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Studies on a Feasibility of Swine Farm Wastewater Treatment using Microbial Fuel Cell (미생물연료전지의 가축분뇨 처리 가능성 연구)

  • Jang, Jae-Kyung;Kim, Se-Hee;Ryou, Young-Sun;Lee, Sung-Hyoun;Kim, Jong-Gu;Kang, Young-Goo;Kim, Young-Hwa;Choi, Jung-Eun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.461-466
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    • 2010
  • In this study the feasibility of simultaneous electricity generation and treatment of swine farm wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined. Two single-chamber MFCs containing an anode filled with different ratio of graphite felt and stainless-steel cross strip was used in all tests. The proportion of stainless-steel cross strip to graphite felt in the anode of control microbial fuel cell (CMFC) was higher than that of swine microbial fuel cell (SMFC) to reduce construction costs. SMFCs produced a stable current of 18 mA by swine wastewater with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of $3.167{\pm}80\;mg/L$ after enriched. The maximum power density and current density of SMFCs were $680\;mW/m^3$ and $3,770\;mA/m^3$, respectively. In the CMFC, power density and current density was lower than that of SMFC. CODs decreased by the SMFC and CMFC from $3.167{\pm}80$ to $865{\pm}21$ and $930{\pm}14\;mg/L$, achieving 72.7% and 70.6% COD removal, respectively. The suspended solid (SS) of both fuel cells was also reduced over 99% ($4,533{\pm}67$ to $24.0{\pm}6.0\;mg/L$). The concentration of nutritive salts, ${NH_4}^+$, ${NO_3}^-$, and ${PO_4}^{3-}$, dropped by 65.4%, 57.5%, and 73.7% by the SMFC, respectively. These results were similar with those of CMFC. These results show that the microbial fuel cells using electrode with mix stainless-steel cross strip and graphite felt can treat the swine wastewater simultaneously with an electricity generation from swine wastewater.

Comparison of Retinal Ganglion Cell Responses to Different Voltage Stimulation Parameters in Normal and rd1 Mouse Retina (정상망막과 변성망막에서 전압자극 파라미터 변화에 따른 망막신경절세포의 반응 비교)

  • Ye, Jang-Hee;Ryu, Sang-Baek;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Goo, Yong-Sook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2010
  • Retinal prostheses are being developed to restore vision for the blind with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since retinal prostheses depend upon electrical stimulation to control neural activity, optimal stimulation parameters for successful encoding of visual information are one of the most important requirements to enable visual perception. Therefore, in this paper, we focused on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to different voltage stimulation parameters and compared threshold charge densities in normal and rd1 mice. For this purpose, we used in vitro preparation for the retina of normal and rd1 mice on micro-electrode arrays. When the neural network of rd1 mouse retinas is stimulated with voltage-controlled pulses, RGCs in degenerated retina also respond to voltage amplitude or voltage duration modulation as well in wild-type RGCs. But the temporal pattern of RGCs response is very different; in wild-type RGCs, single peak within 100 ms appears while in RGCs in degenerated retina multiple peaks (~4 peaks) with ~10 Hz rhythm within 400 ms appear. The thresholds for electrical activation of RGCs are overall more elevated in rd1 mouse retinas compared to wild-type mouse retinas: The thresholds for activation of RGCs in rd1 mouse retinas were on average two times higher ($70.50{\sim}99.87\;{\mu}C/cm^2$ vs. $37.23{\sim}61.65\;{\mu}C/cm^2$) in the experiment of voltage amplitude modulation and five times higher ($120.5{\sim}170.6\;{\mu}C/cm^2$ vs. $22.69{\sim}37.57\;{\mu}C/cm^2$) in the experiment of voltage duration modulation than those in wild-type mouse retinas. This is compatible with the findings from human studies that the currents required for evoking visual percepts in RP patients is much higher than those needed in healthy individuals. These results will be used as a guideline for optimal stimulation parameters for upcoming Korean-type retinal prosthesis.

