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Conservative Surgery and Primary Radiotherapy for Early Bresst Cancer: Yonsei Cancer Center Experience (조기 유방암에서 보존적 수술후 방사선치료: 연세암센터 경험)

  • Suh Chang Ok;Lee Hy De;Lee Kyung Sik;Jung Woo Hee;Oh Ki Keun;Kim Gwi Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.337-347
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    • 1994
  • Breast conserving surgery and irradiation is now accepted as preferable treatment method for the patients with stage I and II breast cancer. Our institution activated team approach for breast conservation in 1991 and treated one hundred and fourty patients during the next three years. Purpose : To present our early experience with eligibility criteria, treatment techniques, and the morbidities of primary radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty four patients with early stage breast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1992 were evaluated. All patients received partial mastectomy(wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Total dose of 4500-5040 cGy in 5-5 1/2 weeks was given to entire involved breast and boost dose of 1000-2000 cGy in 1-2 weeks was given to the primary tumor site. Linac 4 MV X-ray was used for breast irradiation and electron beam was used for boost. Thirty five Patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. Patients characteristics, treatment techniques, and treatment related morbidities were analyzed. Results : Age distribution was ranged from 23 to 59 year old with median age of 40. Twenty-seven patients had T1 lesions and 34 patients had T2 lesions. In three patients, pathologic diagnosis was ductal carcinoma in situ. Thirty-seven Patients were N0 and 27 patients were Nl. There were three recurrences, one in the breast and two distant metastases during follow-up period(6-30 months, median 14 months). Only one breast recurrence occured at undetected separate lesion with microcalcifications on initial mammogram. There was no serious side reaction which interrupted treatment courses or severe late complication. Only one symptomatic radiation pneumonitis and one asymptomatic radiation pneumonitis were noted. Conclusions: Conservative surgery and primary radiotherapy for early breast cancer is Proven to be safe and comfortable treatment method without any major complication. Long-term follow up is needed to evaluate our treatment results in terms of loco-regional control rate, survival rate, and cosmetic effect.

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Effects of Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Prevention of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars (켈로이드와 비후성 반혼에서 재발을 방지하기 위한 수술후 방사선치료의 효과)

  • Kang, Ki-Mun;Choi, Ihl-Bohng;Kim, In-Ah;Jang, Jee-Young;Shinn, Kyung-Sub
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effects of surgical excision followed by radiation therapy for Prevention of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Materials and Methods : From October 1987 to April 1995, radiation therapy was applied to 167 sites in 106 patients with surgical excision in an attempt to prevention of recurrence against keloids and hypertrophic scars. The main etiology of the keloids and hypertrophic scars were surgery in $49.2\%,\;trauma\;in\;25.0\%,\;ear-piercing\;in\;5.4\%,\;and\;burn\;in\;5.4\%$, The Patients' ages ranged from 3 to 70 years with a median of 32 years. Radiation therapy used ranged from 6 to 8MeV electron beam. Radiation therapy was delivered within 24 hours of surgical excision. Several dose schedules were used, varing from 400cGy in 1 daily fraction to 1900cGy in 4 daily fractions. The average total dose was 1059cGy, and the average dose per fraction was 433cGy. All patients were followed up from 24 to 114 months with a median follow up of 49 months. Results : The overall recurrence rate was $12.6\%$ (21/167) The overall 1-year and 2-year recurrence rates were $10.2\%\;and\;11.4\%$, respectively Among 21 recurrent sites, seventeen sites $(81\%)$ were confirmed within 12 months after surgical excision. Period to recurrence ranged from 1 month to 47 months with a median recurrence time of 9.6 months, The history of previous therapy was only a significant factor in recurrence. Twenty-four patients had history of previous therapy recurrence rates was significantly higher in this group than those without history of Previous therapy $(22.6\%\;vs.\;11.0\%,\;p=0.04)$. There was no serious complication related to radiation therapy. Conclusion : This study suggests that surgical excision followed by radiation therapy is an effective method of preventing keloids and hypertrophic scars.

