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Correlation of Preoperative Ki67 and Serum CA15.3 Levels with Outcome in Early Breast Cancers - a Multi Institutional Study

  • Rasmy, A;Abozeed, W;Elsamany, S;El Baiomy, M;Nashwa, A;Amrallah, A;Hasaan, E;Alzahrani, A;Faris, M;Alsaleh, K;AlFaraj, A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3595-3600
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    • 2016
  • Background: To investigate the association between preoperative pathological Ki-67 labeling index and serum tumor marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) with clinic-pathological parameters and treatment outcomes in early breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study at 4 cancer centers in Saudi Arabia and Egypt was performed. Data were collected for female patients diagnosed with unilateral early breast cancer between March 2010 and October 2013. Cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by surgery and radiotherapy were included. NACT included 6-8 cycles of anthracycline and taxane based regimens. Trastuzumab and hormonal treatments were added according to HER2 and hormone receptor status. Baseline serum CA15.3 and pathological Ki67 levels were evaluated and correlated with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 280 pts was included. The median age was 49 years (38-66 y) and median overall survival was 35 (20-38) months (mo). Estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and HER 2 receptors were positive in 233 (83.2%), 198 (70%) and 65 cases (23.2%), respectively. High preoperative Ki67 and CA15.3 were noted in 177 (63.2%) and 131 (46.8%). A total of 45 (16%) patients had distal or local recurrence and 24 (8.6%) died of their disease. Most of the relapsed cases had high preoperative Ki-67 (n=41, 91%) and CA15.3 (n=28, 62%) values. All of the patients who died had a high Ki-67 but CA15.3 was high in 9 (37%) only. Mean DFS/OS in patients with high preoperative Ki-67 was 32 months /32 months as compared to 37 months/35 months in those with normal Ki-67 (p<0.001). Correlation of preoperative CA15.3 and survival was statistically not significant. Conclusions:Preoperative Ki-67 can be a predictive and prognostic marker. Higher levels are associated with poor DFS and OS in patients with early BC.

Investigation of bacteria in the agricultural by-products imported for the use as media materials in mushroom cultivation (버섯재배 배지재료용 수입 농업부산물에서의 세균 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Jun Young;Kim, Susan;Kim, Seong Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.410-419
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    • 2018
  • It is urgently required to construct safety data on agricultural by-products imported for use as medium materials for domestic mushroom production. However, research on microorganisms is insufficient. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of bacteria that have the possibility of harmful effects on human, plants and mushroom in wheat straw, peatmoss, cottonseed hull, cottonseed meal, and beet pulp imported from Australia, Canada, China, Egypt, Germany. Bacteria were found in the range of $1.35{\times}10^2$ to $8.34{\times}10^6CFU/g$. As a result of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, total of 19 genera and 45 species of bacteria were identified. Bacillus genus was dominant, followed by Paenibacillus genus. At the species level, diverse species was in the order of Firmicute, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Regarding the agricultural by-products, straw and peat moss had more diverse bacteria than other agricultural by-products. Among the indentified bacteria, 6 species of 5 genera (Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter ludwigii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas monteilii, Bacillus anthracis, and Cellulosimicrobium funkei) were present as potent harmful bacteria to human. Surprisingly, both the human and plant pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumonia was present. Bacillus altitudinis was present as a plant pathogen. Lysinibacillus sphaericus, an insect pathogen, and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, a mushroom pathogen, were also present. The results of this study confirmed that several kinds of pathogenic bacteria were present in the agricultural by-products for the mushroom cultivation medium imported into Korea. Our work suggests that hygiene inspection and management is urgently needed for imported agricultural by-products to be safely used for mushroom production.

