• Title, Summary, Keyword: Egypt

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수학창조의 주체전환에 대한 고찰

  • 한재영
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2000
  • This paper analyzes the philosophy of mathematics as the ancient Egypt. This article provides an overview of computer programing capacities by Mathematica. To give an idea of mathematical graphic's capacities, practical example will be computed.

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Optical illusions in Clothing Form Designs for the Ideal Beauty of Human bodies - from the Ancient Egypt to the Romantic Period - (이상적인 인체미 구현을 위한 복식 디자인의 착시효과 - 고대 이집트 시대부터 낭만주의 시대까지 -)

  • 이옥희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.15-30
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    • 2001
  • The purpose 7f this study is to investigate the change of the ideal beauty of human bodies and the related clothing form designs from the ancient Egypt to the Romantic Period in the aspect of optical illusions effects to achieve the ideal beauty so that we can accumulate the knowledges for the modern clothing form design and the related optical illusion effects. The scope of this study is limited to the female body forms and female dress forms. The analysis on the optical illusions in the dress forms of the various period relied on the literatures and some representative photographs and figures. The important results are as follows : 1. In the body Priority type designs of Egypt, Greece and Rome, the natural Beauty of human bodies was represented by H type silhouett, the smooth and transparent drapery materials were used with radiant line pleats resulting in slant optical illusions. 2. In the clothing priority type designs of Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo and Romantic Period, manteau, cotehardie, hennin and poulain were used to emphasize long arms and legs, high waists, belly curves and large heads resulting in optical illusions of vertical emphasize. Also long train, farthingale and panier were used to emphasize body expansion resulting in the optical illusions of Titchener alld Lipps. Large and complex patterns showed the optical illusions of Aubert. 3. In the clothing priority/body concealment type of Byzantine period, thick materials with precious gems and voluminous silhouettes were used to emphasize body expansion resulting in optical illusions of materials.

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A Study on the Characteristics of the Designs on Coptic Textiles of Ancient Egypt

  • Han, Jung-Im
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.112-124
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    • 2011
  • Textile and clothing in Ancient Egypt have carried long history and tradition. Especially, Egyptian textile culture, created mostly by the Copt, has the originality of weaving technology and the artistic beauty of the weaving motifs, making the textiles comparable to modern textiles. The purpose of this study is to research on the characteristics of Coptic textile designs of ancient Egypt and the tunic, a basic garment made of Coptic textiles, and offer materials for the development of the textiles and designs with artistic values which can be shared in the modern era, not just for the research of the relics of the past. Therefore, this study will follow the historical background of Coptic textiles and the process of the development, and look into the distinct features under the categories of material, colors and motifs. In addition, the tunic and its weaving technology will be explained and this will help understand the originality of Coptic textiles. The scope of this study is limited to the period of the 3rd to 12th centuries when the Egyptian weaving technologies advanced dramatically and many of the ancient Egyptian textiles discovered from the grave goods dates back, the research methode of the tunic as well as books published at home and abroad, research paper and photograph works. The textiles had developed along the Egyptian history which was influenced by different cultures such as Greek, Roman, pagan, Christian, and later, Islamic. For the textiles, they used a variety of pictorial motifs including Greek goddesses, pastoral scenes related to the Nile River and animals, human figures, geometrical figures and Christian icons. They are symbolic, natural, and mythological characters, and this explains that the world views and religions of the weavers influenced the development of specific motifs. Coptic textiles was used to make a tunic, a simple straight-sided gown without sleeves worn by men and women and was woven in a combination of linen plain weave and woolen tapestry weave for a tunic. Not only the excellence of the weaving technologies and the beauty of the colors used in the textiles, but also the diversity of the textures through weaving, embroidery, and knotting are detected in Coptic textiles.

