• Title, Summary, Keyword: Egypt

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Electrochemical Studies on Some Substituted Thiadiazoles (몇 가지 치환 Thiadiazole에 대한 전기화학적 연구)

  • El Maghraby, A. A.;Abou-Elenien, G. M.;Abdel-Reheem, N. A.;Abdel-Tawab, H. R.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 2006
  • The redox characteristics of 2-ketohydrazono-3-phenyl-5-substituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazoles and its derivatives (1a-h) has been investigated in nonaqueous solvents such as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), dichloromethane (DCM), acetonitrile (AN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) containing 0.1 mol.dm-3 tetra n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) as supporting electrolyte at platinum ectrode. Through controlled potential electrolysis, the oxidation and reduction products of the investigated compounds can be separated and indentified. The redox mechanism is suggested and proved. It was found that all the investigated compounds are oxidized in two irreversible one-electron processes following the well known pattern of EC-mechanism. On the other hand, these compounds are reduced in a single two electron or in a successive two one electron processes following the well known pattern of EEC-mechanism according to the nature of the substituent

A Case Study of Stage Costume and Clothing Constructions for Opera, Using the Magic Flute (오페라 '마술피리'의 무대의상 제작 사례 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Yun;Kim, Young-Sam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.72-87
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    • 2011
  • The 21st century are seeing a large number of performing arts, and one of them, opera is evolving, transforming itself as one of total arts. Besides, the costume in performing art which play a major role in opera's visual impact, characterize figures, set the tone for performance and greatly contribute to the perfection of the stage. Under these circumstances, the study developed designs of stage costumes and built a full-scale production of the Magic Flute, one of three greatest Mozart operas. The opera based on a fiction, is still popular today since it is a fantastic fairy tale introducing moral and ethical lessons. The play's background itself is Egypt. But due to its fairy-take-like storyline, it has been performed focusing on various concepts rather than on costumes prepared through background research. As such, this study conducted research on designs of stage costumes that contains the element of Egypt and also take athleticism and comfort into consideration. The results derived from the study were as follows. First, traditional dresses of ancient Egypt were used as a basis while adding some modem touch in terms of forms or colors, which resulted in a new design. Second, a variety of images were captured using textures and colors that fit the characteristics of attributes of the figures. Third painting techniques were used to help highlight the symbolic image of Egypt-simple, not heavy and extravagant-with fairy-tale-like fantasy.

Kinds, Abundance and Pathogenicity of Pythium Species Isolated from Maize Rhizosphere of Various Habitats in El-Minia Governorate, Egypt

  • Abdelzaher, Hani M.A.;Shoulkamy, M.A.;Yaser, M.M.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2004
  • A total of 374 Pythium isolates were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere soils of maize plants grown in 100 different agricultural fields in nine provinces at El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Five Pythium spp. of P. deliense, P. graminicola, P. irregulare, P. oligandrum and P. splendens were obtained P. deliense and P. oligandrum were predominant in all of the locations with 48.1% and 41.4% of total counts, respectively. P. graminicola, P. irregulare and P. splendens were not isolated in 4, 2 and 4 provinces out of 9 provinces with 5.3%, 3.5%, and 1.6% of isolation percentage from total counts, respectively. Number of Pythium isolates in each were 34, 31, 34, 33, 34, 96, 37, 37 and 38 out of 374, for locations of El-Edwa, Maghagha, Beni-Mazar, Matai, Samalout, El-Minia city, Abou-Querquas, Mallawi and Der Mawas, respectively. Pre- and post-emergence pathogenicity tests indicated that only P. deliense was highly pathogenic to germinating grains and seedlings of maize whereas P. oligandrum was non-pathogenic.