An Investigation of Local Naming Issue of Phoenix dactylifera (대추야자나무(Phoenix dactylifera)의 명칭문제 고찰)

  • Kim, Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.34-44
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    • 2018
  • In the Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judas, Greece, and Rome, Phoenix dactylifera was planted in gardens or orchards to signify life, blessing, and victory. Branches of Phoenix dactylifera, likened to high and precious, were referred to one of the gifts to the king in the second century BC and have been used in the Feast of Tabernacles. And they were engraved on the walls of the temple and along with cherub. Besides, Phoenix dactylifera is compared with a righteous person in the Bible since it grows straight despite strong winds. And, it was used as a symbol of honesty, justice, and right. Churches call the week before Easter Palm Sunday since the crowd laid the leaves of date palm trees on the road and shouted "Hosanna" while waving the date palm branches when Jesus entered Jerusalem. Moreover, pilgrim in the Middle Ages was called 'Palmer' in English due to custom of returning with the leaves and branches of date palm trees as a memorial of the Holy Land pilgrimage. This study analyzes naming issue of Phoenix dactylifera through the old literature and 27 versions of the most influential Bibles in History of Bible Translation in Korea, China, and Japan. Phoenix dactylifera is translated into Chinese as '棕櫚(Trachycarpus fortunei)', a native tree of China. 棕櫚 is similar to Phoenix dactylifera, but its fruit and leaf are quite distinct. This being so, translating Phoenix dactylifera as 棕櫚 has a limit to convey symbolic meaning adequately. In the Japanese Bible, on the other hand, Phoenix dactylifera is translated as 'なつめやし(Natsumeyashi)' meant date palm tree. Most of Protestant Bible in Korea use 'Jongryeo' like Chinese Bible while translation in Korean Catholic Bible(2005) varies from one scripture to another: 'Yaja Namu (Palm Tree)' - 38 times, 'Jongryeo Namu' - 5 times, and 'Daechu Yaja Namu (Date Palm Tree)' - 3 times. Date Palm Tree, 'Jongryeo Tree', and Palm Tree don't grow in Korea. However, they had long been recognized as Haejo(海棗), Jongryeo(?櫚), and Yaja(椰子) respectively through China and Japan. Each of them called by a distinct name correspond with its own characteristic and used separately in Korean Classics as Jongryeo and Haejo were identified in ancient Chinese literatures. It seems that more confusion was raised since 'Palm' was translated as 'Jongryeo' in several books including "?藤和英大辭典 (1915)", "Modern 朝鮮外來語辭典(1938)", and "Latin-Korean Dictionary(1995)". However, the Latin term 'Palmae' is translated into English as either palm tree or date palm. The results of this study suggest that more accurate translation of Phoenix dactylifera in the Bible would be 'Daechu Yaja Namu (Date Palm Tree)' and using different name fit for its own characteristic would be more appropriate.

