• Title, Summary, Keyword: Effective Cooling Periods

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Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kamata, Yasuhiro;Niino, Noriko;Taniyama, Yoshihiko;Kinjo, Kazuhide;Matayoshi, Ayano
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.966-975
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    • 2015
  • Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment ($20.0^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment ($32^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment.

Development of Cooling Garment for Extremely Hot Environment Using a Peltier Device and its Comfort Properties (고온환경 작업을 위한 펠티어 소자 냉각복 개발 및 쾌적성 평가)

  • Jung, Ye-Lee;Chae, Young-Jin;Kim, Eun-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • This paper reports on a prototype cooling garment applying a cooling module. The cooling module was composed of a Peltier device, a cold sink, a heat sink and two fans. A constant box was used to evaluate the cooling effect of the module. Two cooling modules were attached on each side of the garment. The wear trial was conducted using 10 male subjects in an environmental chamber maintained at $30{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$, $50{\pm}5%$RH. Subjective sensations of thermal, humidity, and comfort were surveyed. Statistical package SPSS12.0 was used for the t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results showed that most effective cooling module decreased the temperature of the constant temperature box by $-4.9^{\circ}C$. The micro-temperature of the cooling garment with a Peltier device was lower than the control garment during the exercise. In particular, the chest skin temperature was $1.5^{\circ}C$ lower with the cooling garment than the control. The maximum temperature difference was $-2.57^{\circ}C$ on the sides of the $1^{st}$ layer. Subjective thermal sensation from wear trials of the Peltier device attached garment was lower than the control garment. Subjects felt more comfortable with the cooling garment in almost all the periods.

The Experimental Study on Cryopreservation of Mouse Embryo (생쥐배아의 동결보존에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Yu-Il;Kwon, Young-Sook;Park, Hyun-Jeong
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2001
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of embryonic stage, cryoprotectant, and freezing-thawing method on the rates of survival and development of the cryopreserved mouse early embryo and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Materials and Methods: Two to eight cell embryos were obtained from oviducts of mated $F_1$ hybrid female mice superovulated by pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Two-step 1,2-propanediol (PROH), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 4-step PROH DMSO were used as cryoprotectant and dehydration and rehydration method of embryos, and slow-cooling or rapid-cooling method was used as frozen program. The survival rates of embryos were measured after thawing and rehydration, and the developmental rates of embryos were compared and observed during culturing embryos for 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs. Results: As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to embryonic stage, the survival rate of 2 cell stage in PROH and DMSO was significantly higher than 4-8 cell (64.5% versus 62.1 %,79.7% versus 73.2%) (p<0.01, p<0.01), but the development rates of 4-8 cell embryos in PROH and DMSO were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos for whole culture period (p<0.01) and the development rates of 4-8 cell embryos in PROH were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos in DMSO (p<0.01). As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to cryoprotectant, the survival rate of 2 cell embryo in DMSO was significantly higher than that in PROH (74.4% versus 64.5%) (p<0.01), whereas the development rate of embryos was not differ till 24 hrs. The developmen1 rate from morular to hatching blastocyst, however, was significantly higher in PROH than in DMSO during 48 hr (p<0.01). The survival rate of 4-8 cell embryo was 62.1% in PROH and 73.2% in DMSO. The development rates of embryo in PROH were significantly higher for whole culture periods (p<0.01, 0.05). In respect to the effect of freezing and thawing program on the survival and development rates of embryos, method of slow cooling and rapid thawing was more effective than that of rapid cooling and rapid thawing. Conclusions: The survival rate of embryo in 2 cell stage was higher than in 4-8 cell stage, and PROH appears more effective cryoprotectant than DMSO because PROH showed better development rates of embryos in 2 and 4-8 cell stage. Moreover, slow cooling and rapid thawing method was considered as the best cryopreservation program.

