• Title, Summary, Keyword: Effective dose

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Comparison of the Equivalent Dose of the Lens Part and the Effective Dose of the Chest in the PET/CT Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Medicine Department (핵의학과 PET/CT실 방사선작업종사자의 수정체 부위의 등가선량과 흉부의 유효선량의 측정 비교)

  • Son, Sang-Joon;Park, Jeong-Kyu;Jung, Dong-Kyung;Park, Myeong-Hwan
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2019
  • Comparison of the effective dose of the chest and the equivalent dose of the lens site in the radiation workers working at four medical institutions with the PET / CT room located in one metropolitan city and province from April 1 to June 30, 2018 Respectively. Radioactive medicine were measured at the time of dispensing and at the time of injection. In this experiment, the average dispensing time per patient was 5.7 minutes and the average injection time was 3.1 minutes. The equivalent dose at the lens site was $0.78{\mu}Sv/h$ for 1 mCi, and the effective dose for chest was $0.18{\mu}Sv/h$ per 1 mCi. The equivalent dose at the lens site during injection was $0.88{\mu}Sv/h$ per mCi and the effective dose of chest was $0.20{\mu}Sv/h$ per mCi. The daily effective dose of the chest was $0.9{\pm}0.6{\mu}Sv$ and the equivalent dose of the lens site was $3.6{\pm}1.4{\mu}Sv$ during daily dosing for 20 days. The effective dose of the chest during the day was $0.6{\pm}0.5{\mu}Sv$ and the equivalent dose of the lens was $2.2{\pm}1.0{\mu}Sv$. At the time of dispensing, the equivalent dose of the lens was $0.187{\pm}0.035mSv$, the effective dose of the chest was $0.137{\pm}0.055mSv$, the equivalent dose of the lens was $0.247{\pm}0.057mSv$, and the effective dose of the monthly chest was $0.187{\pm}0.021mSv$. As a result of the corresponding sample test, the equivalent dose and the effective dose of the chest, the effective dose of the chest, the effective dose of the chest, the effective dose of the chest, The equivalent dose of the lens and the effective dose of the chest were statistically significant (p<0.05) with a significance of 0.000. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the equivalent dose and the effective dose of the chest, the equivalent dose of the lens at the time of injection, and the effective dose of the chest at 0.138 and 0.230, respectively.

Significantly Low Effective Dose from 18FDG PET/CT Scans Using Dose Reducing Strategies: "Lesser is Better"

  • uz Zaman, Maseeh;Fatima, Nosheen;Zaman, Areeba;Zaman, Unaiza;Tahseen, Rabia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3465-3468
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    • 2016
  • Background: Fluorodeoxyglucose ($^{18}FDG$) PET/CT imaging has become an important component of the management paradigm in oncology. However, the significant imparted radiation exposure is a matter of growing concern especially in younger populations who have better odds of survival. The aim of this study was to estimate the effective dose received by patients having whole body $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT scanning as per recent dose reducing guidelines at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This prospective study covered 63 patients with different cancers who were referred for PET/CT study for various indications. Patients were prepared as per departmental protocol and 18FDG was injected at 3 MBq/Kg and a low dose, non-enhanced CT protocol (LD-NECT) was used. Diagnostic CT studies of specific regions were subsequently performed if required. Effective dose imparted by 18FDG (internal exposure) was calculated by using multiplying injected dose in MBq with coefficient $1.9{\times}10^{-2}mSv/MBq$ according to ICRP publication 106. Effective dose imparted by CT was calculated by multiplying DLP (mGy.cm) with ICRP conversion coefficient "k" 0.015 [mSv / (mG. cm)]. Results: Mean age of patients was $49{\pm}18$ years with a male to female ratio of 35:28 (56%:44%). Median dose of 18FDG given was 194 MBq (range: 139-293). Median CTDIvol was 3.25 (2.4-6.2) and median DLP was 334.95 (246.70 - 576.70). Estimated median effective dose imparted by $^{18}FDG$ was 3.69 mSv (range: 2.85-5.57). Similarly the estimated median effective dose by low dose (non-diagnostic) CT examination was 4.93 mSv (range: 2.14 -10.49). Median total effective dose by whole body 18FDG PET plus low dose non-diagnostic CT study was 8.85 mSv (range: 5.56-13.00). Conclusions: We conclude that the median effective dose from a whole body 18FDG PET/CT in our patients was significantly low. We suggest adhering to recently published dose reducing strategies, use of ToF scanner with CT dose reducing option to achieve the lower if not the lowest effective dose. This would certainly reduce the risk of second primary malignancy in younger patients with higher odds of cure from first primary cancer.

