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A Study on Natural Scene Figuration Possibility - Centering around Gyeongnam Area(Namhae Gacheon Village, Sancheong Imchon Village, Hamyang Doma Village) Rice Terraces - (자연경관 조형화 가능성에 관한 연구 - 경남지역(남해가천마을, 산청임촌마을, 함양도마마을) 다랑이논을 중심으로 -)

  • Youn, Kyung-Sook;Lee, Jae-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2010
  • This study examined figurative characters of rice terraces, and is intended to seek figurative possibility of a natural scene by selecting Gyeongnam Area Namhae Gacheon rice terraces, Sancheong Imcheon rice terraces and Hamyang Macheon rice terraces through an analysis of the target land. As a theoretical background, studies of a natural scene and figuration-related literature were looked into, and for figuring a natural scene on the basis of the results, the character of the topography of rice terraces was divided into 9 items as follows by generalizing the inspiration obtained from the natural scenic character and spatial character of rice terraces represented from the topography: (1) Inclination showing the degree of the slope of rice terraces, (2) The bending showed by unevenness of the edge line of rice terraces, (3) The degree of parallelism of the up-and-down edge line, (4) The size of the width of the section of each rice terrace, (5) The area of the total rice terraces, (6) Step gap that indicates the difference of high and low of the up-and-down small rice terraces, (7) Figuration as an image represented by the external form of the total rice terraces, (8) Naturalness and artificiality kept by the total scene, (9) Softness of cornerstones or soil that forms small rice terraces, an atmosphere produced by the total scenes, etc. The results of analysis made through GIS, with rice terraces of Gyeongnam Namhae, Sancheong and Hamyang Area as the target land, are as follows. First, the steeper the inclination is, the higher the step difference of cornerstones becomes, and the steeper the inclination, the narrower the area and width become, so that it could be known that, in rice terraces, inclination is proportional to step difference and the area is inversely proportional to the width. Second, it is considered that line showed in rice terraces, area elements and reiteration, repeated changes, and changes in the scene affected by the surrounding environment including those according to season can be converted into a variety of images according to an individual disposition. Third, it was decided that it is possible to figure repetitive composition and directivity, motility, order and change, etc. into a common type drawn from each target land. This paper, as a study of basic materials for expressing figuration in an environment field, investigated and analyzed the surrounding environment of the target land, and is significant in that it attempted the possibility of being able to generalize the environmental beauty of the target land as one figurative element. More precise studies are expected to be made later.

A Study of the Garden Remains in Mountain Bukak in Dohwadong, Seoul (서울 북악산 도화동 원림유적에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hong-Gon;Kim, Young-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.66-80
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    • 2010
  • In this thesis, the garden remains in Dohwadong which is located in Seoul Buk-ak Mountain was examined, together with reference discovery and historical research, and onsite academic research conducted, for the purpose of studying the location of the garden remains in Dohwadong, its historical transitions and original landscape. As a result of the study, the location of the garden remains in Dohwadong was found; through the research of relevant historical sources, its historical transitions, its original landscape, and the value it has as a garden remains were examined. The following is the summary of the original form of the garden remains in Dohwadong and the value it has as a garden remains derived from this study. First, the garden remains in Dohwadong had earlier known as a remains related to the housing site of Namgon or Daeunahm. However, it has been verified that is it Dohwadong which is an original word of a royal family formed by King Kojong's order in 1889 since the characters carved on rocks which is recorded in the book of "Chong Sweh Rok" perfectly conform to those within the garden remains in Dohwadong. Second, it was learned that Dohwadong was the greatest renowned place for entertaining next to Pilundae; according to the book of "Hankyung Jiryak", the name, Dohwadong, is known to have come from the fact that there are a large number of peach trees in the area; the records of those books, "Ahjungyugoh", "Yonahmjip", etc., also state that literary men gathered in Dohwadong and held ceremonies and entertained. Third, it was learned that the garden remains in Dohwadong had been used as a place for holding ceremonies by the Ahndong Kims including Myonggongsukhyon; after Heungsundaewongun's governance, it was removed and neglected as the Ahndong Kims were purged and changed into a place for the royal family by the command of King Kojong in 1889. Fourth, Dohwadong followed the geographical features of nature, embraced the elegant surrounding scenery naturally, and gave significance to the sceneries of the season and its element and, in this way, it, as an ideal landscape model, is a valuable garden remains which realized the symbolic Dohwa landscape and presents its original scenery of the traditional garden. As mentioned above, this study, based on historical sources, has made progress in understanding the truth of the garden remains in Dohwadong and its value as a garden remains through the onsite research and academic historical investigation. However, since it is located within a military region, research was limitedly made. And also the range and structure of the garden remains was difficult to examine. Overall excavation is needed to figure out the remains and original terrain. Accordingly, in order to find out the truth of the garden remains in Dohwadong and for further preservation and application, it needs to be designated as a historical site and additional academic excavation research needs to be conducted; maintenance and preservation policies including removal of the cement and embankment, which disturb the original terrain within the remains, also need to be carried out.