Studies on Mycological Status of Salted Fish "Moloha" in Upper Egypt

  • Youssef, M.S.;Abo-Dahab, N.F.;Farghaly, R.M.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2003
  • Chemical analysis of salted fish was analyzed in 60 samples collected from various moloha markets in Sohag, Qena and Aswan Governorates, Upper Egypt. Moloha contained 52.9% water content, while organic matter content represented 71.79% of dry weight and 33.81%($338.12{\pm}8.64mg\;g^{-1}$) of fresh weight. Total salts and soluble salts represented 13.29% and 10.19%($132.88{\pm}7.65\;and\;101.93{\pm}5.76mg\;g^{-1}$ of fresh weight), respectively. pH values were more or less neutral. Mycological investigation of examined samples revealed that fifty-five fungal species and one variety belonging to 11 genera were identified. The fungal genera of highest occurrence and their respective number of species were Aspergillus(A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. montevidensis, A. ficuum, A. parasiticus and A. mangini) and Penicillium(P. citrinum, P. puberulum, P. aurantiogriseum and P. roquefortii). On the other hand, yeast represented 18.2% and 3.0% of total counts of fungi on Czapeks-dextrose agar and 15%NaCl-Czapeks-dextrose agar media, respectively. Samples were assayed for potential presence of mycotoxins. Ten out of 60 samples(16.7%) were proved to be toxic. It is the first record of mycotoxins contamination of salted fish in Egypt. The ability of 340 isolates of recovered fungi was screened for production of mycotoxins and extracellular enzymes.

Log-based petrophysical analysis of Khatatba Formation in Shoushan Basin, North Western Desert, Egypt

  • Osli, Liyana Nadiah;Yakub, Nur Yusrina;Shalaby, Mohamed Ragab;Islam, Md. Aminul
    • Geosciences Journal
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1015-1026
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    • 2018
  • This paper aims to investigate the good reservoir quality and hydrocarbon potentiality of the Khatatba Formation, Qasr Field in the Shoushan Basin of the North Western Desert, Egypt by combining results from log-based petrophysical analysis, petrographic description and images from scanning electron microscope (SEM). Promising reservoir units are initially identified and evaluated through well log analysis of three wells in the field of study. Petrophysical results are then compared with petrographic and SEM images from rock samples to identify features that characterize the reservoir quality. Well log results show that Khatatba Formation in the study area has good sandstone reservoir intervals from depths ranging from 12848 ft to 13900 ft, with good effective porosity records of 13-15% and hydrocarbon saturations of greater than 83%. Petrographic analysis of these sandstone reservoir units indicate high concentrations of vacant pore spaces with good permeability that can be easily occupied by hydrocarbon. The availability of these pore spaces are attributed to pore-enhancing diagenetic features, mainly in the form of good primary porosity and dissolution. SEM images and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of hydrocarbon, therefore indicating a good hydrocarbon-storing potential for the Khatatba Formation sandstones.

Opportunistic Parasites among Immunosuppressed Children in Minia District, Egypt

  • Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H.;Ahmad, Azza K.;Ali, Basma A.;Moslam, Fadia A.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2012
  • A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children ($P$<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was $Cryptosporidium$ $parvum$ (60.2%), followed by $Blastocystis$ $hominis$ (12.1%), $Isospora$ $belli$ (9.7%), and $Cyclospora$ $caytenensis$ (7.8%). On the other hand, $Entamoeba$ $histolytica$ (24.6%) and $Giardia$ $lamblia$ (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children.

Genetic Variation and Biological Control of Fusarium graminearum Isolated from Wheat in Assiut-Egypt

  • Mahmoud, Amer F.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.145-156
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    • 2016
  • Fusarium graminearum Schwabe causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and other cereal crops. Twelve isolates of F. graminearum were collected from naturally infected spikes of wheat from Assiut Egypt. These isolates were compared using SRAP. The results indicated distinct genetic groups exist within F. graminearum, and demonstrated that these groups have different biological properties, especially with respect to their pathogenicity on wheat. There were biologically significant differences between the groups; with group (B) isolates being more aggressive towards wheat than groups (A) and (C). Furthermore, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) which isolated from wheat kernels were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. They significantly reduced the growth of F. graminearum colonies in culture. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, highly antagonistic isolates of T. harzianum and B. subtilis were selected, based on their in vitro effectiveness, for greenhouse test. It was revealed that T. harzianum and B. subtilis significantly reduced FHB severity. The obtained results indicated that T. harzianum and B. subtilis are very effective biocontrol agents that offer potential benefit in FHB and should be harnessed for further biocontrol applications. The accurate analysis of genetic variation and studies of population structures have significant implications for understanding the genetic traits and disease control programs in wheat. This is the first known report of the distribution and genetic variation of F. graminearum on wheat spikes in Assiut Egypt.

