• Title, Summary, Keyword: Egg Quality

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Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Pickled Hen Egg and Its Calcium Content and Antioxidative Activity

  • Jang, Aera;Nam, Ki-Chang;Liu, Xian-De;Lee, Moo-Ha;Kim, Dong-Ho;Jo, Cheor-Un
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.996-1002
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    • 2008
  • Pickled hen egg dipped in brewed apple vinegar for 7 and 14 days was prepared and changes of weight, pH, viscosity, calcium content, antioxidative effect, and sensory characteristics were determined. During a pickling, the egg weight was increased from 62.03 g at day 0 to 91.13 and 94.93 g at day 7 and 14, respectively. The pH of the egg white and yolk, initially at pH 10.24 and 6.56, was decreased, while that of the pickling solution was increased by the pickling days. Viscosity of the pickled egg white was significantly decreased with the pickling days (p<0.05). Significant antioxidative effect was found from the pickled egg mixture (egg white:yolk=1:1). Calcium content of the egg white after 7 and 14 days of the pickling was 280-300 times higher than the fresh egg white and 1.9 times higher than fresh egg yolk. Addition of plain yogurt and honey improved the sensory quality of a pickled egg and was able to mask the unpleasant sour taste. Results suggest that, in addition to the use of pickled egg by itself, egg-based foods such as mayonnaise with enforced calcium content can be developed using a pickled egg.

Effect of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seed Supplementation on Egg Quality and Cholesterol of Rhode Island Red×Fayoumi Laying Hens

  • Chand, Naila;Naz, Shabana;Irfan, Muhammad;Khan, Rifat Ullah;Rehman, Zia ur
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.468-475
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    • 2018
  • The present trial was carried out to study the effect of sea buckthorn seed supplementation on egg quality of laying birds. A total of 160 Rhode Island Red${\times}$Fayoumi layers was divided into four groups of 40 birds each, which was further replicated four times with 10 hens per replicate. Group one was kept as a control, while other three groups were supplemented with sea buckthorn seed powder at a dose rate of 1 (T1), 2 (T2) and 3 (T3) g/kg of feed. The results showed that egg production was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 at the end of the study. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) high in T2 and T3 during week 39 and 40. Egg yolk weight was significantly (p<0.05) in T3 compared to the control. Significantly (p<0.01) lower egg cholesterol was recorded in T2 and T3. From the results of the present study, we concluded that laying hens supplemented with sea buckthorn at the rate of 2 and 3 g/kg improved the egg quality parameters and egg cholesterol.

Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Pathogen Inactivation, Quality, and Functional Properties of Shell Egg during Ambient Storage

  • Kim, Hyun-Joo;Yun, Hye-Jeong;Jung, Samooel;Jung, Yeon-Kuk;Kim, Kee-Hyuk;Lee, Ju-Woon;Jo, Cheor-Un
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.603-608
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the effects of electron beam irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs during storage. A 1st grade 1-d-old egg was subjected to electron beam irradiation at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy, after which the number of total aerobic bacteria, reduction of inoculated Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, egg quality, and functional properties were measured. Electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy reduced the number of E. coli and S. Typhimurium cells to a level below the detection limit (<$10^2$ CFU/g) after 7 and 14 d of storage. Egg freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of Haugh units was significantly reduced by 1-kGy irradiation. The viscosity of irradiated egg white was also significantly decreased by increased irradiation, whereas its foaming ability was increased. Electron beam irradiation also increased lipid oxidation in egg yolks. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation reduces the freshness of shell eggs while increasing the oxidation of egg yolk and improving important functional properties such as foaming capacity. Electron beam irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process since the irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency.

Effect of Partial Replacement of Soybean and Corn with Dietary Chickpea (Raw, Autoclaved, or Microwaved) on Production Performance of Laying Quails and Egg Quality

  • Sengul, Ahmet Yusuf;Calislar, Suleyman
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.323-337
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate whether adding different levels of raw or differently processed chickpea into different diets of laying quails affected live weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg weight and internal and external egg quality. Chickpea was used as raw, autoclaved or microwave-processed, and it was involved in the diets on two different levels (20% and 40%). The sample was divided into 7 groups including the control, 20% and 40% raw, 20% and 40% autoclaved, and 20% and 40% microwave-processed groups. 336 ten-week-old female laying quails were used in the study, and the experiment continued for 19 weeks. In the study, the differences among the groups were insignificant in terms of live weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg weight and egg quality characteristics such as shell thickness, shell weight, yolk weight, yolk color and albumin index. The differences were significant in terms of the shape index, Haugh unit (p<0.05) and yolk index (p<0.01). Consequently, it was observed that different thermal processes on chickpeas did not usually have a significant effect on the yield performance of the quails, and the results that were obtained were similar to the other groups. However, it was determined that some egg quality characteristics were affected by the autoclaving and microwaving processes. Between the thermal processes, it may be stated that autoclaving provided better results.