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Study on the Physical Properties of the Gamma Beam-Irradiated Teflon-FEP and PET Film (Teflon-FEP 와 PET Film 의 감마선 조사에 따른 물리적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김성훈;김영진;이명자;전하정;이병용
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 1998
  • Circular metal electrodes were vacuum-deposited with chromium on the both sides of Teflon-FEP and PET film characteristic of electret and the physical properties of the two polymers were observed during an irradiation by gamma-ray from $\^$60/Co. With the onset of irradiation of output 25.0 cGy/min the induced current increased rapidly for 2 sec, reached a maximum, and subsequently decreased. A steady-state induced current was reached about in 60 second. The dielectric constant and conductivity of Teflon-FEP were changed from 2.15 to 18.0 and from l${\times}$l0$\^$-17/ to 1.57${\times}$10$\^$-13/ $\Omega$-$\^$-1/cm$\^$-1/, respectively. For PET the dielectric constant was changed from 3 to 18.3 and the conductivity from 10$\^$-17/ to 1.65${\times}$10$\^$-13/ $\Omega$-$\^$-1/cm$\^$-1/. The increase of the radiation-induced steady state current I$\^$c/, permittivity $\varepsilon$ and conductivity $\sigma$ with output(4.0 cGy/min, 8.5 cGy/min, 15.6 cGy/min, 19.3 cGy/min) was observed. A series of independent measurements were also performed to evaluate reproducibility and revealed less than 1% deviation in a day and 3% deviation in a long term. Charge and current showed the dependence on the interval between measurements, the smaller the interval was, the bigger the difference between initial reading and next reading was. At least in 20 minutes of next reading reached an initial value. It may indicate that the polymers were exhibiting an electret state for a while. These results can be explained by the internal polarization associated with the production of electron-hole pairs by secondary electrons, the change of conductivity and the equilibrium due to recombination etc. Heating to the sample made the reading value increase in a short time, it may be interpreted that the internal polarization was released due to heating and it contributed the number of charge carriers to increase when the samples was again irradiated. The linearity and reproducibility of the samples with the applied voltage and absorbed dose and a large amount of charge measured per unit volume compared with the other chambers give the feasibility of a radiation detector and make it possible to reduce the volume of a detector.

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Study on the calibration phantom and metal artifacts using virtual monochromatic images from dual energy CT (듀얼 에너지 CT의 가상 단색 영상을 이용한 영상 교정 팬텀과 금속 인공음영에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jun seong;Lee, Seung hoon;Park, Ju gyung;Lee, Sun young;Kim, Jin ki
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the image quality improvement and dosimetric effects on virtual monochromatic images of a Dual Source-Dual Energy CT(DS-DECT) for radiotherapy planning. Materials and Methods: Dual energy(80/Sn 140 kVp) and single energy(120 kVp) scans were obtained with dual source CT scanner. Virtual monochromatic images were reconstructed at 40-140 keV for the catphan phantom study. The solid water-equivalent phantom for dosimetry performs an analytical calculation, which is implemented in TPS, of a 10 MV, $10{\times}10cm^2$ photon beam incident into the solid phantom with the existence of stainless steel. The dose profiles along the central axis at depths were discussed. The dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans were evaluated based on polychromatic images at 120 kVp. Results: The magnitude of differences was large at lower monochromatic energy levels. The measurements at over 70 keV shows stable HU for polystyrene, acrylic. For CT to ED conversion curve, the shape of the curve at 120 kVp was close to that at 80 keV. 105 keV virtual monochromatic images were more successful than other energies at reducing streak artifacts, which some residual artifacts remained in the corrected image. The dose-calculation variations in radiotherapy treatment planning do not exceed ${\pm}0.7%$. Conclusion: Radiation doses with dual energy CT imaging can be lower than those with single energy CT imaging. The virtual monochromatic images were useful for the revision of CT number, which can be improved for target coverage and electron densities distribution.

