인 기술 적용 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Il-Han;Kwon, Sun-Dong
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.39-60
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    • 2020
  • Block chain technology is one of the core elements for realizing the 4th industrial revolution, and many efforts have been made by government and companies to provide services based on block chain technology. In this study we analyzed the benefits of block chain technology for EVMS and designed EVMS block chain platform with increased data security and work efficiency for project management data, which are important assets in monitoring progress, foreseeing future events, and managing post-completion. We did the case studies on the benefits of block chain technology and then conducted the survey study on security, reliability, and efficiency of block chain technology, targeting 18 block chain experts and project developers. And then, we interviewed EVMS system operator on the compatibility between block chain technology and EVM Systems. The result of the case studies showed that block chain technology can be applied to financial, logistic, medical, and public services to simplify the insurance claim process and to improve reliability by distributing transaction data storage and applying security·encryption features. Also, our research on the characteristics and necessity of block chain technology in EVMS revealed the improvability of security, reliability, and efficiency of management and distribution of EVMS data. Finally, we designed a network model, a block structure, and a consensus algorithm model and combined them to construct a conceptual block chain model for EVM system. This study has the following contribution. First, we reviewed that the block chain technology is suitable for application in the defense sector and proposed a conceptual model. Second, the effect that can be obtained by applying block chain technology to EVMS was derived, and the possibility of improving the existing business process was derived.

The Socio-Political Significance of Paleolithic Studies in North Korea (정치·사회적 맥락에 따른 북한 구석기 연구 변화)

  • Lee, Hyeong Woo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.126-149
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    • 2020
  • Considering significant words that stand for the history of Paleolithic in North Korea, these can be summarized for each decade since the 1960s. The 1960s ought to be when the earliest discovery of a Paleolithic site was made by Korean hands. The 1970s might be the earliest period for textbooks being published that were geared towards increasing general understanding of the Paleolithic era in the Korean peninsula. The 1980s can be summarized as a period of reissued Paleolithic articles from a newly introduced archaeological journal. The 1990s witnessed efforts to formulate nationalistic interpretations about the Paleolithic period in Korea. The 2000s then synthesized several of these aspects of Paleolithic studies. Gulpori, the Paleolithic site that was discovered in the 1960s, holds significance not just because of the discovery itself, but because of its prompt acceptance by North Korean academic authorities. The publications that covered general understanding of Paleolithic archaeology such as Joseon Gogohag Gaeyo, Joseon-ui Guseoggisidae, and Joseonjeonsa: Wonsipyeon in the 1970s hold immense significance themselves, as they demonstrate contemporary achievements. Reintroduction of the archaeological Journal, Joseongogoyeongu in 1986, is the beacon of alleviation of conspicuous effect to the academic sector. During the 1990s, a new emphasis on nationalism influenced Paleolithic studies. In the 2000s, the formally constructed elements of Paleolithic research such as Paleolithic chronology, social evolution, lithic assemblage, Quaternary studies, and human evolution were consistently refined. Metaphorically speaking, these parts are like a polygonal structure. As is the case with a polygonal structure, these research aspects are united and work together. Each part affects the others. Although the content of each research aspect has been altered by either academic growth or sociopolitical agenda, the fundamental part of the polygonal structure is not likely to be changed. The structure is solid enough to continue to serve the purposes of North Korean Paleolithic studies. North Korean Paleolithic archaeology seems to be a juxtaposition; some parts are easily changed while others are not. In order to ascertain these, not only the academic but also the sociopolitical context should be followed.

Natural Heritage Values and Diversity of Geoheritages on Udo Island, Jeju Province (제주도 우도 지역 내 지질유산의 다양성과 가치)

  • Woo, Kyung Sik;Yoon, Seok Hoon;Sohn, Young Kwan;Kim, Ryeon;Lee, Kwang Choon;Lim, Jong Deock
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.290-317
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    • 2013
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate the natural heritage and scientific value of various geosites on Udo Island, and to evaluate the sites as natural monuments and as world natural heritage properties. Udo Island includes a variety of geoheritage sites. Various land forms formed during the formation of the Someori Oreum formed by phreatomagmatic eruptions. The essential elements for the formation of Udo Island are the tuff cone, overflowing lava and overlying redeposited tuff sediments. Various coastal land forms are also present. About 6,000 years B.C., when sea-level rose close to its present level due to deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum, carbonate sediments have been formed and deposited in shallow marine environment surrounding Udo Island. In particular, the very shallow broad shelf between Udo Island and Jeju Island, less than 20 m in water depth, has provided perfect conditions for the formation of rhodoids. Significant amounts of rhodoids are now forming in this area. Occasional transport of these rhodoids by typhoons has produced unique beach deposits which are entirely composed of rhodoids. Additional features are the Hagosudong Beach with its white carbonate sands, the Geommeole Beach with its black tuffaceous sands and Tolkani Beach with its basalt cobbles and boulders. Near Hagosudong Beach, wind-blown sands in the past produced carbonate sand dunes. On the northern part of the island, special carbonate sediments are present, due to their formation by composite processes such as beach-forming process and transportation by typhoons. The development of several sea caves is another feature of Udo Island, formed by waves and typhoon erosion within tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. In particular, one sea cave found at a depth of 10 m is very special because it indicates past sea-level fluctuations. Shell mounds in Udo Island may well represent the mixed heritage feature on this island. The most valuable geoheritage sites investigated around Udo Isalnd are rhodoid depostis on beaches and in shallow seas, and Someori Oreum composed of volcanoclastic deposits and basalt lava. Beach and shallow marine sediments, composed only of rhodoids, appear to be very rare in the world. Also, the natural heritage value of the Someori Oreum is outstanding, together with other phreatomagmatic tuff cones such as Suwolbong, Songaksan and Yongmeori. Consequently, the rhodoid deposits and the Someori Oreum are worth being nominated for UNESCO World Natural Heritage status. The designation of Someori Oreum as a Natural Monument should be a prerequisite for this procedure.