• Title, Summary, Keyword: Electrolyte Additive

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Effects of Additives on Soil Washing Efficiency for Mixed Surfactants (혼합 계면활성제에 적용된 각종 첨가제가 토양세척 효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sang-Il;Jang, Min;Hwang, Kyung-Yub;Ryoo, Doo-Hyun
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 1998
  • To enhance the washing efficiency of soil polluted by hydrophobic organic compounds, the effects of electrolytes and monomeric organic additives on micelle formation and washing efficiency of mixed surfactant solutions were investigated in this study. The surface tensions and critical micelle concentrations(CMCs) of the single and mixed surfactant solutions[$POE_5$/SDS] supplemented by NaCl were measured to investigate the effects on washing efficiency, and the composition ratios of surfactants and NaCl were optimized for the efficient soil washing system. As the mixing ratio of $POE_5$/SDS was increased to 80%, the mixed surfactant with 0.01M NaCl showed more proportional increase of washing efficiency than the mixed surfactant without any salts. The 3% solution of $POE_5$ and SDS(80%/2o%) with 0.01M NaCl showed the washing efficiency of 90%. However, the washing efficiency was not enhanced by NaCl addition to the single surfactant solution of $POE_5$. The CMC of SDS(0.049%) was higher than that of $POE_5$(0.016%), but the CMCs of mixed surfactants were decreased as the mixing ratio of $POE_5$ was increased. Alcohols having longer chain and branched carbon chain were found to be desirable for the soil washing additives.

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Application of Pulse Current Electrolysis to the Large Scale of Copper and Aluminium Substrates for Solar Selective Coatings on Solar Collectors (실 규모 태양열 집열판 제작을 위한 구리 및 알루미늄 기판에의 태양광 선택흡수박막 전착;Pulse Current Electrolysis 적용)

  • 이태규;김동형;김형택;여운택
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 1996
  • It is one of the most important factors to enhance the efficiency of the solar collectors by in-creasing collecting efficiency and decreasing heat loss. The pulse electrodeposition method has been involved in this study to improve characteristics of the solar selective coating on 230cm${\times}$60cm substrates and electrical efficiency of the process. The composition of the electrolyte was 280 g/$\ell$ chromic acid, 15 g/$\ell$ propionic acid, and 10 g/$\ell$ appropriate additive. 230cm${\times}$60cm copper and aluminium sheets were utilized as the substrates. It has been observed that the black chrome coatings exhibited reasonable optical properties for commercialization when the plating parameters were properly controlled; the absorptance was 0.98 and 0.97 and omittance was 0.17 and 0.23 for copper and aluminium substrate, respectively. This study implies that the pulse current electrolysis method could be applied to the large scale substrates, and the various products can be avilable after the consideration of the thermal conductivity, heat transfer efficiency and cost problems of the substrates.

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Fabrication of Stack-Structured Gas Sensor of LaCrxCo1-xO3/Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 and Its NOx Sensing Properties (LaCrxCo1-xO3/Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3의 적층구조를 가지는 가스센서 제조와 그의 NOx 검지특성)

  • Lee, Young-Sung;Shimizu, Y.;Song, Jeong-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 2015
  • Impedancemetric $NO_x$ (NO and $NO_2$) gas sensors were designed with a stacked-layer structure and fabricated using $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3$ (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1) as the receptor material and $Li_{1.3}Al_{0.3}Ti_{1.7}(PO_4)_3$ plates as the solid-electrolyte transducer material. The $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3$ layers were prepared with a polymeric precursor method that used ethylene glycol as the solvent, acetyl acetone as the chelating agent, and polyvinylpyrrolidone as the polymer additive. The effects of the Co concentration on the structural, morphological, and $NO_x$ sensing properties of the $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3$ powders were investigated with powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and its response to 20~250 ppm of $NO_x$ at $400^{\circ}C$ (for 1 kHz and 0.5 V), respectively. When the as-prepared precursors were calcined at $700^{\circ}C$, only a single phase was detected, which corresponded to a perovskite-type structure. The XRD results showed that as the Co concentration of the $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3$powders increased, the crystal structure was transformed from an orthorhombic phase to a rhombohedral phase. Moreover, the $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3$ powders with $0{\leq}x<0.8$ had a rhombohedral symmetry. The size of the particles in the $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3$powders increased from 0.1 to $0.5{\mu}m$ as the Co concentration increased. The sensing performance of the stack-structured $LaCr_xCo_{1-x}O_3/Li_{1.3}Al_{0.3}Ti_{1.7}(PO_4)_3$ sensors was found to divide the impedance component between the resistance and capacitance. The response of these sensors to NO gas was more sensitive than that to $NO_2$ gas. Compared to other impedancemetric sensors, the $LaCr_{0.8}Co_{0.2}O_3/Li_{1.3}Al_{0.3}Ti_{1.7}(PO_4)_3$ sensor exhibited good reversibility and reliable sensingresponse properties for $NO_x$ gases.