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Study on the Fabrication and Characteristics of the Bandpass Filter for Slit Lamp (슬릿 램프용 대역 투과필터 제작 및 특성연구)

  • Park, Moon Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Vision Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The 450nm~500nm bandpass filters for slit lamp were fabricated and the characteristics of these filters were studied. Methods: The 450nm~500nm bandpass filter was designed by combining a longpass filter and a shortpass filter, which were based on the data of the 450nm~500nm bandpass filter design and were fabricated by electron beam evaporation apparatus. SEM photographs were taken to observe the cross section of the fabricated filters, and the spectrophotometer was used to measure the transmittance of the filters. Results: The experimental values of the fabricated shortpass filter were similar to the design values, but differed from the design values at a wavelength of about 490 nm and 350 nm to 400 nm. These differences were considered to be due to the fact that as the number of layers increased, the uniformity of the thin film became poor and the refractive index of the filter was changed slightly, resulting in a large difference in the slope of the transmittance. The experimental values of the fabricated longpass filter were similar in design values and the experimental curve was slightly shifted to the right as a whole. Therefore, the experimental curve of the 450 nm~500nm bandpass filter was shifted a little into the design curve of bandpass filter at 450 nm wavelength due to the right shift of the experimental curve of the longpass filter and the transmittance dropped about 20% at 500 nm wavelength. From the SEM photographs, the thicknesses of the fabricated shortpass filter and longpass filter were found by observing the cross section of the filters. Conclusions: The shortpass filter was fabricated on one side of the BK7 glass and the longpass filter was fabricated on the other side, and therefore the 450nm ~ 500nm bandpass filter was fabricated. The 450nm ~ 500nm bandpass filter was to increase the contrast of the area we want to see in observing the dry of the eye and the gap between contact lens and cornea.

Trend in Research and Application of Hard Carbon-based Thin Films (탄소계 경질 박막의 연구 및 산업 적용 동향)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Hwang;Park, Jong-Won;Yang, Ji-Hun;Jeong, Jae-In
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.111-112
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    • 2009
  • Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a convenient term to indicate the compositions of the various forms of amorphous carbon (a-C), tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (a-C:H and ta-C:H). The a-C film with disordered graphitic ordering, such as soot, chars, glassy carbon, and evaporated a-C, is shown in the lower left hand corner. If the fraction of sp3 bonding reaches a high degree, such an a-C is denoted as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), in order to distinguish it from sp2 a-C [2]. Two hydrocarbon polymers, that is, polyethylene (CH2)n and polyacetylene (CH)n, define the limits of the triangle in the right hand corner beyond which interconnecting C-C networks do not form, and only strait-chain molecules are formed. The DLC films, i.e. a-C, ta-C, a-C:H and ta-C:H, have some extreme properties similar to diamond, such as hardness, elastic modulus and chemical inertness. These films are great advantages for many applications. One of the most important applications of the carbon-based films is the coating for magnetic hard disk recording. The second successful application is wear protective and antireflective films for IR windows. The third application is wear protection of bearings and sliding friction parts. The fourth is precision gages for the automotive industry. Recently, exciting ongoing study [1] tries to deposit a carbon-based protective film on engine parts (e.g. engine cylinders and pistons) taking into account not only low friction and wear, but also self lubricating properties. Reduction of the oil consumption is expected. Currently, for an additional application field, the carbon-based films are extensively studied as excellent candidates for biocompatible films on biomedical implants. The carbon-based films consist of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, which are biologically harmless as well as the main elements of human body. Some in vitro and limited in vivo studies on the biological effects of carbon-based films have been studied [$2{\sim}5$].The carbon-based films have great potentials in many fields. However, a few technological issues for carbon-based film are still needed to be studied to improve the applicability. Aisenberg and Chabot [3] firstly prepared an amorphous carbon film on substrates remained at room temperature using a beam of carbon ions produced using argon plasma. Spencer et al. [4] had subsequently developed this field. Many deposition techniques for DLC films have been developed to increase the fraction of sp3 bonding in the films. The a-C films have been prepared by a variety of deposition methods such as ion plating, DC or RF sputtering, RF or DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD), ion implantation, ablation, pulsed laser deposition and cathodic arc deposition, from a variety of carbon target or gaseous sources materials [5]. Sputtering is the most common deposition method for a-C film. Deposited films by these plasma methods, such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) [6], are ranged into the interior of the triangle. Application fields of DLC films investigated from papers. Many papers purposed to apply for tribology due to the carbon-based films of low friction and wear resistance. Figure 1 shows the percentage of DLC research interest for application field. The biggest portion is tribology field. It is occupied 57%. Second, biomedical field hold 14%. Nowadays, biomedical field is took notice in many countries and significantly increased the research papers. DLC films actually applied to many industries in 2005 as shown figure 2. The most applied fields are mold and machinery industries. It took over 50%. The automobile industry is more and more increase application parts. In the near future, automobile industry is expected a big market for DLC coating. Figure 1 Research interests of carbon-based filmsFigure 2 Demand ratio of DLC coating for industry in 2005. In this presentation, I will introduce a trend of carbon-based coating research and applications.