The Effect of Hen Age on Egg Quality in Commercial Layer (실용산란계의 산란연령이 계란의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Min Hee;Cho, Eun Jung;Choi, Eun Sik;Bang, Min Hee;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 2016
  • Egg quality is a very important factor for both consumers and producers. Factors affecting egg quality include strain and age of hens; egg storage temperature, time, and humidity; laying season; and feeding. This study aimed to determine the effect of hen age and egg storage time on egg quality. A total of 700 eggs obtained from Hyline Brown commercial layers were used for this experiment, and they were separated into two hen age groups (30 vs. 60 weeks) with eight treatments and four storage times (day 0, 10, 20, and 30). The egg weight; shell color, thickness, and density; albumen height; Haugh unit (HU); yolk color; and the yolk and albumen pH and viscosity were measured for the egg quality assessment. The results showed that the age of the hen and egg storage time significantly affected almost all parameters of the internal and external egg quality. The shell thickness, albumen height, HU, yolk color, pH of yolk and albumen, and yolk viscosity significantly decreased with increasing hen age. The egg shell color was significantly lighter in eggs from 60-week-old hens than in those from 30 weeks-old hens. The egg weight; shell weight, thickness, and density; albumen height, HU; and albumen viscosity significantly decreased, but the yolk color and pH of the yolk and albumen increased with increasing egg storage time. The interaction effects between the storage time and hen age were significant in shell thickness, albumen height, yolk color, and yolk and albumen pH and viscosity. The eggs obtained from 60-week-old hens showed significantly lower shell thickness, albumen height, and HU values, which are considered typical egg quality measurements, than values of eggs from 30-week-old hens. Therefore, increasing hen age and egg storage time caused the deterioration of egg quality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that hen age is the major factor affecting the quality of fresh eggs, whereas the storage time is the determinant factor affecting the quality of stored eggs.

The Dietary Effects of Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

  • Zheng, L.;Oh, S.T.;Jeon, J.Y.;Moon, B.H.;Kwon, H.S.;Lim, S.U.;An, B.K.;Kang, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.261-266
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    • 2012
  • Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT$^{(R)}$ was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108), 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT$^{(R)}$ at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT$^{(R)}$ supplementation (p<0.05), although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001) and Haugh unit (p<0.01) improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT$^{(R)}$. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT$^{(R)}$ (p<0.05). The supplemental CBT$^{(R)}$ resulted in linear (p<0.001) and quadratic (p<0.01) response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora.

Changes of egg Quality according to eggshell treatment and storage condition (계란의 난각 처리와 보관 방법에 따른 품질 변화)

  • Lee Sung-Mo;Hong Chong-Hae
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.225-234
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    • 2005
  • Egg has been considered as one of the most important food sources in both nutritionally and economically. However, because the hazards of egg flow chains' complexity from producers to consumers and the insufficiency of cold chain systems in Korea are still remained, preventive measures for egg safety should be established. This experiment was carried out to investigate the changes of egg qualify during storage in order to find out the proper storage condition and eggshell treatment. Eggs were stored at cold condition $(5^{\circ}C,\;relative\;humidity;\;RH:\;65\pm3\%)$ and room Condition $(1st: Sep\; 6\~Nov\; 15,\;2001,\; 10\~30^{\circ}C,\;RH\;41\~86\%,\;2nd;\; Dec\;13,\;2001\~Feb\;21,\;2002,\;4\~23^{\circ}C,\;RH\;36\~89\%)$ after eggshell treatment (unwashed, washed and coated egg) during'10 weeks and examined weight loss and interior quality periodically. Weight loss was in decreasing order room washed > room unwashed > cold washed > cold unwashed > room coated > cold coated egg. And, Haugh unit was decreasing order room washed > room unwashed > room coated > cold washed > cold unwashed > cold coated egg. Our findings show that both coated eggs and refrigeration reduces the rate of decline in Haugh units and egg weight. And, washed eggs had lower average Haugh units and a higher weight loss than any of the eggshell treatment in both storage conditions. Conclusively, for washing eggshell, 150 ppm of sodium hypochlorite, regular exchange and temperature control of water should be consistent and also eggs should be dried immediately after washing. Also, national guidelines for temperature and moisture of storage places, transportation and expiration data should be established to keep quality and weight loss of eggs. Storage temperature that is a critical factor in the quality and safety of eggs should be kept under 12'c and labelling of expiration date should be obligatory.