A Comparative Considerations of the Moat at the East and West (동.서양 해자(垓字)의 비교 고찰)

  • Jung, Yong-Jo;Park, Joo-Sung;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2010
  • A moat is a pond or waterway paved on the outside of a fortress that is one of the facilities to prevent enemy from approaching the fortress wall or classify it as the boundary space, and this study was undertaken to find out the characteristics of the moat that was existed in the East and the West from ancient time to medieval time with the following result. First, the moat in the East was installed of natural moat and artificial moat at the same time while the moat in the West had the fortress built in naturally advantageous site to use natural most substantially more. Second, the moats of Korea were smaller in scale compared to other countries (Japan, China and the Western countries). Third, the fortresses in the East were built to protect towns or royal palace while the West had the fortress to protect the residence of kings, lords, great wealthy persons and the like, and they were used jointly with the natural moat and artificial moat to defend against the infiltration of enemy. Fourth, the Pungsujiri in the Orient is one of the numerous ideologies forming the supplementary ideologic system of Korean people that could not be denied as the perception that influences on Korean people after the Silla Dynasty, and this Pungsujiri was considered when determining the location of the castle. The moat surrounding the castle had the role to keep the good energy in the castle from escaping away. Fifth, the Ha-Ha technique in the west was designed to prevent the external power from infiltration by digging the ditch on the place applicable to the boundary of the garden site, rather than the fence. While walking around along the water-side path without knowing the existence of this ditch, when the road is discovered with the cut off in the ditch, people had the exclamation without actually recognizing such astonishment. It was originally the dike for military purpose during the medieval time that was designed to look into the garden without physical boundary surrounded with the vertical fence in the garden that by having the deep ditch like shape on the boundary line of the garden which was designed to form the farm by preventing various types of cattle from coming inside the garden and bring in the garden element for farms, forestry, agricultural land and the like.

A Study On The Identity Of Yeonsegeuk(Kino-Drama) (연쇄극의 정체성 논의 - 총체예술론적 관점에서 -)

  • Kim, Sunam
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.25
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    • pp.5-30
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    • 2012
  • I. Identity of Yeonsegeuk as total arts. The purpose of the thesis is to arrange the identy of Yeonsegeuk(Kino-Drama) which is theatre or film. The process of study is tried to discuss on the aethetic of Yeonsegeuk. II. Appearance of Yeonsegeuk and negative disputation of yeonsegeuk The first imported Yeonsegeuk from Japanese in Korea is made by the group of Mizuno Ganggetsu(水野觀月) on Oct. 16. 1915 at Pusan and also to run in Seoul at Hwanggeumgwan. The first of Korean Yeonsegeuk is by Kim, Dosan, a leader of Singeukjwa(theare group) on Oct. 27. 1919 at Danseongsa. Before the liberation of Korea from Japan all made korean Yeonsegeuk are 28 works. III. Dramatic form of Yeonsegeuk I study on the relation between Yeonsegeuik and Sinpageuik(new theatre of modern drama in 1920's). I find that Yeonsegeuik admitted the thechnics of the Sinpageuik and the contents. If We think that the theatre is synthetic art which genealize all arts, we can insist that the Yeonsegeuk is valued the total art as new performance to comply with film art to theatre. Conclusionly Yeonsegeuk is called 'Expanded Theatre' as the new performance which must be dicussed in the view of total art. VI. Discussion on the the aethetic of Yeonsegeuk When we compare the structure of film with the structure of theatre, we can't find a diffrent element between the structure of two art in art semiotic. But we find a fact that film art has special elements in mechanics character which are camera working and motage. These technics influence on the audience's mind. It is different point between Japan and Korean's Kino-drama and Germany's that is to admit the aethetic of total art or not. V. Yeonsegeuk as new performance During Korean modern times Kino-drama was first a kind of total art with stage and screen. But it is regretable that Kino-drama didn't have the background of theory which discourse on the comprehension of total art. As the result Kino-drama bring the confusion of argument that Kino-drama is total art or expanded theatre. This confusion will be disputed on film art as performing arts or future art as expanded film and total art.