Development of Extracting Solution for Soil Chemical Analysis Suitable to Integrated Ion-selective Micro-electrodes (집적형 이온선택성 미세전극 센서에 적합한 토양화학 분석용 침출액 종 개발)

  • Shin, Kook-Sik;Lim, Woo-Jin;Lee, Sang Eun;Lee, Jae Seon;Cha, Geun Sig
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.513-521
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    • 2009
  • The primary goal of this research was to develop an optimized analytical procedure for soil analysis based on ion-selective microelectrodes for agricultural purposes, which can perform on-site measurement of various ions in soil easily and rapidly. For the simple and rapid on-site diagnosis, an analysis of soil chemicals was performed employing a multicomponent-in-situ-extractant and an evaluation of ionselective microelectrodes were conducted through the regressive correlation method with a standard analytical approach widely employed in this area. Examination of sensor responses between various soil nutrient extractants revealed that 0.01M HCl and 1M LiCl provided the most ideal Nernstian response. However, 1M LiCl deteriorated the selective response for analytes due to high concentration (1M) of lithium cation. Thus, employing either 0.1M HCl as an extractant followed by 10 times dilution, or 0.01M HCl as an extractant without further dilution was chosen as the optimal extractant composition. A study of regressive correlation between results from ion-selective microelectrodes and those from the standard analytical procedure showed that analyses of $K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $NO_3{^-}$ showed the excellent consistency between two methods. However, the response for $NH_4{^+}$ suffered the severe interference from $K^+$. In addition, the selectivity for $Mg^{2+}$ over $Ca^{2+}$ was not sufficient enough since available ionophores developed so far do not provide such a high selectivity for $Mg^{2+}$. Therefore, as an agricultural on-site diagnostic instrument, the device in development requires further research on $NH_4{^+}$ analysis in the soil sample, development of $Mg^{2+}$-selective ionophore, and more detailed study focused on potassium, one of the most important plant nutrients.

Effects of Hemorrhage on the Electroencephalograms in Dogs Anesthetized with Ketamine, Propofol and Isoflurane (출혈이 Ketamine, Propofol, Isoflurane 마취견의 뇌파에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, In-Sub;Jang, Hwan-Soo;Lim, Jae-Hyun;Kwon, Young-Sam;Jang, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.539-546
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    • 2009
  • The effect of hemorrhage on the electroencephalogram(EEG) was investigated in fifteen mixed-breed dogs anesthetized with ketamine, propofol and isoflurane. Animals were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 5) by anesthetic agents; group 1 (ketamine 5 mg/kg, IV), group 2 (propofol $156\;{\mu}g$/kg/min, IV) and group 3 (isoflurane 2.0% end-tidal concentration). Medetomidine ($40\;{\mu}g$/kg, IM) was used in all dogs as a preanesthetic agent. Recording electrode for EEG was positioned at CZ. EEG, heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, $pCO_2$, $pO_2$ and blood pH were measured before anesthesia, after anesthesia and after every bleedings. Three bleedings were accomplished by drawing blood through the femoral artery catheter at a rate of 7 ml/kg (10% of total blood volume) for 10 minutes. In the course of hemorrhage, a systolic/diastolic pressure continuously decreased in all groups. The $pCO_2$ values and heart rates were increased in all groups. The $pO_2$ values were most significantly increased in group 1 compared with those in other groups. The pH values were not significantly changed. On statistical analysis of EEG, there was no significant changes in group 1 and 3. But in group 2, band 3, 4 and 7 were significantly altered after 2nd and 3rd bleeding. Power alterations of band 3, 4 and 7 were thought to be related with hemorrhage over 20% of total blood volume in group 2. In conclusion, the regulation of infusion rate would be considered when a dog, anesthetized with propofol, bleed over 20% of total blood volume.

Negative apparent resistivity in dipole-dipole electrical surveys (쌍극자-쌍극자 전기비저항 탐사에서 나타나는 음의 겉보기 비저항)