Prediction for the Lifetime Effective Dose and Radon Exposure Risk by using Dose Conversion Convention: Base on the Indoor Radon Concentration of Lecture Room in a University (선량 환산 관례를 이용한 생애유효선량 및 라돈피폭 위험도 예측: 대학 강의실 라돈농도 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jae-Seung;Kweon, Dae Cheol
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2018
  • The indoor radon concentration was measured in the lecture room of the university and the radon concentration was converted to the amount related to the radon exposure using the dose conversion convention and compared with the reference levels for the radon concentration control. The effect of indoor radon inhalation was evaluated by estimating the life effective dose and the risk of exposure. To measure the radon concentration, measurements were made with a radon meter and a dedicated analysis Capture Ver. 5.5 program in a university lecture room from January to February 2018. The radon concentration measurement was carried out for 5 consecutive hours for 24 hours after keeping the airtight condition for 12 hours before the measurement. Radon exposure risk was calculated using the radon dose and dose conversion factor. Indoor radon concentration, radon exposure risk, and annual effective dose were found within the 95% confidence interval as the minimum and maximum boundary ranges. The radon concentration in the lecture room was $43.1-79.1Bq/m^3$, and the maximum boundary range within the 95% confidence interval was $77.7Bq/m^3$. The annual effective dose was estimated to be 0.20-0.36 mSv/y (mean 0.28 mSv/y). The life-time effective dose was estimated to be 0.66-1.18 mSv (mean $0.93{\pm}0.08mSv$). Life effective doses were estimated to be 0.88-0.99 mSv and radon exposure risk was estimated to be 12.4 out of 10.9 per 100,000. Radon concentration was measured, dose effective dose was evaluated using dose conversion convention, and degree of health hazard by indoor radon exposure was evaluated by predicting radon exposure risk using nominal hazard coefficient. It was concluded that indoor living environment could be applied to other specific exposure situations.

Doses of Coronary Study in 64 Channel Multi-Detector Computed Tomography : Reduced Radiation Dose According to Varity of Examnination Protocols (64 채널 Multi-Detector Computed Tomography를 이용한 관상동맥검사의 선량 : 검사 프로토콜 다변화에 따른 환자선량 감소)

  • Kim, Moon-Chan
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To compare radiation dose for coronary CT angiography (CTA) obtained with 6 examination protocols such as a retrospectively ECG gated helical scan, a prospectively ECG gated sequential scan, low kVp technique, and cardiac dose modulation technique. Materials and Methods : Coronary CTA was performed by using 6 current clinical protocols to evaluate effective dose and organ dose in primary beam area with anthropomorphic female phantom and glass dosimetric system in 64 channel multi-detector CT. After acquiring topograms of frontal and lateral projection with 80 kVp and 10 mA, main coronary scan was done with 0.35 sec tube rotation time, 40 mm collimation ($0.625\;mm{\times}64\;ea$), small scan field of view (32 cm diameter), 105 mm scan length. Heart beat rate of phantom was maintained 60 bpm in ECG gating. In constant mAs technique 120 kVp, 600 mA was used, and 100 kVp for low kVp technique. In a retrospectively ECG gated helical CT technique 0.22 pitch was used, peak mA (600 mA) was adopted in range of $40{\sim}80%$ of R-R interval and 120mA(80% reduction) in others with cardiac dose modulation. And 210 mAs was used without cardiac dose modulation. In a prospectively ECG gated sequential CT technique data were acquired at 75% R-R interval (middle diastolic phase in cardiac cycle), and 120 msec additional padding of the tube-on time was used. For effective dose calculation region specific conversion factor of dose length product in thorax was used, which was recommended by EUR 16262. Results : The mean effective dose for conventional coronary CTA without cardiac dose modulation in a retrospectively ECG gated helical scan was 17.8 mSv, and mean organ dose of heart was 103.8 mGy. With low kVp and cardiac dose modulation the mean effective dose showed 54.5% reduction, and heart dose showed 52.3% reduction, compared with that of conventional coronary CTA. And at the sequential scan(SnapShot pulse mode) under prospective ECG gating the mean effective dose was 4.9 mSv, this represents an 72.5% reduction compared with that of conventional coronary CTA. And heart dose was 33.8 mGy, this represents 67.4% reduction. In the sequential scan technique under prospective ECG gating with low kVp the mean effective dose was 3.0 mSv, this represents an 83.2% reduction compared with that of conventional coronary CTA. And heart dose was 17.7 mGy, this represents an 82.9% reduction. Conclusion : In coronary CTA at retrospectively ECG gated helical scan, cardiac dose modulation technique using low kVp reduced dose to 50% above compared with the conventional helical scan. And the prospectively ECG gated sequential scan offers substantially reduced dose compared with the traditional retrospectively ECG gated helical scan.