"A Study on Hebrews Clothing in the Old Testament" - Especially on Hair Styles, Headgears, Footwear and Personal Ornaments - (구약성서(舊約聖書)에 나타난 히브리인의 복식(服飾) - 두식(頭飾), 신발 및 장신구(裝身具) 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Park, Chan-Boo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.10
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    • pp.63-80
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    • 1986
  • The Old Testament cotains mention of the history of creation and clothing in ancient Hebrew. This study dealt with Hebrew dress customs especially aimed at the manners of their hair styles, headgears, footwear and personal ornaments. References are Korean Revised Version, English King James Version and Revised Standard Version. There is little mention of hair styles and headgears in the Old Testament. Some sort of turban was worn by priests, and soldiers protected themselves with helmets, but most Israelitish men went bareheaded except on special occasions and often wear simple headbands. It was more common for women to use headwear of some type-turbans, scarves, and veils concealing the face. The veil was the distinctive female wearing apparel. All females, with the exception of maidservants and women in a low condition of life, wore a veil. It was the custom for women to wear a veil entirely covering their head in the public. Through most of the Old Testament periods long and thick hair was admired on men and women alike. The Hebrews were proud to have thick and abundant long hair, and they gave much attention to the care of their hair. The caring of hair was deeply related to their rituals. Nazirites never took a razor to their hair during his vow-days, but instead let it grow long, as an offering to God. Men would not cut their beards, but allow them to grow long. The Israelites' standard footwear was a pair of simple leather sandals. This was one of the items of clothing not highly prized. In a colloquial saying of the time, a pair of shoes signified something of small value, and to be barefoot except in times of mourning or on holy place, was a sign either of extreme poverty or humiliation, as in the case of war prisoners. Because precious stones were not mined in the Palestine-Syria region, Hebrews imported them from foreign country. They were consumer-to a large degree limited by their very modest standard of living-but not producers. Hebrews liked the precious stones and were motivated to acquire and wear jewels. Besides their use for adornment and as gifts, the precious or semiprecious stones were regarded by Jews of property. The Hebrews were not innovators in the field of decorative arts. The prohibition of the Law against making any "graven image" precluded the development of painting, sculpture, and other forms of representational art. Jewish men did not indulge in extravagances of dress, and there was little ornamentation among them. Men wore a signet ring on their right hand or sometimes suspended by a cord or chain around the neck. The necklaces, when worn by a male, also bore any symbol of his authority. Bracelets were extremely popular with both men and women, men usually preferring to wear them on their upper arms. The girdle was a very useful part of a man's clothing. It was used as a waist belt, or used to fasten a man's sword to his body, or served as a pouch in which to keep money and other things. Men often carried a cane or staff, which would be ornamented at the top. Among the women there was more apt to be ornamentation than among the men. Hebrew women liked to deck themselves with jewels, and ornamentation of the bride were specially luxurious and numerous. They wore rings on their fingers or On toes, ankle rings, earrings, nosering, necklace, bracelets. Their shapes were of cresent, waterdrops, scarab, insect, animal or plant. Sometimes those were used as amulets. They were made of ceramics, gold, silver, bronze, iron, and various precious stones which were mostly imported from Egypt and Sinai peninsular. Hebrews were given many religious regulations by Moses Law on their hair, headgears, sandals and ornamentation. Their clothing were deeply related with their customs especially with their religions and rituals. Hebrew religion was of monotheism and of revealed religion. Their religious leaders, the prophets who was inspired by God might need such many religious regulations to lead the idol oriented people to God through them.

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A study on the recent trends of Islamic extremism in Indonesia (인도네시아 이슬람 극단주의 실태 연구)

  • Yun, Min-Woo
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.50
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    • pp.175-206
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    • 2017
  • The current study described the history of Islamic extremism and the recent expansion of international Islamic extremism in Indonesia. For doing so, both content analysis of the existing written documents and qualitative interviews were conducted. For the content analysis, media reports and research articles were collected and utilized. For qualitative interviews, Indonesian students and workers in Korea, Korean spouses married to Indonesian, and Korean missionaries in Indonesia were contacted and interviewed. Qualitative interview was conducted between 30 minutes and 2 hours. On the spot, interviews were recorded and later transcribed into written documents. Due to the difficulty of identification of population and the uneasiness of accessability to th study subjects, convenient sampling and snowball sampling were used. According to the results, Islamic extremism in Indonesia had a deep historical root and generally shared similar historical experience with other muslim countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia where Islamic extremism was deeply rooted in. That is, Islamic extremism began as a reaction to the western imperialism, after independence, Islamic extremism elements were marginalized in the process of construction of the modern nation-state, and Islamic extremist movement was radicalized and became violent during the Soviet-Afghan War. In addition, after 9.11, Islamic extremism in Indonesia was connected to international Islamic extremism network and integrated into such global movement. Such a historical development of Indonesian Islamic extremism was quite organized and robust. Meanwhile, the eastward infiltration and expansion of international Islamic extremism such as IS and Al Qaeda was observed in Indonesia. Particularly, such a worrisome expansion was more clearly visible in the marginalized and underdeveloped countrysides in Indonesia. Such expansion in Indonesia could negatively affect on the security of South Korea. Geographically, Indonesia is proximate to South Korea. This geographical proximity could be a direct security threat to the Korean society, as if Islamic extremism in North Africa and Middle East becomes a direct security threat to Europe. Considering the presence of a large size of Indonesian immigrant workers and communities in South Korea, such a concern is very realistic. The arrest of an Indonesian Islamic extremism supporter in November, 2016, could be a harbinger of the coming trend of Islamic extremism expansion inside South Korea. The Indonesian Islamic community in South Korea could be a passage of Indonesian Islamic extremism into the South Korean society. In this context, it is timely and necessary to pay an attention to the recent trend of Islamic extremism expansion in Indonesia.