An Optimal Control Theory on Economic Benefits of Dam Management: A Case of Aswan High Dam in Egypt (최적제어 이론을 이용한 댐 토사관리방안 : 이집트 아스완 댐 사례)

  • Lee, Yoon;Kim, Dong-Yeub
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.41-55
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    • 2010
  • This paper analyzes optimal watershed management focusing on reservoir-level sediment removal techniques. Although dams and reservoirs provide several benefits, sedimentation may reduce their storage capacity. As of today, the Aswan High Dam (AHD) in Egypt faces approximately 76% reduced life of the reservoir. Since the AHD is the major fresh water source in Egypt, sustainable use of this resource is extremely important. A model is developed to simultaneously determine optimal sediment removal strategies for upstream soil conservation efforts and reservoir-level sediment control. Two sediment removal techniques are considered: mechanical dredging and hydro-suction sediment removal system (HSRS). Moreover, different levels of upstream soil conservation efforts have introduced to control soil erosion, which is a major contributor of reservoir storage capacity reduction. We compare a baseline case, which implies no management alternative, to non-cooperative and social planners' solution. Our empirical results indicate that the socially optimal sediment removal technique is a mechanical dredging with unconstrained amount with providing a sustainable life of the reservoir. From the empirical results, we find that social welfare can be as high as $151.01 billion, and is sensitive to interest rates and agricultural soil loss.

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An Inquiry into the Ancient Jewelry of Ancient Egypt Myth (고대 이집트 신화에 나타난 고대 장신구 연구)

  • Choi, Jin
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.7
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    • pp.171-183
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    • 2009
  • The spiritual world of the ancient times has precious values which forms the origin of human thought. This study aims to reevaluate ancient people's particular views on man in their spiritual world reflected through gods' ornaments by studying the human race's fundamental spiritual world gradually disappearing due to science development from Egyptian gods' ornaments expressed symbolically in Ancient mythical components. Although evidently ornaments in Egypt served for decoration, the basic purpose was exorcism as amulets, a shamanistic purpose to be protected from mystical and hostile powers by carrying them on the vulnerable spots of the body. As this aspect indicates, the human race tried to solve their self-insoluble transcendental issues through the help of supernatural power, pursuing to lead their lives there within. As a result, Egyptian ornaments; First, the deity raised their value by deifying human-beings. Second, the nobility enhanced their dignity by having goddesses wear the same skirts as theirs. Thirds, all deities maintained their class society by wearing fpassiums, bracelets, and anklets. Fourth, the resurrection was symbolized through gods and goddesses in charge of the afterlife.

The Orient and Women in Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra (버나드 쇼의 『시저와 클레오파트라』에 나타난 동양과 여성)

  • Kim, Gyeong Hye
    • English & American cultural studies
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.51-70
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    • 2009
  • For a long time Westerners have considered the Orient as unknown and mysterious, but Orientals soon came to be seen as weak and dependent, or feminine. The Oriental woman became a synecdoche for the Orient itself. We can find this theme in several British plays that deal with the Orient and Oriental women, including Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra and Dryden's All for Love. Both of these plays have Egypt as their setting and Cleopatra as a main character. For a better society, Shaw emphasizes the importance of education. In Caesar and Cleopatra, Shaw sees Egypt as a weak and dependent country which needs the help of Rome. Accordingly, he depicts Cleopatra as young and ignorant, needing to be educated in her role as a queen. Shaw finds possibilities for growth and independence in the Egyptians and Cleopatra, who recognize themselves as Egyptians and pursue their identity apart from the colonialization of Rome. Here the Egyptians attempt to resist and escape the oppression of Rome. Young, dependant and ignorant Cleopatra becomes independent and knowledgeable as the result of her education by Caesar and in the end she becomes a real Egyptian queen. According to Shaw, the Orient and women have the potential to develop themselves and ultimately to overcome the government of Western countries and men. In this play, Shaw emphasizes the potential of the Orient and women and the importance of education. Shaw thinks women can grow and develop through education. Especially through Cleopatra's growth, his thought can be applied for Oriental women as well as Western women. His thought is beyond the 19th century British society in which this play was written. Through this play, we can see Shaw's thought is not limited by race, time and place and also has universality to transcend everything.

