• Title, Summary, Keyword: Egg Quality

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Evaluation of Egg Quality Traits in the Wholesale Market in Sri Lanka during the Storage Period

  • Jayasena, Dinesh D.;Cyril, Hewa W.;Jo, Cheorun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to assess the external and internal quality traits of eggs in wholesale egg market in Colombo, Sri Lanka and the effect of storage period in egg quality traits in the same market after receiving the eggs. First, a total of 482 fresh eggs were randomly collected from the above market and external egg quality traits were determined and recorded according to the definitions given in the Specification for Chicken Egg SLS 959:1992. After that, a total of 288 fresh eggs were randomly collected and various external and internal egg quality traits were measured and recorded according to the standard procedures over a storage period of 1, 3 and 5 d after receiving the fresh eggs to the wholesale market. Information about the shops was also collected using a pretested questionnaire. Using the recorded data, shape index, Haugh unit, albumen index and yolk index were calculated for each egg. Average weight, width, length and shape index of the eggs in the sample was 59.96 g, 4.33 cm, 5.78 cm and 75.03, respectively. Average shape index value was much closer to the standard value of 74. From the total sample 80.5% eggs had a normal and sound shape. However only 60.37% of the eggs are in the desirable quality range specified in SLS 959:1992, when the overall shell quality of the sample is considered based on shell cleanliness, defects and shape. The results of the current study indicated that eggs had significant (p<0.05) deterioration of all internal quality parameters tested with increasing storage time. However the effect was not significant (p>0.05) between the storage periods of 3 and 5 d after receiving eggs except for yolk color and yolk height. Desirable category of eggs had reduced and rejections had increased with the storage period. Main problems associated with the particular market were less space availability, higher percentages of dirty eggs, unavailability of proper packaging materials, no standard packaging system for eggs, and not implementing a standard grading system for eggs. Therefore the results of this study suggest that proper egg handling and storage conditions such as low temperature storage may be implemented to increase the proportion of desirable quality eggs in the above market.

Effect of Supplmental Lactobacillus on Laying Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Egg Quality (유산균의 첨가 급여가 산란 생산성, 소화기관 미생물 변화 및 계란 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;박수영;유동조;이상진;강보석;최철환;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2000
  • A feeding trial was carried out effect of supplemental Lactobacillus on productivity, egg quality and intestinal microflora in 320 21 weeks - old laying hens for 12 week. Supplemented Lactobacillus strains were Lactobacillus amylovorus LLA7(LA), Lactobacillus crispatus LLA9(LC) and Lactobacillus vaginalis LLA11(LV). Three strains mixed to basal diet which containing 2,800㎉/kg ME, 16% CP with none, LA, LC, LV, LA+LC, LA+LV, LC+LV and LC+LC+LV. Supplemental level was 10(sup)7 cfu/g diet. Egg production was tended to increase with adding Lactobacilus, but not difference significantly. Average egg weight was heavier in adding Lactobacillrs compared to the none, and heaviest in LA+LV, LC+LV(P〈0.05). In periodic observation, the gap of egg weight with adding Lactobacillus or not was severe persisting laying periods. The diet containg MC or LV was better than LA, which means the difference by Lactobacillus strains for egg weight. Daily egg mass also increased in adding Lactobacillus about 1.1 to 2.3 g/hen, but not difference significantly. Feed intake and feed conversion were not difference regardless Lactobacillus strains and laying periods. Haugh unit improved with adding Lactobacillus. Cecal Lactobacillus spp. was increased with adding Lactobacillus(P〈0.05), didn't observed E. coli depression. In summary, supplemental Lactobacillus could improve for egg production, egg weight, egg mass and egg white. And those of effect expect much beneficial with mixing Lactobacillus which established well as single strain.

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Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

  • Park, J.H.;Upadhaya, S.D.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2015
  • Two hundred and sixteen Institut de S$\acute{e}$lection Animale (ISA) brown layers (40 wks of age) were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP) on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON (basal diet), ii) 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder), and iii) 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder). From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034); however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05). Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively). Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044). Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05). Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.

Influence of Energy Level and Glycine Supplementation on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

  • Han, Yung-Keun;Thacker, Philip A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1447-1455
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    • 2011
  • Sixty four, 30-week-old, Lohmann Brown-Lite laying hens were randomly allocated to one of four treatments with eight replicates per treatment and two hens per replicate for a 10 week study. The control diet was a high energy (11.81 MJ/kg) diet and the moderate energy (11.39 MJ/kg) diets were formulated dropping the level of animal fat. The three moderate energy diets were fed either unsupplemented (0.0%) or supplemented with 0.05 or 0.10% glycine. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion between birds fed the unsupplemented moderate energy and high energy diets. Significant differences were detected concerning egg components and quality measurements as assessed by albumen percentage (p = 0.02), yolk weight (p = 0.02), yolk percentage (p<0.01), yolk to albumen ratio (p<0.01) and yolk color (p = 0.01) between birds fed the unsupplemented moderate and high energy diets. Glycine supplementation of the moderate energy diet linearly increased (p<0.01) egg weight and feed intake with no significant (p>0.05) effects on egg production or feed conversion. Glycine supplementation significantly increased egg content (p<0.01), albumen weight (p<0.01) and percentage (p<0.01) as well as yolk weight (p<0.01) while yolk percentage (p = 0.04), yolk to albumen ratio (p = 0.01) and egg shell percentage (p<0.01) were linearly decreased. Supplementation with glycine produced a tendency (p = 0.09) towards an increase in the percentage of large eggs (63-72.9 g) produced with a concomitant decrease in the percentage of small (below 53 g) eggs (p = 0.09). The overall results of this study indicate that glycine supplementation of laying hen rations has the potential to increase egg production and weight. These increases appeared to be mediated through increases in feed intake and the ileal digestibility of fat and energy.