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Study for making movie poster applied Augmented Reality (증강현실 영화포스터 제작연구)

  • Lee, Ki Ho
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.359-383
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    • 2017
  • 3,000 years ago, since the first poster of humanity appeared in Egypt, the invention of printing technique and the development of civilization have accelerated the poster production technology. In keeping with this, the expression of poster has also been developed as an attempt to express artistic sensibility in a simple arrangement of characters, and now it has become an art form that has become a domain of professional designers. However, the technological development in the expression of poster is keep staying in two-dimensional, and is dependent on printing only that it is irrelevant to the change of ICT environment based on modern multimedia. Especially, among the many kinds of posters, the style of movie posters, which are the only objects for video, are still printed on paper, and many attempts have been made so far, but the movie industry still does not consider ICT integration at all. This study started with the feature that the object of the movie poster dealt with the video and attempted to introduce the augmented reality to apply the dynamic image of the movie to the static poster. In the graduation work of the media design major of a university in Korea, the poster of each works for promoting the visual work of the students was designed and printed in the form of a commercial film poster. Among them, 6 artworks that are considered to be suitable for augmented reality were selected and augmented reality was introduced and exhibited. Content that appears matched to the poster through the mobile device is reproduced on a poster of a scene of the video, but the text informations of the original poster are kept as they are, so that is able to build a moving poster looked like a wanted from the movie "Harry Potter". In order to produce this augmented reality poster, we applied augmented reality to posters of existing commercial films produced in two different formats, and found a way to increase the characteristics of AR contents. Through this, we were able to understand poster design suitable for AR representation, and technical expression for stable operation of augmented reality can be summarized in the matching process of augmented reality contents production.