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The Indoor Environmental Quality Improving and Energy Saving Potential of Phase-Change Material Integrated Facades for High-Rise Office Buildings in Shanghai

  • Jin, Qian
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 2017
  • The conflict between indoor environmental quality and energy consumption has become an unneglectable problem for highrise office buildings, where occupants' productivity is highly affected by their working environment. An effective Façade, therefore, should play the role of an active building skin by adapting to the ever-changing external environment and internal requirements. This paper explores the energy-saving and indoor environment-improving potential of a phase-change material (PCM) integrated Façade. Building performance simulations, combined with parametric study and sensitivity analysis, are adopted in this research. The result quantifies the potential of a PCM-integrated Façade with different configurations and PCM properties, taking as an example a south-oriented typical office room in Shanghai. It is found that a melting temperature of around $22^{\circ}C$ for the PCM layer is optimal. Compared to a conventional Façade, a PCM-integrated Façade effectively reduces total energy use, peak heating/cooling load, and operative temperature fluctuation during the periods of May-July and November-December.

Effects of Shipping Temperature and Precooling Treatment of Everbearing Strawberry Cultivars 'Goha' and 'Flamenco' Grown on Highland through Export Simulation (모의 수출 실험을 통한 고랭지 사계성 딸기 'Goha'와 'Flamenco'의 유통 온도 및 예냉 처리효과)

  • Eum, Hyang Lan;Bae, Sang Jun;Hwang, Dae Keun;Yeoung, Young Rog;Hong, Sae Jin
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of low temperature shipping condition and precooling treatments (forced air and room cooling) on everbearing strawberry through export simulation of 'Goha' and 'Flamenco' cultivars. After harvest, it took two days to prepare export procedure such as precooling, sorting, storage, transportation, quarantine and handling, and then everbearing strawberry was carried out shipping at room ($20-25^{\circ}C$) or low ($8^{\circ}C$) temperature conditions. In the case of shipping at room temperature, weight losses of both cultivars were increased up to 10% after 2 days where 'Goha' being 2% higher than that of ' Flamenco'. In 'Flamenco' cultivar, shipping temperature and precooling treatment were not effective in firmness and soluble solids contents during transporting periods. However, in 'Goha' cultivar, room cooling treatment and low shipping temperature were effective in maintaining firmness until 4 days after shipping. Especially titratable acidity was affected by shipping temperature ($P{\leq}0.001$) and precooling treatments ($P{\leq}0.05$) in 'Goha' cultivar. Also shipping temperature under $8^{\circ}C$ delayed coloring and decay incidence of both strawberry cultivars, and precooling treatments of both forced air and room cooling reduced frequency of decay. The shelf life of everbearing strawberry at low shipping temperature was extended more than 4 days compared with shipping at room temperature. Precooling treatment including forced air or room cooling will be useful for the two cultivars when they are transported at low temperature. In 'Flamenco' cultivar, the effect of forced air and room cooling was similar, whereas in 'Goha' room cooling was more effective.

The effects of cold treatment on the pupal period, emergence rate, and number of Protaetia brevitarsis larvae spawned

  • JANG, Heeseung;CHOI, Moon Bo;LEE, Hyoki;KIM, Yeongbu;KWON, Ohseok
    • Entomological research
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.550-558
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    • 2018
  • To develop a system for the mass production of Protaetia brevitarsislarvae (Pbl), this study analyzed the oviposition characteristics of third instar Pbl through successive rearing and cold treatments. In the first generation, females laid 50 eggs each on average, and spawned higher numbers of eggs for the first 5 days but then fewer after this. However, all of the $2^{nd}$-generation females that were produced through the successive rearing of eggs from the $1^{st}$ generation did not spawn. When test insects (TI) were raised at $32^{\circ}C$, their $mean{\pm}SE$ pupal period and emergence rate were $28.4{\pm}1.9$ days and 87%, respectively. However, most individuals raised in cold treatments ($5^{\circ}C$ and $-5^{\circ}C$) without a pre-cooling period did not survive. Individuals exposed to a pre-cooling period, however, had a 7-10 days longer pupal period than those raised at $32^{\circ}C$, and their emergence rate (90%) was slightly higher. Different cold treatment temperatures ($0^{\circ}C$, $3^{\circ}C$, or $5^{\circ}C$) and periods (30 or 60 days) were tested in further experiments. The experimental group kept for 30 days at $0^{\circ}C$ and $3^{\circ}C$ had the shortest pupal period of all, and emergence rates exceeded 90% in most groups. With respect to the number of eggs spawned by the second generation females after cold treatments, the experimental groups held in cold treatments at $5^{\circ}C$ for 30 and 60 days were found to spawn the most eggs. Consequently, the experimental group kept at $5^{\circ}C$ for 30 days was the most effective set of conditions tested during the entire breeding period.