Effect of Cool Drinking Water on Production and Shell Quality of Laying Hens in Summer

  • Glatz, P.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.850-854
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    • 2001
  • Feed intake, egg weight, rate of lay and shell quality characteristics were measured in an Australian tinted egg laying strain from 31-42 weeks of age, housed at $30^{\circ}C$ and provided drinking water at 5, 10, 17 and $30^{\circ}C$. In a second experiment a European brown egg laying strain (59-66 weeks of age) housed at $30^{\circ}C$ were provided drinking water at 5, 10, 15 and $30^{\circ}C$. Brown egg layers given cool drinking water (5, 10 and $15^{\circ}C$) consumed more (p<0.05) feed and produced significantly (p<0.05) thicker and heavier shells than hens given drinking water at ambient temperature ($30^{\circ}C$). However the tinted egg layers given chilled drinking water only consumed more (p<0.05) feed and produced thicker (p<0.05) and heavier (p<0.05) shells when consuming drinking water at $5^{\circ}C$. As the tinted egg layers acclimatised to the environmental temperature there was a decline in the influence of cool drinking water on feed intake and shell quality. For brown egg layers, however, cool drinking water resulted in an improvement (p<0.05) in feed intake and shell quality over the entire period birds were provided cool water. These studies suggest that there is potential for using cool drinking water to improve feed intake and shell quality of hens housed under hot conditions. The combination of high ambient temperature and high drinking water temperature, a common occurrence in Australian layer sheds, should be avoided.

Effects of Chito-oligosaccharide Supplementation on Egg Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Egg Quality and Blood Profiles in Laying Hens

  • Meng, Q.W.;Yan, L.;Ao, X.;Jang, H.D.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1476-1481
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with chito-oligosccharide (COS) on egg production, nutrient digestibility, egg quality and blood profiles in laying hens. A total of 240 Hy-line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the following 5 dietary treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) ANT, basal diet+44 mg/kg avilamycin; iii) COS0.2, basal diet+200 mg/kg COS; iv) COS0.4, basal diet+400 mg/kg COS; v) ANTCOS, basal diet+200 mg/kg COS+22 mg/kg avilamycin. The experiment lasted for 6 wk. No change in egg weight (p>0.05) was observed during the trial period. Egg production in ANTCOS treatment was improved (p<0.05) when compared to CON during weeks 4-6. The birds in the COS0.2, COS0.4 and ANTCOS groups had higher (p<0.05) Haugh unit than those fed CON and ANT diets at the end of the $6^{th}$ wk. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen in CON group was lower (p<0.05) than in other treatments. The white blood cell (WBC) concentration of birds in the COS0.4 and ANTCOS group was higher (p<0.05) than that of birds in other groups at the end of the $6^{th}$ wk. In addition, the differences of WBC counts between the beginning and end of the experiment in COS0.4 and ANTCOS groups were higher (p<0.05) than in CON and ANT groups. At the end of the experiment, the birds fed ANTCOS diet showed higher (p<0.05) total blood protein concentration than those fed CON or ANT diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of COS appeared to increase egg production and quality by increasing nutrient digestibility. Additionally, COS improved WBC and total protein concentration.

Egg Quality and Amino Acid Composition of Fertilized Eggs of Sevenband Grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus per Farming Condition (사육조건에 따른 능성어, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, 수정란의 난질 및 아미노산 조성)

  • Kim, Kyong Min;Cho, Jae Kwon;Park, Jong Youn;Son, Maeng Hyun;Park, Jae Min;Han, Kyeong Ho;Hong, Chang Gi
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.229-238
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to investigate egg quality and amino acid composition of buoyant and non-buoyant eggs and evaluate egg quality of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus. Amino acid analysis of eggs was conducted to investigate what elements were necessary for the survival and good quality of egg depending on farming condition and different diet. We analyzed amino acid from buoyant eggs and non-buoyant eggs, farming conditions (tank and sea cage), and different dietary conditions (formulated feed, formulated feed+raw fish-based moist pellets, and raw fish-based moist pellets). Egg quality was the best in a sea cage and when raw fish-based moist pellets (MP) were fed. In addition, egg quality with formulated and MP was better than that with formulated feed. As a result of amino acid analysis of eggs, buoyant eggs were containing more free amino acid than non-buoyant eggs. Also, eggs with MP were containing more free amino acid than those with formulated feed and MP. Eggs with mixed formulated feed and MP were containing more free amino acid than formulated feed. In conclusion, amino acid was helpful to improve egg quality, and egg quality can be controlled by farming conditions and feed.