Evaluating the Effects of Salicornia Extract on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Profile of Laying Hens

  • Mohammadi, Mohsen;Li, Hanlin;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2015
  • The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Salicornia extract to the drinking water on the performance, egg quality, and blood profile of laying hens. A total of 216 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 40 weeks of age were used in a 10-week experiment. The birds were allotted into three experimental treatments with three replications per treatment and 24 birds per replication. The treatments were CON (basal diet), T1 (1 cc of Salicornia extract per liter of drinking water), and T2 (5 cc of Salicornia extract per liter of drinking water). The collected data were analyzed using the SAS package program. The results indicated that addition of Salicornia extract to the drinking water of laying hens did not cause any negative effects on the performance, egg quality, or blood profile. Compared to the control treatment, the treatments with Salicornia extract remarkably increased egg production (P<0.05) in the last week of the study, improved egg shell thickness and significantly reduced the egg breaking rate (P<0.05). The results of this study showed that the addition of Salicornia extract improved egg shell quality; thus, Salicornia extract can decrease the egg breaking rate and increase production on commercial farms.

Garlic (Allium sativum) Supplementation: Influence on Egg Production, Quality, and Yolk Cholesterol Level in Layer Hens

  • Mahmoud, Kamel Z.;Gharaibeh, Saad M.;Zakaria, Hana A.;Qatramiz, Amer M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1503-1509
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    • 2010
  • Forty-eight 40-wk-old Hi-sex laying hens were individually caged in an environmentally controlled house to evaluate the effect of garlic (Allium Sativum) juice administration on egg production, egg quality, and yolk cholesterol. Garlic juice was prepared by blending pealed garlic cloves with distilled water (1:1, w/w). Hens were randomly divided into four equal groups; one served as a control and the other three groups were individually gavaged, 3.75 ml, 7.5 ml, or 15 ml garlic juice, three times a week, which respectively represented 0.25, 0.50 and 1% of body weight. Egg production was recorded on a daily basis; egg weight, albumen height, albumen and yolk pH, Haugh unit, and bacterial count of E. coli-challenged eggs were recorded at day of oviposition (day-1) and after 5 and 10 days of storage at room temperature. Yolk cholesterol content was analyzed for five successive weeks. Garlic juice increased (p<0.05) egg weight and mass with no change in egg production intensity. Garlic juice administration recorded higher (p<0.05) albumen height and improvement in Haugh unit. Also, eggs from garlic-treated hens recorded lower (p<0.05) albumen and yolk pH when compared to eggs collected from control hens. Garlic reduced (p<0.05) the $log_{10}$ of bacterial count in egg contents linearly when challenged with E. coli. Egg-yolk cholesterol content was not influenced by garlic juice administration. It is concluded that garlic juice improved performance characteristics and may increase egg shelf life as indicated by egg quality improvement and lower bacterial count of E. coli-challenged eggs. The levels of garlic juice used in this study were insufficient to influence egg yolk cholesterol.

Investigation on the Egg Quality of the Ostrich Farming in Korea (우리 나라 농장 사육 타조 알의 난질 조사)

  • Song, Kwang-Taek;Oh, Hong-Rock
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 2002
  • The fresh eggs of African ostrich in Korea were used in this study to investigate their interior and exterior quality characteristics. In ostrich egg shape characteristics, long and short length were measured as 15.1~16.1 cm and 12.1~13.6 cm, respectively. The egg shape index was calculated as 81.0 and the egg shell showed a more g loss white in color than that of hen egg. Calculated breaking strength of egg shell and egg shell surface based on the equation were $41.155kg/cm^3$ and $804.7cm^2$, respectively. Average egg shell thickness including egg shell membrane was 1.89 mm and there are no differences among parts of the shell. The egg shell membrane thickness was 0.10 mm showing relatively thick in equator compared with that of blunt end. The ave rage number of egg shell pores was counted as $19.7/cm^2$ showing relatively high number of egg shell pores at point end and the total number of egg shell pores in an egg was estimated as 15,241. The relative port ion of each parts based on egg weight was estimated as 25.1% for egg yolk, 58.2% for egg white, 16.7% for egg shell and the ratio of egg yolk to egg white (Y/W) was 0.43. The average diameter and the ave rage height of ostrich egg white were 19.7 cm and 13.2 mm, respectively. Calculated the H.U (Haugh Unit) was -69.7 and the pH was 8.3. In ostrich egg yolk, the diameter, the height, the egg yolk index, and it's pH were calculated as 14.4 cm, 29.4 mm, 0.20, and 6.6, respectively. And the egg yolk color showed a more thin in yellow chroma compared with that of hen egg as due to it's thicker membrane.

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