Kant on 'the Highest Good of a Possible World' (칸트에서 '가능한 세계의 최고선')

  • PAEK, CHONG-HYON
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • no.96
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    • pp.39-70
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    • 2012
  • In order to locate Kant's concept of the highest good within ethics and the theory of moral religion, it needs to be approached with some qualifications: there are two rough ways to be suggested. The first way is to focus on the concept of the highest good that is explained in terms of the happiness in proportion to a rational being's virtue or to his/her worthiness to be happy. But the happiness determined in the sense outlined above would be (increasingly or decreasingly) changeable according to each one's individual morality-this is what is meant by each one's 'worthiness' here-, and would not be seen as the perfect one. It might even be said that this kind of happiness is possible in a sensible world generally taken, if the existence of God thought of as harmonizing natural phenomena and the moral order is successfully presupposed. The other way is to understand the concept of the highest good literally: in this view, the highest good shows that a rational being's character is completely appropriate to the moral law and for him/her, its corresponding idea, i.e., the perfect happiness, is considered with full justification. But the highest good in the sense sketched above-along with the existence of God and the immortality of the soul-is expected to be realized only in an intelligible world generally taken. This means that it should be appraised as an ideal of the highest good that includes the so-called 'physical happiness' specified in terms of the first way as its element. In this regard, it is seen to be somewhat restricted. Between the two concepts of the highest good already touched upon, the highest good of the possible world would be the one established in terms of the first way. In other words, it is not the highest good in an intelligible world, but the highest good in this world. Of course, it is true that we cannot help but assume the existence of God-a being as higher, as moral, as most holy, and as omnipotent-in order to explain the highest good in this world (namely, in order to establish the possibility of the combination of the happiness and the worthiness). For as long as both morally good acts and the happiness are considered to happen in a natural world, the cause of the nature (i.e., the existence of its creator), that is, God, must be able to be presupposed. In this vein, Kant interprets that most people view that the key of the Bible is to show that the best world which is characterized by an intelligible or heavenly kingdom is also actually feasible in this world. The wish of the people who have the morally good character is that God's kingdom comes and his will is properly achieved in this world. But we cannot know what God really does in order to realize his world in this world. Nonetheless, we are fully aware of what we should do in order to make ourselves a member of his world. It is specified like this: we should do our ethical duties and further proceed to establish an ethical community. Viewed this manner, it is concluded that an ethical community is not a merely ideal thing like the kingdom of the ends, but a human apparatus or institution that exists in this world.

Cultural awareness and its practice of Jang Hyeongwang (여헌(旅軒) 장현광(張顯光)의 문화의식(文化意識)과 그 실천(實踐))