Effects of Taurine Supplementation on the Egg Production and Quality in Laying Hen (타우린 첨가가 산란계의 난 생산성 및 난질에 미치는 영향)

  • 김정학;심관섭;박강희
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of taurine supplementation on the egg production and egg quality in laying hen. In experiment 1, 19-wk-old laying hens were allowed one of four taurine supplemented diets (0 (control), 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2% taurine) for 10 weeks. The mean egg weight was lower about 1.2g in the 0.8% diet compared to the control. Egg production rate, egg mass, and feed intake in layers fed with 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2% taurine supplemented diets decreased by 8%∼24%, 3%∼l4% and 11%∼l5%, respectively, relative to the control. However, the feed conversion, parameters of egg quality, and the concentration of triacylglycerol and the level of cholesterol in yolk were not different among the treatments. In experiment 2, 81-wk-old laying hens were allocated one of three taurine supplemented diets(0 (control), 1 and 2% taurine) for 6 weeks. The egg weight, egg production rate, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion, parameters of egg quality, and level of yolk cholesterol were not different among the treatments, but the concentration of triacylglycerol in yolk was higher by 14%∼19% compared to the control. In conclusion, these results indicated that taurine supplementation in early laying stage of layers decreased hen performance.

Evaluation of Dietary Supplementation of Delta-aminolevulinic Acid and Chito-oligosaccharide on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Hematological Characteristics in Laying Hens

  • Yan, L.;Lee, J.H.;Meng, Q.W.;Ao, X.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1028-1033
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    • 2010
  • The effects of delta-aminolevulinic acid (DALA) or chito-oligosaccharide (COS) in layer diets on production performance, egg quality and hematological characteristics were investigated in this 8-week trial. Two hundred and seventy 27-week-old (Hy-Line brown) layers were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 9 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were i) Control (basal diet); ii) DALA1 (basal diet+DALA 2 mg/kg); iii) DALA2 (basal diet+DALA 4 mg/kg); iv) COS1 (basal diet+COS 100 mg/kg) and v) COS2 (basal diet+COS 200 mg/kg). In this study, no significant difference was observed in feed intake and egg shell quality (eggshell breaking strength and egg shell thickness) among treatments. The inclusion of DALA increased egg production during the first 4 weeks. Egg weight was increased in both DALA (quadratic, p<0.05) and COS (linear, p<0.05) treatments compared with the control treatment. Laying hens fed the DALA treatment had an increased yolk color unit (quadratic, p<0.05) and haugh unit (linear, p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similarly, these characteristics were also affected by COS treatments, with both values being linearly increased (p<0.05) in COS treatments compared with the control treatment. Additionally, birds fed DALA treatments significantly increased (quadratic, p<0.05) the number of RBC, WBC and lymphocytes compared with the control treatment. Dietary DALA supplementation linearly increased (p<0.05) the serum iron concentration at the end of the 8th week. The inclusion of COS increased (linear, p<0.05) the concentration of RBC, WBC and lymphocytes compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, dietary DALA at the lower dosage (2 mg/kg) could exert better effects in laying hens than higher dosage (4 mg/kg). Birds fed DALA supplemented diet had an increased iron availability, egg weight, eggshell quality and immunity. Moreover, the inclusion of COS (200 mg/kg) can increase egg weight, eggshell quality and immunity in laying hens. Therefore, both the utilization of COS and DALA could be considered as a new strategy for optimizing egg quality and health condition of laying hens.

Effect of Substitution of Groundnut with Soybean Meal at Varying Fish Meal and Protein Levels on Performance and Egg Quality of Layer Chickens

  • Naulia, Uma;Singh, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1617-1621
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    • 2002
  • Two hundred and sixteen single comb white egg layers of the White Leghorn hens of 24 weeks of age were randomly allocated to 12 groups with three replications of six hens in each. Hens were fed in a factorial arrangement 2${\times}3{\times}$2, on diets containing either 16 or 18% crude protein with 0, 3 or 6% fish meal, replacing groundnut meal with soybean meal. Soybean meal incorporation improved (p<0.05) egg production, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and egg weights. Egg quality traits of specific gravity, shape index, albumen index, yolk index and shell thickness remained unchanged. Laying performance was significantly (p<0.05) better at 18% than on 16% dietary protein level. Use of fish meal linearly improved egg production and feed conversion efficiency on diets supplemented with groundnut meal and fish meal incorporation showed quadratic improvement on feed conversion efficiency with SBM diets at 16% dietary protein level. Therefore, use of soybean meal as substitute of groundnut meal is recommended in layer diets, at 16% dietary protein level and fish meal incorporation could be beneficial for layers.