Characterization of the Heavy Metals Contaminating the River Nile at El-Giza Governorate, Egypt and Their Relative Bioaccumulations in Tilapia nilotica

  • Morgan, Ashraf M.; Shin, Ho-Chul;Aty, A.M. Abd El
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.297-305
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to measure the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu) in water and Bolti fish (Tilapia nilotica) samples collected from Rasheed branch of River Nile, north of El-Giza Governorate, Egypt by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The investigated districts through which the branch passes include El-Manashi, Gezzaya, El Katta, Abo Ghaleb and Wardan. Based on WHO and FAO safety reference standards, the results of the current study showed that water and fish tissues were found to contain heavy metals at significantly variable concentration levels among the investigated districts. They were polluted with respect to all the metals tested at Gezzaya district. However, the levels of analyzed metals in water and fish tissues were found lower than legal limits in other districts. The heavy metals showed differential bioaccumulation in fish tissues of the different districts as the accumulation pattern (as total heavy metal residues) was district dependant as follow: Gezzaya > Wardan > El Katta > Abo Ghaleb > El Manashi.

Wig usage investigation which symbolizes the socio-economic status (Egypt$\sim$17C)

  • Jung, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Sung-Nam
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.56-70
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    • 2005
  • This study investigates historically difference by age of wig banishments that symbolize social-economic status from West Egypt era baroque age as qualitative study that use secondary bibliographic data, there is purpose. Conclusion of this study is as following. Because wig putting on that symbolize among several usages of wig putting on, socio-economic status until 17th century baroque age from ancient Egypt is been in fashion through privilege class lower classes as well as upper class wig putting on attain. Ancient wig putting on became measure that divide class because differ material of wig or one dimension, shape (style) and length became linear measure that it can aim wealth's emblem that putting on of long wave wig and whole wig that differ lust has many wig though was in fashion though whole wig and were in fashion arriving to Renaissance. That it becomes France clean fingernails' necessaries as Louis the 14th that ready crux of absolute authority establishment of France Court put wig from depilation to count 17 was clear socio-economic status etc. symbol measure inclination. Go without question status or position, wealth and churchman puts wig so that can know special sex of weapon of where the soldiers are belonged as well as put wig and wig putting on was parted according to job and lower classes participated in fashion of wig putting on. Wig putting on that become measure that symbolize job or status in this baroque age, position, wealth etc. gave absolute influence in wig fashion in 18th century.

Finding Wolbachia in Filarial larvae and Culicidae Mosquitoes in Upper Egypt Governorate

  • Dyab, Ahmed K.;Galal, Lamia A.;Mahmoud, Abeer E.;Mokhtar, Yasser
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2016
  • Wolbachia is an obligatory intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium, present in over 20% of all insects altering insect reproductive capabilities and in a wide range of filarial worms which is essential for worm survival and reproduction. In Egypt, no available data were found about Wolbachia searching for it in either mosquitoes or filarial worms. Thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of Wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in Assiut Governorate, Egypt using multiplex PCR. Initially, 6 pools were detected positive for Wolbachia by single PCR. The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) by multiplex PCR was spotted in 5 out of 6 pools, with an overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) of 0.24%. Unexpectedly, the highest ERI (0.53%) was for Anopheles pharoensis with related Wolbachia and W. bancrofti, followed by Aedes (0.42%) and Culex (0.26%). We also observed that Wolbachia altered Culex spp. as a primary vector for W. bancrofti to be replaced by Anopheles sp. Wolbachia within filaria-infected mosquitoes in our locality gives a hope to use bacteria as a new control trend simultaneously targeting the vector and filarial parasites.