  • Park, Hakrae
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.49
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    • pp.39-71
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    • 2012
  • This paper examines Jang Hyeongwang's cultural awareness and the way of practice by focusing on his spirit of humanities in relation to the understanding of territory and bibliographic materials. In fact, this starts from conflicting evaluations on Jang Hyeongwang's way of learning in the field of Korean history. Jang Hyeongwang emphasizes realization of humanity, which is considered as basic framework of culture. He claims the indivisibility of Dao(道) and culture(mun文) by arguing that almighty principle of Dao manifests itself through phenomena of culture. In other words, Dao is the root of culture and, at the same time, culture is the necessary element of making Dao valuable. Furthermore, he insists that realization of human culture is the gist of manifesting the pattern of nature. In this vein, the roles of human beings are so important in creating humanistic civilization. He considers all kinds of human affairs as the contents of humanistic culture, which are contained in six classics. Especially, He says that the moral is reality of human culture and that literature is a literal expression of humanistic spirit. Thus, he criticizes that there are literatures without moral practices. He pays a special attention to his indigenous culture. He links the cultural understanding of geography, which is the foundation of realizing humanistic spirit, to awareness of Korean territory and grasps the territory in the light of topography of geographic power. Thus, he defines it as "Central Field" which bears comparison with China (middle kingdom). With the positive understanding of his country, he insisted that Korean indigenous culture and custom are as much advanced as China and was so proud of the moral characters and norms that Korean people had formed so far. Moreover, Jang truly exhibited affection to Korean literature, which had formed through Korean history. Kim Hyu, one of his students, activates Jang's will to preservation of Korean culture. Over twenty years, Kim completed Collected Record of Korean Literatures(haedong munhon ch'ongnok 海東文獻總錄). Actually, he started the preparatory works for compiling them. We should keep in mind that this compilation was completed following Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. It means that he has cultural awareness of preserving Korean literal heritages. Hence, it can be evaluated as the results of the enhancement of national studies. We have seen that He truly highlights realization of humanistic spirit by insisting the practices of moral values. In fact, his mind is linked to genuine affection to Korean territory, culture and literatures. Such affection can be paraphrased as moral awareness of humanity and its practices. In conclusion, his humanistic spirit should be understood as strong belief on universality of human morality. His cultural awareness of homeland and the will to practices should be considered as cultural pride of Korean intellectual traditions rather than following Chinese culture blindly.

A Study on Urban Open Space Selection Attributes as an Urban Entertainment Destination (도시 엔터테인먼트 목적지(UED)로서 도시 오픈 스페이스의 선택속성 연구)

  • Chae, Jin-Hae;Kim, Yong-Gook;Kim, Young-Hyun;Son, Yong-Hoon;Zoh, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.56-67
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    • 2013
  • This paper asks what the Selection Attributes of urban open space are which carries out a role as an Urban Entertainment Destination. Case studies have chosen the Cheonggyecheon Waterfront, Seoul Forest Park, Seonyudo Park and Banpo Hangang Park as the representative open spaces in Seoul. The methods of study are observation investigation, a literature investigation and the survey to 233 visitors that conducted the ANOVA analysis and Regression analysis by SPSS 18.0. As a result, first, the urban open space in Seoul has had 8 elements of UED; Landscape, Multi anchoring, Contextual links, Programmability, Community, Branded identity, Security and Service. Second, they are being used not the neighborhood type but a wide area type. Third, Landscape, Security and Service are most important while Programmability and Community are less important than other factors in EUOS factors. Lastly, it was analysed that the influential factor of revisitation and satisfaction is Landscape, which is the common factor. Security in revisitation and Contextual links in satisfaction are especially additional factors. The landscape property is an important element to make an Entertainment Urban Open Space(EUOS). The virtue of landscape in the EUOS relates not only park facility or program that installed in the place but also the overall mood involving park user's activities in the place. To be a successful EUOS, a park facility, program and the overall mood involving user's activities need to be integrative approach to enhance the virtue of landscape.

