• Title, Summary, Keyword: Electromigration

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In-situ Observation of Electromigration Behaviors of Eutectic SnPb Line (공정조성 SnPb 솔더에 대한 실시간 Electromigration 거동 관찰)

  • Kim Oh-Han;Yoon Min-Seung;Joo Young-Chang;Park Young-Bae
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2005
  • in-situ electromigration test was carried out for edge drift lines of eutectic SnPb solder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electromigration test for the eutectic SnPb solder sample was conducted at temperature of $90^{\circ}C$ and the current density of $6{\times}10^4A/cm^2$. Edge drift at cathode and hillock growth at anode were observed in-situ in a SEM chamber during electromigration test. It was clearly revealed that eutectic SnPb solder lines has an incubation stage before void formation during electromigration test, which seemed to be related to the void nucleation stage of flip chip solder electromigration behaviors.

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Electromigration and Thermomigration in Flip-Chip Joints in a High Wiring Density Semiconductor Package

  • Yamanaka, Kimihiro
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2011
  • Keys to high wiring density semiconductor packages include flip-chip bonding and build-up substrate technologies. The current issues are the establishment of a fine pitch flip-chip bonding technology and a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) substrate technology. In particular, electromigration and thermomigration in fine pitch flipchip joints have been recognized as a major reliability issue. In this paper, electromigration and thermomigration in Cu/Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/Cu flip-chip joints and electromigration in Cu/In/Cu flip chip joints are investigated. In the electromigration test, a large electromigration void nucleation at the cathode, large growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, a unique solder bump deformation towards the cathode, and the significantly prolonged electromigration lifetime with the underfill were observed in both types of joints. In addition, the effects of crystallographic orientation of Sn on electromigration were observed in the Cu/SAC305/Cu joints. In the thermomigration test, Cu dissolution was accelerated on the hot side, and formation of IMCs was enhanced on the cold side at a thermal gradient of about $60^{\circ}C$/cm, which was lower than previously reported. The rate of Cu atom migration was found comparable to that of electromigration under current conditions.

In-situ Analysis of Temperatures Effect on Electromigration-induced Diffusion Element in Eutectic SnPb Solder Line (공정조성 SnPb 솔더 라인의 온도에 따른 Electromigration 확산원소의 In-situ 분석)

  • Kim Oh-Han;Yoon Min-Seung;Joo Young-Chang;Park Young-Bae
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2006
  • In-situ observation of electromigration in thin film pattern of 63Sn-37Pb solder was performed using a scanning electron microscope system. The 63Sn-37Pb solder had the incubation stage of electromigration for edge movement when the current density of $6.0{\times}10^{4}A/cm^2$ was applied the temperature between $90^{\circ}C\;and\;110^{\circ}C$. The major diffusion elements due to electromigration were Pb and Sn at temperatures of $90-110^{\circ}C\;and\;25-50^{\circ}C$, respectively, while no major diffusion of any element due to electromigration was detected when the test temperature was $70^{\circ}C$. The reason was that both the elements of Sn and Pb were migrated simultaneously under such a stress condition. The existence of the incubation stage was observed due to Pb migration before Sn migration at $90-110^{\circ}C$. Electromigration behavior of 63Sn-37Pb solder had an incubation time in common for edge drift and void nucleation, which seemed to be related the lifetime of flip chip solder bump. Diffusivity with $Z^*$(effective charges number) of Pb and Sn were strongly affect the electromigration-induced major diffusion element in SnPb solder by temperature, respectively.

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Electromigration of Sn-3.5 Solder Bumps in Flip Chip Package (플립칩 패키지내 Sn-3.5Ag 솔더범프의 electromigration)

  • 이서원;오태성
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2003
  • Electromigration of Sn-3.5Ag solder bump was investigated using flip chip specimens which consisted of upper Si chip and lower Si substrate. While the resistance of the flip chip sample did not almost change until the time right before the failure, the resistivity increased abruptly at the moment when complete failure of the solder joint occurred in the flip chip sample. At current densities of $3\times 10^4$$4\times 10^4$A/$\textrm{cm}^2$, the activation energy for electromigration of the Sn-3.5Ag solder bump was characterized as ∼0.7 eV. Failure of the Sn-3.5Ag solder bump occurred at the solder/UBM interface due to the formation and propagation of voids at cathode side of the solder bump.

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Effect of under-bump-metallization structure on electromigration of Sn-Ag solder joints

  • Chen, Hsiao-Yun;Ku, Min-Feng;Chen, Chih
    • Advances in materials Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 2012
  • The effect of under-bump-metallization (UBM) on electromigration was investigated at temperatures ranging from $135^{\circ}C$ to $165^{\circ}C$. The UBM structures were examined: 5-${\mu}m$-Cu/3-${\mu}m$-Ni and $5{\mu}m$ Cu. Experimental results show that the solder joint with the Cu/Ni UBM has a longer electromigration lifetime than the solder joint with the Cu UBM. Three important parameters were analyzed to explain the difference in failure time, including maximum current density, hot-spot temperature, and electromigration activation energy. The simulation and experimental results illustrate that the addition 3-${\mu}m$-Ni layer is able to reduce the maximum current density and hot-spot temperature in solder, resulting in a longer electromigration lifetime. In addition, the Ni layer changes the electromigration failure mode. With the $5{\mu}m$ Cu UBM, dissolution of Cu layer and formation of $Cu_6Sn_5$ intermetallic compounds are responsible for the electromigration failure in the joint. Yet, the failure mode changes to void formation in the interface of $Ni_3Sn_4$ and the solder for the joint with the Cu/Ni UBM. The measured activation energy is 0.85 eV and 1.06 eV for the joint with the Cu/Ni and the Cu UBM, respectively.