Microbe Hunting: A Curious Case of Cryptococcus

  • Bartlett, Karen H.;Kidd, Sarah;Duncan, Colleen;Chow, Yat;Bach, Paxton;Mak, Sunny;MacDougall, Laura;Fyfe, Murray
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.45-72
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    • 2005
  • C. neoformans-associated cryptococcosis is primarily a disease of immunocompromised persons, has a world-wide distribution, and is often spread by pigeons in the urban environment. In contrast, C. gattii causes infection in normal hosts, has only been described in tropical and semi-tropical areas of the world, and has a unique niche in river gum Eucalyptus trees. Cryptococcosis is acquired through inhalation of the yeast propagules from the environment. C. gattii has been identified as the cause of an emerging infectious disease centered on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. No cases of C. gattii-disease were diagnosed prior to 1999; the current incidence rate is 36 cases per million population. A search was initiated in 2001 to find the ecological niche of this basidiomycetous yeast. C. gaftii was found in the environment in treed areas of Vancouver Island. The highest percentage of colonized-tree clusters were found around central Vancouver Island, with decreasing rates of colonization to the north and south. Climate, soil and vegetation cover of this area, called the Coastal Douglas fir biogeoclimatic zone, is unique to British Columbia and Canada. The concentration of airborne C. gattii was highest in the dry summer months, and lowest during late fall, winter, and early spring, months which have heavy rainfall. The study of the emerging colonization of this organism and subsequent cases of environmentally acquired disease will be informative in planning public health management of new routes of exposure to exotic agents in areas impacted by changing climate and land use patterns. Cryptococcosis is an infection associated with an encapsulated, basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. The route of entry for this organism is through the lungs, with possible systemic spread via the circulatory system to the brain and meninges. There are four cryptococcal serogroups associated with disease in humans and animals, distinguished by capsular polysaccharide antigens. Cryptococcus neoformans: variety grubii (serotype A), variety neoformans (serotype D), and variety gattii (serotypes B and C) (Franzot et at. 1999). C. neoformans variety gattii has recently been elevated to species status, C. gattii. C. neoformans val. grubii and var. neoformans have a world-wide distribution, and are particularly associated with soil and weathered bird droppings. In contrast, C. gattii (CG) is not associated with bird excrement, is primarily found in tropical and subtropical climates, and has a restricted environmental niche associated with specific tree species. (Ellis & Pfiffer 1990) Ellis and Pfeiffer theorize that, as a basidiomycete, CG requires an association with a tree in order to become pathogenic to mammals. In Australia, CG has been found to be associated with five species of Eucalypts, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. blakelyi, E. gomphocephala, and E. rudis. Eucalypts, although originally native to Australia, now have a world-wide distribution. CG has been found associated with imported eucalypts in India, California, Brazil, and Egypt. In addition, in Brazil and Columbia, where eucalypts have been naturalized, native trees have been shown to harbour CG (Callejas et al. 1998; Montenegro et al. 2000). In British Columbia, Canada, since the beginning of 1999, there have been 120 confirmed cases of cryptococcal mycoses associated with CG in humans, including 4 fatalities (data from British Columbia Centre for Disease Control), and over 200 cases in animal pets in BC (data from Central Laboratory for Veterinarians). What is remarkable about the BC outbreak of C. gattii-cryptococcosis is that all of the cases have been residents of, or visitors to, a narrow area along the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, BC, from the tip of the island in the south (Victoria) to Courtenay on the north-central island as illustrated in Figure 1. Of the first 38 human cases, 58% were male with a mean age of 59.7 years (range 20 - 82): 36 cases (95%) were Caucasian. Ten cases (26%) presented with meningitis, the remainder presented with respiratory symptoms. Cultures recovered from cases of cryptococcosis associated with the outbreak were typed as serogroup B, which is specific to CG (Bartlett et al. 2003). This was the first reported outbreak of CVG in Canada, or indeed, the world. Where infection with CG is endemic, for example, Australia, the incidence of cryptococcosis ranges from 1.8 - 4.7 per million between the southern and northern states (Sorrell 2001). However, the overall incidence of cryptococcosis in immunocompenent individuals has been estimated at 0.2 per million population per year (Kwon-Chung et al. 1984). The population of Vancouver Island is approximately 720,000,consequently, even if the organism were endemic, one would expect a maximum of 0.15 cases of cryptococcal disease annually.

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Serum Beta-2 Microglobulin: a Possible Marker for Disease Progression in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV Related Liver Diseases