  • Jung, Hyun-Key;Min, Dong-Joo;Lee, Hyo-Sun;Oh, Seok-Hoon;Chung, Ho-Joon
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2009
  • In field surveys using the dipole-dipole electrical resistivity method, we often encounter negative apparent resistivity. The term 'negative apparent resistivity' refers to apparent resistivity values with the opposite sign to surrounding data in a pseudosection. Because these negative apparent resistivity values have been regarded as measurement errors, we have discarded the negative apparent resistivity data. Some people have even used negative apparent resistivity data in an inversion process, by taking absolute values of the data. Our field experiments lead us to believe that the main cause for negative apparent resistivity is neither measurement errors nor the influence of self potentials. Furthermore, we also believe that it is not caused by the effects of induced polarization. One possible cause for negative apparent resistivity is the subsurface geological structure. In this study, we provide some numerical examples showing that negative apparent resistivity can arise from geological structures. In numerical examples, we simulate field data using a 3D numerical modelling algorithm, and then extract 2D sections. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that the negative apparent resistivity can be caused by geological structures modelled by U-shaped and crescent-shaped conductive models. Negative apparent resistivity usually occurs when potentials increase with distance from the current electrodes. By plotting the voltage-electrode position curves, we could confirm that when the voltage curves intersect each other, negative apparent resistivity appears. These numerical examples suggest that when we observe negative apparent resistivity in field surveys, we should consider the possibility that the negative apparent resistivity has been caused by geological structure.

Evaluation of Single and Stacked MFC Performances under Different Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Cathode Chamber (환원전극 DO 농도에 따른 단일 및 직렬연결 미생물연료전지 전기발생량 평가)

  • Yu, Jae-Cheul;Lee, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2009
  • The performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) can be affected by many factors including the rate of organic matter oxidation, the electron transfer to electrode by electrochemical bacteria, proton diffusion, the concentration of electron acceptor, the rate of electron acceptor reduction and internal resistance. the performance of MFC using oxygen as electron acceptor can be influenced by oxygen concentration as limit factors in cathode compartment. Many studies have been performed to enhance electricity production from MFC. The series or parallel stacked MFC connected several MFC units can use to increase voltages and currents produced from MFCs. In this study, a single MFC (S-MFC) and a stacked MFC (ST-MFC) using acetate as electron donor and oxygen as electron acceptor were used to investigate the influence of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in cathode compartment on MFC performance. The power density (W/$m^3$) of S-MFC was in order DO 5 > 3 > 7 > 9 mg/L, the maximum power density (W/$m^3$) of S-MFC was 42 W/$m^3$ at DO 5 mg/L. The power density (W/$m^3$) of ST-MFC was in order DO 5 > 7 > 9 > 3 mg/L and the maximum power density (W/$m^3$) of STMFC was 20 W/$m^3$ at DO 5 mg/L. These results suggest that the DO concentration of cathode chamber should be considered as important limit factor of MFC operation and design for stacked MFC as well as single MFC. The results of ST-MFC operation showed the voltage decrease of some MFC units by salt formation on the surface of anode, resulting in decrease total voltage of ST-MFC. Therefore, connecting MFC units in parallel might be more appropriate way than series connections to enhance power production of stacked MFC.