Synthesis of Silicon-Carbon by Polymer Coating and Electrochemical Properties of Si-C|Li Cell (고분자 도포를 이용한 실리콘-탄소의 합성 및 Si-C|Li Cell의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Doh, Chil-Hoon;Jeong, Ki-Young;Jin, Bong-Soo;An, Kay-Hyeok;Min, Byung-Chul;Choi, Im-Goo;Park, Chul-Wan;Lee, Kyeong-Jik;Moon, Seong-In;Yun, Mun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2006
  • Si-C composites were prepared by the carbonization of silicon powder covered by polyaniline(PAn). Physical and electrochemical properties of the Si-C composites were characterized by the particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscope, and electrochemical test of battery. The average particle size of the Si was increased by the coating of PAn and somewhat reduced by the carbonization to give silicone-carbon composites. XRD analysis' results were confirmed co-existence of crystalline silicon and amorphous-like carbon. SEM photos showed that the silicon particle were well covered with carbonacious materials depend on the PAn content. Si-C|Li cells were fabricated using the Si-C composites and were tested using the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Si-C|Li cells gave better electrochemical properties than that of Si|Li cell. Si-C|Li cell using the Si-C from HCl undoped PAn Precursor showed better electrochemical properties than that from HCl doped PAn Precursor. Using the electrolyte containing FEC as an additive, the initial discharge capacity was increased. After that the galvanostatic charge-discharge test with the GISOC(gradual increasing of the state of charge) condition was carried out. Si-C(Si:PAn:50:50 wt. ratio)|Li cell showed 414 mAh/g of the reversible specific capacity, 75.7% of IIE(initial intercalation efficiency), 35.4 mAh/g of IICs(surface irreversible specific capacity).

Investigating the Au-Cu thick layers Electrodeposition Rate with Pulsed Current by Optimization of the Operation Condition

  • Babaei, Hamid;Khosravi, Morteza;Sovizi, Mohamad Reza;Khorramie, Saeid Abedini
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2020
  • The impact of effective parameters on the electrodeposition rate optimization of Au-Cu alloy at high thicknesses on the silver substrate was investigated in the present study. After ensuring the formation of gold alloy deposits with the desired and standard percentage of gold with the cartage of 18K and other standard karats that should be observed in the manufacturing of the gold and jewelry artifacts, comparing the rate of gold-copper deposition by direct and pulsed current was done. The rate of deposition with pulse current was significantly higher than direct current. In this process, the duty cycle parameter was effectively optimized by the "one factor at a time" method to achieve maximum deposition rate. Particular parameters in this work were direct and pulse current densities, bath temperature, concentration of gold and cyanide ions in electrolyte, pH, agitation and wetting agent additive. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface chemical analysis system (EDS) were used to study the effect of deposition on the cross-sections of the formed layers. The results revealed that the Au-Cu alloy layer formed with concentrations of 6gr·L-1 Au, 55gr·L-1 Cu, 24 gr·L-1 KCN and 1 ml·L-1 Lauryl dimethyl amine oxide (LDAO) in the 0.6 mA·cm-2 average current density and 30% duty cycle, had 0.841 ㎛·min-1 Which was the highest deposition rate. The use of electrodeposition of pure and alloy gold thick layers as a production method can reduce the use of gold metal in the production of hallow gold artifacts, create sophisticated and unique models, and diversify production by maintaining standard karats, hardness, thickness and mechanical strength. This will not only make the process economical, it will also provide significant added value to the gold artifacts. By pulsating of currents and increasing the duty cycle means reducing the pulse off-time, and if the pulse off-time becomes too short, the electric double layer would not have sufficient growth time, and its thickness decreases. These results show the effect of pulsed current on increasing the electrodeposition rate of Au-Cu alloy confirming the previous studies on the effect of pulsed current on increasing the deposition rate of Au-Cu alloy.

Improvement of Electrochemical Performance of KVO3 as High Capacity Negative Electrode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries (리튬이온 이차전지용 고용량 KVO3 음극의 전기화학적 성능개선)

  • Kim, Tae Hun;Gim, Gyeong Rae;Park, Hwandong;Kim, Haebeen;Ryu, Ji Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2019
  • Vanadium oxide based materials have been studied as novel negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their high specific capacity. In this study, potassium metavanadate ($KVO_3$) was synthesized and its electrochemical properties are evaluated as a negative electrode materials. The aqueous solution of $NH_4VO_3$ is mixed with a stoichiometric amount of KOH. The solution is boiled to remove $NH_3$ gas and dried to obtain a precipitate. The obtained $KVO_3$ powders are heat-treated at 300 and $500^{\circ}C$ for 8 h in air. As the heat treatment temperature increases, the initial reversible capacity decreases, but the cycle performance and Coulombic efficiency are improved slightly. On the contrary, the electrochemical performances of the $KVO_3$ electrodes are greatly improved when a polyacrylic acid (PAA) as binder was used instead of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) was used as electrolyte additive. The initial reversible capacity of the $KVO_3$ is 1169 mAh/g and the Coulombic efficiency is improved to 76.3% with moderate cycle performance. The $KVO_3$ has the potential as a novel high-capacity negative electrode materials.