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EFFECT OF CHLORHEXIDINE ON MICROTENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF DENTIN BONDING SYSTEMS (Chlorhexidine 처리가 상아질 접착제의 미세인장결합강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Eun-Hwa;Choi, Kyoung-Kyu;Kim, Jong-Ryul;Park, Sang-Jin
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.148-161
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on microtensile bond strength (${\mu}TBS$) of dentin bonding systems. Dentin collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities can be suppressed by protease inhibitors, indicating that MMPs (Matrix metalloproteinases) inhibition could be beneficial in the preservation of hybrid layers. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is known as an inhibitor of MMPs activity in vitro. The experiment was proceeded as follows: At first, flat occlusal surfaces were prepared on mid-coronal dentin of extracted third molars. GI (Glass Ionomer) group was treated with dentin conditioner, and then, applied with 2 % CHX. Both SM (Scotchbond Multipurpose) and SB (Single Bond) group were applied with CHX after acid-etched with 37% phosphoric acid. TS (Clearfil Tri-S) group was applied with CHX, and then, with adhesives. Hybrid composite Z-250 and resin-modified glass ionomer Fuji-II LC was built up on experimental dentin surfaces. Half of them were subjected to 10,000 thermocycle, while the others were tested immediately. With the resulting data, statistically two-way ANOVA was performed to assess the ${\mu}TBS$ before and after thermo cycling and the effect of CHX. All statistical tests were carried out at the 95 % level of confidence. The failure mode of the testing samples was observed under a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Within limited results, the results of this study were as follows; 1. In all experimental groups applied with 2 % chlorhexidine, the microtensile bond strength increased, and thermo cycling decreased the micro tensile bond strength (P > 0.05). 2. Compared to the thermocycling groups without chlorhexidine, those with both thermocycling and chlorhexidine showed higher microtensile bond strength, and there was significant difference especially in GI and TS groups. 3. SEM analysis of failure mode distribution revealed the adhesive failure at hybrid layer in most of the specimen. and the shift of the failure site from bottom to top of the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine groups. 2 % chlorhexidine application after acid-etching proved to preserve the durability of the hybrid layer and microtensile bond strength of dentin bonding systems.

New Approaches for Overcoming Current Issues of Plasma Sputtering Process During Organic-electronics Device Fabrication: Plasma Damage Free and Room Temperature Process for High Quality Metal Oxide Thin Film