Sputtering방식을 이용한 Indium Thin oxide박막의 넓이에 따른 X-ray 검출기 특성 연구

  • Kim, Dae-Guk;Sin, Jeong-Uk;O, Gyeong-Min;Kim, Seong-Heon;Lee, Yeong-Gyu;Jo, Seong-Ho;Nam, Sang-Hui
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.321-322
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    • 2012
  • 의료용 방사선 장비는 초기의 아날로그 방식의 필름 및 카세트에서 진보되어 현재는 디지털 방식의 DR (Digital Radiography)이 널리 사용되며 그에 관한 연구개발이 활발히 진행되고 있다. DR은 크게 간접방식과 직접방식의 두 분류로 나눌 수 있는데, 간접방식은 X선을 흡수하면 가시광선으로 전환하는 형광체(Scintillator)를 사용하여 X선을 가시광선으로 전환하고, 이를 Photodiode와 같은 광소자로 전기적 신호로 변환하여 방사선을 검출하는 방식을 말하며, 직접 방식은 X선을 흡수하면 전기적 신호를 발생 시키는 광도전체(Photoconductor)를 사용하여 광도전체 양단 전극에 고전압을 인가한 형태를 취하고 있는 가운데, X선이 조사되면 일차적으로 광도전체 내부에서 전자-전공쌍(Electron-hole pair)이 생성된다. 이들은 광도전체 양단의 인가되어 있는 전기장에 의해 전자는 +극으로, 전공은 -극으로 이동하여 아래에 위치한 Active matrix array을 통해 방사선을 검출하는 방식이다. 본 연구에서는 직접방식 X-ray 검출기에서 활용되는 a-Se을 ITO (Indium Thin oxide) glass 상단에 Thermal evaporation증착을 이용하여 두께 $50{\mu}m$, 33 넓이로 증착 시킨 다음, a-Se상단에 Sputtering증착을 이용하여 ITO를 11 cm, 22 cm, $2.7{\times}2.7cm$ 넓이로 증착시켜 상하부의 ITO를 Electrode로 이용하여 직접방식의 X-ray검출기 샘플을 제작하였다. 제작 과정 중 a-Se의 Thermal evaporation증착 시, 저진공 $310^{-3}_{Torr}$, 고진공 $2.210^{-5}_{Torr}$에서 보트의 가열 온도를 두 번의 스텝으로 나누어 증착 시켰다. 첫 번째 스텝 $250^{\circ}C$, 두 번째 스텝은 $260^{\circ}C$의 조건으로 증착하여 보트 내의 a-Se을 남기지 않고 전량을 소모할 수 있었으며, 스텝간의 온도차를 $10^{\circ}C$로 제어하여 균일한 박막을 형성 할 수 있었다. Sputtering증착 시, 저진공 $2.510^{-3}$, 고진공 $310^{-5}$에서 Ar, $O_2$를 사용하여 100 Sec간 플라즈마를 생성시켜 ITO를 증착하였다. 제작된 방사선 각각의 검출기 샘플 양단의 ITO에 500V의 전압을 인가하고, 진단 방사선 범위의 70 kVp, 100 mA, 0.03 sec 조건으로 X-ray를 조사시켜 ITO넓이에 따른 민감도(Sensitivity)와 암전류(Dark current)를 측정하였다. 측정결과 민감도(Sensitivity)는 X-ray샘플의 두께에 따른 $1V/{\mu}m$ 기준 시, 증착된 ITO의 넓이가 11 cm부터 22 cm, $2.7{\times}2.7cm$까지 각각 $7.610nC/cm^2$, $8.169nC/cm^2$, $6.769nC/cm^2$로 22 cm 넓이의 샘플이 가장 높은 민감도를 나타내었으나, 암전류(Dark current)는 $1.68nA/cm^2$, $3.132nA/cm^2$, $5.117nA/cm^2$로 11 cm 넓이의 샘플이 가장 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 이러한 데이터를 SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio)로 합산 하였을 시 104.359 ($1{\times}1$), 60.376($2{\times}2$), 30.621 ($2.7{\times}2.7$)로 11 cm 샘플이 신호 대 별 가장 우수한 효율을 나타냄을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 ITO박막의 면적이 클수록 민감도는 우수하나 그에 따른 암전류의 증가로 효율이 떨어짐을 검증 할 수 있었으며, 이는 ITO면적이 넓어짐에 따른 저항의 증가로 암전류에 영향을 끼침을 할 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해 a-Se의 ITO 박막 면적에 따른 전기적 특성을 검증할 수 있었다.

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A STUDY ON THE CHANGE OF SALIVARY FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION WITH TIME AFTER VARIOUS TOPICAL FLUORIDE TREATMENTS (각종 불소처치 이후 시간변화에 따른 타액내 불소농도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Soo-Jin;Kim, Hyung-Doo;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.262-274
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    • 1999
  • Several alternatives for increasing the fluoride concentration in the mouth, such as water fluoridation, ingestion of fluoride supplements, fluoride paste, fluoride mouthrinse, application of fluoride gel are available. There is an impressive body of evidence that the topically deliverd fluorides are clinically effective in inhibiting the progression of dental caries. Recent studies on the cariostatic action of fluoride have indicated the importance of fluoride in the fluid environment of the teeth. The fluoride levels in unstimulated whole saliva can be considered indicative of F in the aqueous phase available for interaction with the tooth surface at a given time. The retention of F in the mouth after topical fluoride treatment is considered to be an important factor in the clinical efficacy of F. The aim of this study was to determine the elevation and clearance of fluoride in whole saliv after the following topical flouride treatments using HMDS-diffusion technique and fluoride ion electrode. The obtained results were as follow: 1. Average salivary fluoride concentration in the unstimulated whole saliva was $0.0152ppm{\pm}0.0091ppm$. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was between 0.34-0.36ml/min and there was no statistically significant difference among the groups(p>0.05). 2. Except for the immediate time after treatment, fluoride levels followed as APF gel>neutral gel>F-rinse>F-paste. There was no statistical difference between the salivary F concentration of F-paste group and that of control group after 2 hours. In case of F-rinse group, after 3 hours the concentration had dropped to baseline value. But there was statistically significant difference among the F concentraion of F gel groups and that of control group(p<0.05). 3. The mean $AUC_{0-120min}$ values were followed as neutral gel>APF gel>F-rinse>F-paste, and the values of the two former groups were significantly higher than those of the two latter groups(p<0.05).