  • Ouda, SM;Khairy, AM;Sorour, Ashraf E;Mikhail, Mikhail Nasr
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7825-7829
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    • 2015
  • Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV infection in the world (~14.7%). Around 10-15% of HCV-infected persons will advance to cirrhosis within the first 20 years. The incidence of HCC is expected to grow in the next two decades, largely due to HCV related cirrhosis, and detection of HCC at an early stage is critical for a favorable clinical outcome. No simple reliable non-invasive marker has been available till now. B2M, a non-glycosylated polypeptide composed of 99 amino acids, is one of the components of HLA class I molecules on the surfaces of all nucleated cells. It has been reported that the level of serum B2M is elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HCV-related HCC when compared to HCV-negative patients or healthy donors. Determining the clinical utility of serum B2M as a marker for disease progression in Egyptian patients with HCV related chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was the aim of the present study. Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross sectional study 92 participants were included in 4 equal groups: Group (1) non cirrhotic chronic HCV; Group (2) HCV related liver cirrhosis; Group (3) HCC on top of HCV,; and Group (4) healthy controls. History taking, clinical examination, routine labs and abdominal ultrasound were conducted for all patients, PCR and Metavir scores for group (1) patients, and triphasic CT abdomen and AFP for Group (3) patients. B2M levels were measured in serum with a fully-automated IMX system. Results: The mean serum B2M level of Group (1) was $4.25{\pm}1.48{\mu}g/ml$., Group (2) was $7.48{\pm}3.04$, Group (3) was $6.62{\pm}2.49$ and Group (4) was $1.62{\pm}0.63$. Serum B2M levels were significantly higher in diseased than control group (p<0.01) being significantly higher in cirrhosis ($7.48{\pm}3.04$) and HCC groups ($6.62{\pm}2.49$) than the HCV group ($4.25{\pm}1.48$) (p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between B2M Level and ALK, total and direct bilirubin and INR (p<0.05), and a significant inverse correlation between B2M level and albumin, total proteins, HB andWBCS values (p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between B2M level and viral load or Metavir score, largest tumour size or AFP (p>0.05). The best B2M cut-off for HCV diagnosis was 2.6 with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 97% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. The best B2M cut-off for HCC diagnosis was 4.55 which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive values of 74%, 62%, 39.5, 87.8% respectively (p-value <0.01) while best cut-off for cirrhosis was 4.9, with sensitivity 74 % and specificity 74%.The sensitivity for HCC diagnosis increased upon B2M and AFP combined estimation to 91%, specificity to 79%, NPV to 95% and accuracy to 83%. Conclusions: Serum B2M level is elevated in HCV related chronic liver diseases and may be used as a marker for HCV disease progression towards cirrhosis and carcinoma.

An Investigation of Local Naming Issue of Tamarix aphylla (에셀나무(Tamarix aphylla)의 명칭문제에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.56-67
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    • 2019
  • In order to investigate the issue with the proper name of eshel(Tamarix aphylla) mentioned in the Bible, analysis of morphological taxonomy features of plants, studies on the symbolism of the Tamarix genus, analysis of examples in Korean classics and Chinese classics, and studies on the problems found in translations of Korean, Chinese and Japanese Bibles. The results are as follows. According to plant taxonomy, similar species of the Tamarix genus are differentiated by the leaf and flower, and because the size is very small about 2-4mm, it is difficult to differentiate by the naked eye. However, T. aphylla found in the plains of Israel and T. chinensis of China and Korea have distinctive differences in terms of the shape of the branch that droops and its blooming period. The Tamarix genus is a very precious tree that was planted in royal courtyards of ancient Mesopotamia and the Han(漢) Dynasty of China, and in ancient Egypt, it was said to be a tree that gave life to the dead. In the Bible, it was used as a sign of the covenant that God was with Abraham, and it also symbolized the prophet Samuel and the court of Samuel. When examining the example in Korean classics, the Tamarix genus was used as a common term in the Joseon Dynasty and it was often used as the medical term '$Ch{\bar{e}}ngli{\check{u}}$(檉柳)'. Meanwhile, the term 'wiseonglyu(渭城柳)' was used as a literary term. Upon researching the period and name of literature related to $Ch{\bar{e}}ngli{\check{u}}$(檉柳) among Chinese medicinal herb books, a total of 16 terms were used and among these terms, the term Chuísīliǔ(垂絲柳) used in the Chinese Bible cannot be found. There was no word called 'wiseonglyu(渭城柳)' that originated from the poem by Wang Wei(699-759) of Tang(唐) Dynasty and in fact, the word 'halyu(河柳)' that was related to Zhou(周) China. But when investigating the academic terms of China currently used, the words Chuísīliǔ(垂絲柳) and $Ch{\bar{e}}ngli{\check{u}}$(檉柳) are used equally, and therefore, it appears that the translation of eshel in the Chinese Bible as either Chuísīliǔ (垂絲柳) or $Ch{\bar{e}}ngli{\check{u}}$(檉柳) both appear to be of no issue. There were errors translating tamarix into 'やなぎ(willow)' in the Meiji Testaments(舊新約全書 1887), and translated correctly 'ぎょりゅう(檉柳)' since the Colloquial Japanese Bible(口語譯 聖書 1955). However, there are claims that 'gyoryu(ぎょりゅう 檉柳)' is not an indigenous species but an exotics species in the Edo Period, so it is necessary to reconsider the terminology. As apparent in the Korean classics examples analysis, there is high possibility that Korea's T. chinensis were grown in the Korean Peninsula for medicinal and gardening purposes. Therefore, the use of the medicinal term $Ch{\bar{e}}ngli{\check{u}}$(檉柳) or literary term 'wiseonglyu' in the Korean Bible may not be a big issue. However, the term 'wiseonglyu' is used very rarely even in China and as this may be connected to the admiration of China and Chinese things by literary persons of the Joseon Dynasty, so the use of this term should be reviewed carefully. Therefore, rather than using terms that may be of issue in the Bible, it is more feasible to transliterate the Hebrew word and call it eshel.