Electromigration Behavior in the 63Sn-37Pb Solder Strip (63Sn-37Pb 솔더 스트립에서의 Electromigration 거동)

  • Lim Seung-Hyun;Choi Jae-Hoon;Oh Tae-Sung
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2004
  • To facilitate the observation of the electromigration of 63Sn-37Pb eutectic solder, strip-type samples were fabricated by solder evaporation. The electromigration test for the 63Sn-37Pb solder strip was conducted at temperatures of $80{\sim}150^{\circ}C$ and the current densities of $1{\times}10^4{\sim}1{\times}10^5\;A/cm^2$. With increasing temperature and the current density, mean-time-to-failure(MTTF) decreased due to the formation of hillock and void in the solder strip. The activation energy for the electromigration in the 63Sn-37Pb solder strip was analyzed as $0.16{\sim}0.5\;eV$ using Black's equation.

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Electromigration Behaviors of Lead-free SnAgCu Solder Lines (SnAgCu 솔더 라인의 Electromigration특성 분석)

  • Ko Min-Gu;Yoon Min-Seung;Kim Bit-Na;Joo Young-Chang;Kim Oh-Han;Park Young-Bae
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.307-313
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    • 2005
  • Electromigration behavior in the Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5 solder lines was investigated and compared Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5 with eutectic SnPb. Measurements were made for relevant parameters for electromigration of the solder, such as drift velocity, threshold current density, activation energy, as well as the product of diffusivity and effective charge number (DZ$\ast$). The threshold current density were measured to be $2.38{\times}10^4A/cm^2$ at $140^{\circ}C$ and the value represented the maximum current density which the SnAgCu solder can carry without electromigration damage at the stressing temperatures. The electromigration energy was measured to 0.56 eV in the temperature range of $110-160^{\circ}C$. The measured products of diffusivity and the effective charge number, DZ$\ast$ were $3.12{\times}10^{-10} cm^2/s$ at $110^{\circ}C$, $4.66{\times}10^{-10} cm^2/s$ at $125^{\circ}C$, $8.76{\times}10^{-10} cm^2/s$ at $140^{\circ}C$, $2.14{\times}10^{-9}cm^2/s$ at $160^{\circ}C$ SnPb solder existed incubation stage, while SnAgCu did not have incubation stage. It was thought that the diffusion mechanism of SnAgCu was different from that of SnPb.

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A Study for the Increased Reliability of Al-1%Si Thin Film Metallizations (Al-1%Si 박막 금속화의 신뢰도 향상을 위한 연구)

  • 최재승;김진영
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.382-388
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    • 1992
  • Electromigration은 인가된 전계하에서 발생하는 전자풍력에 의한 금속 이온의 현 상이며, 반도체 디바이스의 주요 결함 원인으로 보고되어 왔다. 선폭 1$mu extrm{m}$의 Al-1%Si 금속 박막전도체에 대한 electromigration 수명 실험을 위해 인가된 d.c. 전류밀도는 10MA/cm2 이었고, electromigration에 대한 활성화 에너지 측정을 위한 분위기 온도는 $80^{\circ}C$, 10$0^{\circ}C$ 그리고 $120^{\circ}C$이었다. 평균수명 및 신뢰성에 대한 보호 절연막 효과를 위해 두께 3000 $\AA$의 SiO2 산화막을 sputtering 진공증착기를 사용하여 Al-1%Si 금속 박막 전도체 위에 증착하였 다. 주요 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. Al-1%Si 금속 박막 전도체의 electromigration에 대한 활성화 에너지값은 0.75eV이었고 온도가 증가함에 따라 Al-1%Si의 수명은 감소하였고 신 뢰성은 향상되었다. SiO2 보호막은 electromigration에 대한 저항성을 크게 함으로써 평균수 명을 향상시켰으며, electromigration failure는 lognormal failure distribution은 갖는 것으로 나타났다.

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Lifetime Estimation of Amplifier IC due to Electromigration failure (Electromigration 고장에 의한 Amplifier IC의 수명 예측)

  • Lee, Ho-Young;Chang, Mi-Soon;Kwack, Kae-Dal
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1265-1270
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    • 2008
  • Electromigration is a one of a critical failure mechanism in microelectronic devices. Minimizing the thin film interconnections in microelectronic devices make high current densities at electrrical line. Under high current densities, an electromigration becomes critical problems in a microelectronic device. This phenomena under DC conditions was investigated with high temperature. The current density of 1.5MA/cm2 was stressed in interconnections under DC condition, and temperature condition $150^{\circ}C,\;175^{\circ}C,\;200^{\circ}C$. By increasing of thin film interconections, microelectronic devices durability is decreased and it gets more restriction by temperature. Electromigration makes electronic open by void induced, and hillock induced makes electronic short state.

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Effective Charge Number and Critical Current Density in Eutetic SnPb and Pb Free Flip Chip Solder Bumps (SnPb와 무연 플립칩 솔더의 유효전하수와 임계전류밀도)

  • Chae, Kwang Pyo
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2005
  • The effective charge number and the critical current density of electromigration in eutetic SnPb and Pb Free $(SnAg_{3.8}Cu_{0.7)$ flip chip solder bumps are studied. The effective charge number of electromigration in eutectic SnPb solder is obtained as 34 and the critical current density is $j=0.169{\times}({\delta}_{\sigma}/{\delta}_x})\;A/cm^2,\;where\;({\delta}_{\sigma}/{\delta}_x})$ is the electromigration-induced compressive stress gradient along the length of the line. While the effect of electromigration in Pb free solder is much smaller than that in eutectic SnPb, the product of diffusivity and effective charge number $DZ^{\ast}$ has been assumed as $6.62{\times}10^{-11}$. The critical length for electromigration are also discussed.