Study on Fire Hazard Analysis along with Heater Use in the Public Use Facility Traditional Market in Winter (겨울철 다중이용시설인 전통재래시장 난방기구 사용에 따른 화재 위험성 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Jaesun
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.583-597
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    • 2014
  • Fire caused by heater has various causes as many as the types of heater. also, lots of damage of human life and property loss are caused, since annually continuous fire accident by heater in traditional market is frequently occurring. There are not many cases of fire due to heater in most of residential facilities such as general house, apartments, etc., because they are supplied with heating boiler, however the restaurant, store and office of the market, sports center, factory, workplace, etc. still use heater, e.g. oilstove, electric heater, etc., so that they are exposed to fire hazard. Also, when investigating the number of fire due to heater, it was analyzed to occur in order of home boiler, charcoal stove, oilstove, gas heater/stove, electric stove/heater, the number of fire per human life damage was analyzed in order of gas heater/stove, oil heater/stove, electric heater/stove, briquette/coal heater. Also, gas and oil related heater were analyzed to have low frequency, however, with high fire intensity. Therefore, this research aimed at considering more scientific fire inspection and identification approach by reenacting and reviewing fire outbreak possibility caused by combustibles' contact and conductivity under the normal condition and abnormal condition in respect of ignition hazard, i.e. minimum ignition temperature, carbonization degree and heat flux along with it, due to oilstove and electric stove, which are still frequently used in public use facility, traditional market, and, of which actual fire occurrence is the most frequent. As the result of reenact test, ignition hazard appeared very small, as long as enough heat storage condition is not made in both test objects(oilstove/electric stove), however carbonization condition was analyzed to be proceeded per each part respectively. Eventually, transition to fire is the ignition due to heat storage, so that it was analyzed to ignite when minimum heat storage temperature condition of fire place is over $500^{\circ}C$. Particularly, in case of quartz pipe, the heating element of electric stove, it is rapidly heated over the temperature of $600^{\circ}C$ within the shortest time(10sec), so that the heat flux of this appears 6.26kW/m2, which was analyzed to result in damage of thermal PVC cable and second-degree burn in human body. Also, the researcher recognized that the temperature change along with Geometric View Factor and Fire Load, which display decrease of heat, are also important variables to be considered, along with distance change besides temperature condition. Therefore, the researcher considers that a manual of careful fire inspection and identification on this is necessary, also, expects that scientific and rational efforts of this research can contribute to establish manual composition and theoretical basis on henceforth fire inspection and identification.

Study on the establishment of an efficient disaster emergency communication system focused on the site (현장중심의 효율적 재난통신체계 수립 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Yongsoo;Kim, Dongyeon
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.518-527
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    • 2014
  • Our society is changed and diversified rapidly and such tendency is accelerated day after day and has made a lot of problems in the many fields. The important thing we have to recognize is such tendency has a bad effect recently on the safety system in Korea. So it is time to enhance the national safety system and moreover recently Sewol-ho(passenger ship) went down in the sea, it made people remind the importance of national safety system. With this incident, Korean government decided to establish the national safety communication network against the disaster. At this time, I will propose several ideas about the national safety communication network. 1. It must to be established an unified network to contact people who is on a disaster site anytime and anywhere. This is most important element on all disaster sites. 2. PS-LTE technology must to be adopted to the network because it has many advantages including various multimedia services compared to the TETRA in the past. 3. 700MHz is the most efficient band for the network because it has wide cell sites coverage compared to 1.8GHz. 4. Satellite communication system is needed to the network for back-up. 5. It will be effective to adopt Social Media to the communication network system like a Twitter or Facebook for sharing many kinds of information and notifying people of warning message. 6. It can make the network more useful to introduce the latest technology like a sensor network. And Korean government has to improve the system related to the disaster including law and operating organization.

The Organization Commitment and Perception of Human Resource Management by Employment Types of School Foodservice Employees (학교급식 직원의 고용유형에 따른 인적 자원 관리 활동에 대한 인식과 조직 몰입도)

  • Lee, Ok;Cho, Minju;Chang, Hyeja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.162-171
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    • 2014
  • As the foodservice industry is labor intensive, the efficient management of human resources is an essential element for improving operational efficiency. This study was designed to investigate the performance level of human resource management in self-operated school foodservices and to examine the relationship between human resource management, organizational commitment, and productivity. Whether these factors rated differently by employment and job types was also examined. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to 60 dieticians and 240 cooks in Seongnam and Yongin. Frequency analysis, factor analysis, the t-test and multiple regression analysis were tested using Minitab. Human resource management practices rated highly in the dimension of employee training (3.51), followed by working environment (3.39), and turnover management (3.37). In contrast, reward management (1.73) and working condition (1.56) received the lowest score. Organizational commitment scored 3.65 points, and showed that dedication (3.82) was the highest score; however, self-esteem (3.50) was the lowest score. For human resource management, there were significant differences between employment types as full time workers (3.85) rated management more highly than part-time worker (3.43). Overall productivity was fairly high, especially in high school foodservices. Only the performance appraisal had an influence on organizational commitment (${\beta}$=0.292, P<0.05). Productivity was positively correlated with human resource management (r=0.432, P<0.001) and organizational commitment (r=0.36, P<0.01). In conclusion, school foodservices need to establish objective performance standards, and increase employee morale by enhancing reward systems and working conditions. In particular, irregular employees require training with job performance standards and given a proper reward program, depending on their performance, to improve organizational commitment.