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Comparative Study of the Effective Dose from Panoramic Radiography in Dentistry Measured Using a Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeter and an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detector

  • Lee, Kyeong Hee;Kim, Myeong Seong;Kweon, Dae Cheol;Choi, Jiwon
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.73 no.9
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    • pp.1377-1384
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    • 2018
  • Accurate measurement of the absorbed dose and the effective dose is required in dental panoramic radiography involving relatively low energy with a rotational X-ray tube system using long exposures. To determine the effectiveness of measuring the irradiation by using passive dosimetry, we compared the entrance skin doses by using a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPL) and an optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSL) in a phantom model consisting of nine and 31 transverse sections. The parameters of the panoramic device were set to 80 kV, 4 mA, and 12 s in the standard program mode. The X-ray spectrum was applied in the same manner as the panoramic dose by using the SpekCalc Software. The results indicated a mass attenuation coefficient of $0.008226cm^2/g$, and an effective energy of 34 keV. The equivalent dose between the RPL and the OSL was calculated based on a product of the absorbed doses. The density of the aluminum attenuators was $2.699g/cm^3$. During the panoramic examination, tissue absorption doses with regard to the RPL were a surface dose of $75.33{\mu}Gy$ and a depth dose of $71.77{\mu}Gy$, those with regard to the OSL were surface dose of $9.2{\mu}Gy$ a depth dose of $70.39{\mu}Gy$ and a mean dose of $74.79{\mu}Gy$. The effective dose based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103 tissue weighting factor for the RPL were $0.742{\mu}Sv$, $8.9{\mu}Sv$, $2.96{\mu}Sv$ and those for the OSL were $0.754{\mu}Sv$, $9.05{\mu}Sv$, and $3.018{\mu}Sv$ in the parotid and sublingual glands, orbit, and thyroid gland, respectively. The RPL was more effective than the OSL for measuring the absorbed radiation dose in low-energy systems with a rotational X-ray tube.

Evaluation of effective dose in panorama, cone beam CT and the usefulness of x-ray protective (치과방사선검사에서 방사선방어용구 사용 전, 후의 유효선량에 대한 평가)

  • Kim, Jae In;Choi, Won Keun;Lee, So La;Lee, Jung Hwa;Lee, Kwan Sub
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose and calculate the effective dose for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panorama units and to estimate usefulness of x-ray protective. Rando phantom and glass dosimeters were used for dosimetry. The absorbed doses were measured at 15 organs and 14 remainder from correspond to ICRP 2007 recommendations. The absorbed dose was highest in salivary glands as measured CBCT 2.420mGy, panorama 0.307mGy. Absorbed dose in another organs were high in order of thyroid, brain, skin, esophagus. The effective dose was CBCT 0.100mSv, panorama 0.011mSv and effective dose of panorama was higher than that of CBCT by 10 times. In case of wearing x-ray protective, reducing effective dose of CBCT by 0.066mSv (66%) and panorama by 0.008mSv (72%). Effective dose were reduced by radiological shielding but it needs further optimization studies, where dosimetric data are analyzed in combination with image quality with keep the patients' exposure as low as possible.