Global Charity Operations of Cleft Lip and Palate by Korean Cleft Lip and Palate Association ; Charity Operations in Kenya, east Africa (대한구순구개열학회의 글로벌 자선 수술 활동 : 케냐에서의 자선 수술 활동)

  • Choung, Pill-Hoon;Park, Joo-Young;Park, Joo-Young;Ahn, Kang-Min;Baek, Jin-Woo;Cho, Il-Hwan;Choi, Cheol-Min;Choi, Seon-Hyu;Chung, Il-Hyuk;Gao, En-Feng;Hong, Jong-Rak;Hyun, Seung-Don;Jang, Hyon-Seok;Jun, Sang-Ho;Jung, Sung-Uk;Kang, Na-Ra;Kang, Young-Ho;Kim, Byung-Ryul;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Seok;Kim, Ho-Sung;Kim, In-Soo;Kim, Ji-Hyuck;Kim, Jong-Ryoul;Kim, Joong-Min;Kim, Myung-Jin;Kim, Soung-Min;Ko, Bong-Hwa;Koh, Sung-Hee;Lee, Bu-Kyu;Lee, Eui-Seok;Lee, Jong-Ho;Lee, Ui-Lyong;Lee, Won;Lee, Won-Deok;Min, Byong-Il;Nam, Il-Woo;Paeng, Jun-Young;Park, Jong-Chul;Park, Jung-Seok;Park, Sung-Hee;Park, Young-Wook;Pyo, Sung-Woon;Rim, Chae-Hong;Rim, Jae-Suk;Seo, Byoung-Moo;Suh, Je-Duck;Yoon, Jeong-Ho;Yoon, Jung-Ju;Yun, Hyung-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Cleft Lip And Palate
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2006
  • Korean Cleft Lip and Palate Association (KCLPA) was founded in 1996. The first overseas charity operation was in Karachi, Pakistan, 2002 and our association has visited fourteen times in six countries for the free cleft surgery: Pakistan, Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Jordan and Vietnam. The cumulated number of operated patients reaches to 280. Before our association, many Korean oral and maxillofacial surgeons have performed charity operations individually since 1964. It was started from Vietnam but the activity is now carried on in Africa, middle-east Asia, south-east Asia, China, and Korea as an official team. LG electronics, a Korean company helped to propagate our team's activity to middle-east Asia to Africa. This paper is a report concerning about the results of our association's charity activities especially in Kenya, east Africa. We provided free cleft surgery for 30 patients in 2004 and 27 patients in 2005, in Nairobi. As the blood test for HIV of the cleft patients was not allowed before and during surgery, our surgeons and nurses were cautious about every movement during the surgeries. Thus the operation time for each patient was longer than any other time. The attitude of the local hospital and the doctors seemed to be accustomed to this situation. They helped us in case of needle injuries. Safety of medical staff and patients is more important than the number of the patients operated in charity operation. This belief should be approached being parallel and multidisciplinary as an international cooperation, focusing on international funding for medical support and continuous education for local doctors who are willing to devote to their people.

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