A Study on the ICC Arbitration Case -Disputes of Steel Bars Ex-Im Contract between Egypt & Yugoslav- (ICC 중재법원의 판정사례에 관한 연구 -이집트와 유고슬라비아의 철강제수출입분쟁사건을 중심으로-)

  • Hahn, Jae-Phil
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.49-69
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    • 2008
  • This study is to analyze the case law on the disputes of the ex-im contract of steel bar from Yugoslav to Egypt, for which awards were made by the ICC Arbitration Court, trying to find out the characteristic approach of the tribunal toward arbitration case dealing with socialistic country, Yugoslav and Islamic Egypt. An Egyptian importer and an Yugoslavian Exporter concluded a contract, with an option to purchase an additional quantity. for the steel bar. The importer exercised this option as provided in the contract. But the exporter refused to honor the option, due to the fact that the world market price for the steel bar has gone up. As a result, the importer had to purchase the steel bar as a replacement from a Rumanian company at the price higher than the original contract. And it has initiated arbitration under the arbitration clause at the ICC Arbitration Court to claim compensation for the loss due to the price difference. CISG and ULIS were closely studied along with the Yugoslav Law to determine whether the exporter could be exempted from the liability to damages. But the tribunal denied to accept the exporter's contention. The tribunal decided that the importer was entitled to damages due to the exporter's failure to deliver the additional quantity of goods at the original price. It was due to the fact that the price increase was not extremely sudden & high enough to exceed a reasonable entrepreneurial risk and also could be taken into account when concluding the contract.

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Xenomonitoring of Different Filarial Nematodes Using Single and Multiplex PCR in Mosquitoes from Assiut Governorate, Egypt

  • Dyab, Ahmed Kamal;Galal, Lamia Ahmed;Mahmoud, Abeer El-Sayed;Mokhtar, Yasser
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2015
  • Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. We aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex PCR and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex PCR as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. Female mosquitoes were collected from 7 localities in Assiut Governorate, were microscopically identified and divided into pools according to their species and collection site. Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. An overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) in mosquitoes was 0.6%; the highest was Culex spp. (0.47%). W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens could be simultaneously and differentially detected in infected vectors by using multiplex PCR. Out of 100 mosquito pools, 8 were positive for W. bancrofti (ERI of 0.33%) and 3 pools each were positive for D. immitis and D. repens (ERI 0.12%). The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. El-Nikhila, El-Matiaa villages, and Sahel Seleem district in Assiut Governorate, Egypt are still endemic foci for filarial parasites. Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas. Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs.

Correlates of Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: Findings from Eleven Faculties in Egypt

  • Ansari, Walid El;Labeeb, Shokria;Kotb, Safaa;Yousafzai, Mohammad T.;El-Houfey, Amira;Stock, Christiane
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2547-2556
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Smoking among university students represents a formidable and global public health challenge. We assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables as independent variables, with daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban as dependent variables. Methods: A sample of 3258 undergraduate students from eleven faculties at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, completed a general health questionnaire. Results: Overall daily or occasional smoking in last three months prior to the survey was about 9% (8% occasional and 1% daily smokers), and smoking was generally more prevalent among males (male=17%, female=0.6%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, not having normal BMI and having a mother who completed at least bachelor's degree education was positively associated with daily smoking, and conversely, no history of illicit drug use was a protective factor. About 76% of smokers had attempted to quit smoking within the last 12 months prior to the survey. Although a large proportion of students agreed/strongly agreed with the banning of smoking at university altogether (87%), such agreement was less likely among smokers. Conclusion: There is need for implementation of non-smoking policies on university premises, as well as regular up-to-date information on, and the periodic/yearly monitoring of tobacco use by university students employing standardised data collection instruments and reference periods. In addition, it would be valuable to develop campus-based educational/ awareness campaigns designed to counteract tobacco advertisement directed towards young people in Middle East countries. Otherwise, the danger could be that the current relatively low smoking prevalence among university students may escalate in the future.