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Effective dose of cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic analysis in pediatric patient (소아환자에서 교정분석을 위한 콘빔CT 촬영시 유효선량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.53 no.8
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    • pp.558-568
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    • 2015
  • Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure pediatric organ and effective doses of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for orthodontic analysis and to compare them to those of panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography, the conventional radiography for orthodontic analysis. Materials and Methods: Alphard VEGA for CBCT, Planmeca Proline XC for panoramic radiography and Orthophos CD for cephalometric radiography were used for this study. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were located at 24 anatomic sites of 10-year-old anthropomorphic phantom and exposed during CBCT (C-mode; $200{\times}179mm$ FOV), panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographic procedures at the clinical exposure settings for 10-year-old patient. Pediatric organ and effective doses were measured and calculated using ICRP 2007 tissue weighting factors. Results: Effective doses of CBCT, panoramic radiography and lateral cephlometric radiography in pediatric clinical exposure settings were $292.5{\mu}Sv$, $19.3{\mu}Sv$, and $4.4{\mu}Sv$ respectively. The thyroid gland contributed most significantly to the effective dose in all the radiographic procedures. Conclusion: Effective dose of CBCT was about 12 times to conventional radiographic procedures for orthodontic analysis in pediatric patient. The use of CBCT for orthodontic analysis should be fully justified over conventional radiography and dose optimization to decrease thyroid dose is needed in pediatric patients.

Parametric Sequential Test Procedure to Find the Minimum Effective Dose (최소 효과 용량을 정하는 축차 검정법)

  • Park, Su-Jin;Kim, Dong-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.1033-1046
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    • 2009
  • In new drug development studies or clinical trials, zero-dose control is needed in general to determine the lowest dose level for a new drug which can act with our bodies. When the lowest dose level compared with zero-dose control has significant difference in effect, it is referred as minimum effective dose(MED). We propose, in this paper, parametric sequential test using updated control to identify the minimum effective dose(MED) level. Monte Carlo Simulation is adapted to examine the power and experimental significance levels of the proposed method with other methods.

Managerial Factors Influencing Dose Reduction of the Nozzle Dam Installation and Removal Tasks Inside a Steam Generator Water Chamber (증기발생기 수실 노즐댐 설치 및 제거작업의 피폭선량 저감에 영향을 주는 관리요인에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Dhong Ha
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.559-568
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effective managerial factors influencing dose reduction of the nozzle dam installation and removal tasks ranking within top 3 in viewpoint of average collective dose of nuclear power plant maintenance job. Background: International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended to reduce unnecessary dose and to minimize the necessary dose on the participants of maintenance job in radiation fields. Method: Seven sessions of nozzle dam installation and removal task logs yielded a multiple regression model with collective dose as a dependent variable and work time, number of participants, space doses before and after shield as independent variables. From the sessions in which a significant reduction in collective dose occurred, the effective managerial factors were elicited. Results: Work time was the most important factor contributing to collective dose reduction of nozzle dam installation and removal task. Introduction of new technology in nozzle dam design or maintenance job is the most important factor for work time reduction. Conclusion: With extended task logs and big data processing technique, the more accurate prediction model illustrating the relationship between collective dose reduction and effective managerial factors would be developed. Application: The effective managerial factors will be useful to reduce collective dose of decommissioning tasks as well as regular preventive maintenance tasks for a nuclear power plant.

A Calculation of Effective Dose Equivalent from Data of Environmental Monitoring around the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (Karlsruhe 원자력연구소 주변의 환경방사능 측정자료로부터 실효선량당량계산)

  • Lee, Chang-Woo;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Wicke, A.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 1990
  • The dose calculations were carried out using environmental montoring data around Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center(KfK). Ingestion of plant foods was the most important pathway, and the K-40 and Pb-210 natural radioisotopes in food were the most effective radiation source to man. The dose received from artificial nuclides were mostly emitted by gamma irradiation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 deposited on the ground. The effective dose equivalent in the KfK environment was far less than the dose equivalent limit recommended by ICRP.

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