  • Hong, Mun-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.100-101
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    • 2012
  • The plasma damage free and room temperature processedthin film deposition technology is essential for realization of various next generation organic microelectronic devices such as flexible AMOLED display, flexible OLED lighting, and organic photovoltaic cells because characteristics of fragile organic materials in the plasma process and low glass transition temperatures (Tg) of polymer substrate. In case of directly deposition of metal oxide thin films (including transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS)) on the organic layers, plasma damages against to the organic materials is fatal. This damage is believed to be originated mainly from high energy energetic particles during the sputtering process such as negative oxygen ions, reflected neutrals by reflection of plasma background gas at the target surface, sputtered atoms, bulk plasma ions, and secondary electrons. To solve this problem, we developed the NBAS (Neutral Beam Assisted Sputtering) process as a plasma damage free and room temperature processed sputtering technology. As a result, electro-optical properties of NBAS processed ITO thin film showed resistivity of $4.0{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}{\cdot}m$ and high transmittance (>90% at 550 nm) with nano- crystalline structure at room temperature process. Furthermore, in the experiment result of directly deposition of TCO top anode on the inverted structure OLED cell, it is verified that NBAS TCO deposition process does not damages to the underlying organic layers. In case of deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film on the plastic polymer substrate, the room temperature processed sputtering coating of high quality TCO thin film is required. During the sputtering process with higher density plasma, the energetic particles contribute self supplying of activation & crystallization energy without any additional heating and post-annealing and forminga high quality TCO thin film. However, negative oxygen ions which generated from sputteringtarget surface by electron attachment are accelerated to high energy by induced cathode self-bias. Thus the high energy negative oxygen ions can lead to critical physical bombardment damages to forming oxide thin film and this effect does not recover in room temperature process without post thermal annealing. To salve the inherent limitation of plasma sputtering, we have been developed the Magnetic Field Shielded Sputtering (MFSS) process as the high quality oxide thin film deposition process at room temperature. The MFSS process is effectively eliminate or suppress the negative oxygen ions bombardment damage by the plasma limiter which composed permanent magnet array. As a result, electro-optical properties of MFSS processed ITO thin film (resistivity $3.9{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$, transmittance 95% at 550 nm) have approachedthose of a high temperature DC magnetron sputtering (DMS) ITO thin film were. Also, AOS (a-IGZO) TFTs fabricated by MFSS process without higher temperature post annealing showed very comparable electrical performance with those by DMS process with $400^{\circ}C$ post annealing. They are important to note that the bombardment of a negative oxygen ion which is accelerated by dc self-bias during rf sputtering could degrade the electrical performance of ITO electrodes and a-IGZO TFTs. Finally, we found that reduction of damage from the high energy negative oxygen ions bombardment drives improvement of crystalline structure in the ITO thin film and suppression of the sub-gab states in a-IGZO semiconductor thin film. For realization of organic flexible electronic devices based on plastic substrates, gas barrier coatings are required to prevent the permeation of water and oxygen because organic materials are highly susceptible to water and oxygen. In particular, high efficiency flexible AMOLEDs needs an extremely low water vapor transition rate (WVTR) of $1{\times}10^{-6}gm^{-2}day^{-1}$. The key factor in high quality inorganic gas barrier formation for achieving the very low WVTR required (under ${\sim}10^{-6}gm^{-2}day^{-1}$) is the suppression of nano-sized defect sites and gas diffusion pathways among the grain boundaries. For formation of high quality single inorganic gas barrier layer, we developed high density nano-structured Al2O3 single gas barrier layer usinga NBAS process. The NBAS process can continuously change crystalline structures from an amorphous phase to a nano- crystalline phase with various grain sizes in a single inorganic thin film. As a result, the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) of the NBAS processed $Al_2O_3$ gas barrier film have improved order of magnitude compared with that of conventional $Al_2O_3$ layers made by the RF magnetron sputteringprocess under the same sputtering conditions; the WVTR of the NBAS processed $Al_2O_3$ gas barrier film was about $5{\times}10^{-6}g/m^2/day$ by just single layer.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer (초기 유방암의 유방 보존수술 후 방사선 치료 결과)

  • Cho, Heung-Lae;Kim, Cheol-Jin;Park, Sung-Kwang;Oh, Min-Kyung;Lee, Jin-Yong;Ahn, Ki-Jung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range $43.8{\sim}129.4$ months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for T is and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had $1{\sim}3$ lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close (${\leq}2\;mm$) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy ($41.4{\sim}60.4\;Gy$) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0.0001) and higher relapse rates (p=0.0507). However, patients with close margins were at equal risk of relapse and disease-free survival as with negative margins (p=1.000). Patients younger than 40 years of age had higher relapse rates (9.3% vs. 0%) and lower disease-free survival periods, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.1255). The relapse rates for patients with tumors was 14% for tumor stage T2, compared to 0% for tumor stage T1 tumors (p=0.0284). A univariate analysis found that disease-free survival and relapse rates, T stage, positive resection margin and mutation of p53 were significant factors for clinical outcome. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that breast conservation surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer patients has proven to be a safe treatment modality with a low relapse rate and high disease-free survival rate. The patients with a positive margin, T2 stage, and mutation of p53 are associated with statistically higher relapse rates and lower disease-free survival.