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Effect of Submergence and Air Exposure of the Shoot on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Photosynthesis in Monochoria vaginalis Presl. (물달개비 경엽(莖葉)의 침수여부(沈水與否)에 따른 생장(生長), 양분흡수(養分吸收) 및 광합성(光合成) 비교(比較))

  • Soh, C.H.;Yang, K.S.;Kwon, Y.W.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 1996
  • Growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis as affected by submersion of shoot in pickerel weed (Monochoria vaginalis Presl.) were determined. The shoots of pickerel weeds in hydroponic culture were subjected to the submerged or emerged condition at 3- or 5-leaf stage for 8 or 10 days. Under submerged condition, growth in plant height was enhanced, but leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight were reduced compared to those under the emerged condition. Similar responses in growth to submergence were obtained with the pickerel weeds rooted in the soil. Under submergence, chlorophyll content increased during the first 2 days, but thereafter remarkably decreased at 3-leaf stage and after the first 4 days at 5-leaf stage. Compared to the emerged condition, uptakes of $NH_4\;^+$-N, $NO_3\;^-$-N, $P_2O_5$ and $K^+$ were reduced, but uptakes of $Ca^{++}$ and $Mg^{++}$ increased under the submerged condition. Photosynthetic rate of shoot under water, measured by $CO_2$electrode, showed the maximum by 210 ${\mu}$moles $HCO_3\;^-$/g F.W. at the 8th day after submergence(DAS) at 3-leaf stage and 320 ${\mu}$moles $HCO_3\;^-$/g F. W. at 6 DAS at 5-leaf stage. These results indicate that pickerel weeds grow much better when the shoot is air-exposed and are less tolerable to submergence at 3 leaf-stage than at 5-leaf stage.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FLUORIDE RELEASE AND RE-UPTAKE OF SEVERAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS (수종 수복재에 불소 도포제 적용 후 불소유리에 관한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Yeon;Kim, Jong-Soo;Yoo, Seung-Hoon
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.408-419
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    • 2007
  • In the child, it is very important that he/she will have the ability to suppress aesthetic restorative materials of secondary caries. With the representative preventive material against caries, the importance of fluoride is more emphasized. This study examined the differences in fluoride release and re-uptake among some restorative materials, following a treatment of APF gel and fluoride varnish. The surface roughness was observed under scanning electron microscope. Studying this will provide for the research to find effective restorative materials and fluoride type in tooth caries prevention. It is applied from presence at a clinic that restorative materials are resin, flowable resin, compomer and glass ionomer. Fluoride release was measured at 24-hour intervals for 7 days, 3-day intervals from 8th to 38th day using an ion-selective electrode and analyzer. Then, the materials were treated with the fluoride gel and fluoride varnish respectively, fluoride release was measured and specimens were evaluated under scanning electron microscope for 4 weeks. It was concluded that 1. Fluoride was released for 38 days from restorative materials under 1 ppm in case of flowable resin, 1-2 ppm in compomer and 2-8 ppm in glass ionomer, a few of fluoride was released after 45 days 2. Fluoride has more releasing after application of APF gel than fluoride varnish. Fluoride re-uptake was observed under 0.6-0.2 ppm in fluoride varnish and 0.6-2.6 ppm in APF gel after starting the procedure one day(p<0.05). For the remaining 4 weeks, they demonstrated a similar release. 3. Specimens were evaluated under scanning electron microscope. Applied fluoride in the experimental group surface was rougher than the control group that did not receive fluoride application. Fluoride varnish group had a smoother surface than both the APF gel group and the varnish APF gel group that received a fluoride application.

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