An Experimental Study of Moxa-Combustion Time by the Density of Moxa Material -On the point of time in the combustion stage- (애구(艾灸)의 연소(燃燒) 시간(時間)에 대한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究) -구간별(區間別) 발현(發現) 시점(時點)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Park, Young-Bae;Kang, Sung-Keel;Koh, Hyung-Kyun;Oh, Hwan-Sup
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.241-252
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    • 1994
  • It is known that the pattern of combustion temperature can be classified into preheating, heating. retaining and cooling periods. In this experiment. the authors have studied the heating mechanism by the density of moxa material during the heating and retaining periods. The starting point. the point at which it begins to reach the maximum gradient temperature. the ending point of the heating period. and the ending point of the retaining period were measured in order to get effective stmulation by repetition of moxa-combustion. For the experiment. samples of 300mg. 400mg, and 500mg of moxa material were molded into conical molds with each 10mm in diameter and height resulting in the volume of $0.26cm^3$. The following results were obtained: The $300mg/0.26cm^3$ denstiy sample reached al1 points tested faster than the samples of $400mg/0.26cm^3$ and $500mg/0.26cm^3$ It dose not reveal any statistical differences between $400mg/0.26cm^3$ and $500mg/0.26cm^3$ in the ending point. the point at which it begins to reach the maximum gradient temperature of the heating period or the ending point of the reataining period The only difference shown was in the starting point of the heating period. According to the above results. it is concluded that the lower density moxa material reached each point of the the respective period faster than the high density moxa material.

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Development of Effective Cryopreservation Method for Mammalian Embryo (포유류 초기 배아의 효율적인 동결 보존 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun;Cho, Young Moo;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Kim, Sung Woo;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Yamanouchi, Keitaro
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of embryonic stage, cryoprotectant, and freezing-thawing method on the rates of survival and development of the cryopreserved mouse early embryo and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Two to eight cell embryos were obtained from oviducts of mated $F_1$ hybrid female mice superovulated by PMSG and hCG. Two-step EG, DMSO and 4-step EG, DMSO were used as cryoprotectant and dehydration and rehydration method of embryos, and slow-cooling or rapid-cooling method was used as frozen program. The survival rates of embryos were measured after thawing and rehydration, and the developmental rates of embryos were compared and observed during culturing embryos for 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs. As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to embryonic stage, the survival rate of 2 cell stage in EG and DMSO was significantly higher than 4~8 cell (65.4% versus 61.2%, 81.1% versus 72.5%) (p<0.01, p<0.01), but the development rates of 4~8 cell embryos in EG and DMSO were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos for whole culture period (p<0.01) and the development rates of 4~8 cell embryos in EG were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos in DMSO (p<0.01). As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to cryoprotectant, the survival rate of 2 cell embryo in DMSO was significantly higher than that in EG(77.0% versus 64.4%) (p<0.01), whereas the development rate of embryos was not differ till 24 hrs. The development rate from morular to hatching blastocyst, however, was sinificantly higher in EG than in DMSO during 48 hr (p<0.01). The survival rate of 4~8 cell embryo was 62.5% in EG and 73.3% in DMSO. The development rates of embryo in EG were significantly higher for whole culture periods (p<0.01, 0.05). In respect to the effect of freezing and thawing program on the survival and development rates of embryos, method of slow cooling and rapid thawing was more effective than that of rapid cooling and rapid thawing. The survival rate of embryo in 2 cell stage was higher than in 4~8 cell stage, and EG appears more effective cryoprotectant than DMSO because EG showed better development rates of embryos in 2 and 4~8 cell stage. Moreover, slow cooling and rapid thawing method was considered as the best cryopreservation program.

A Fundamental Study on Heat Pump System for Classroom using River Water (하천수를 이용한 교실 냉난방 열펌프 시스템의 기초연구)

  • Baik, Seung-Moon;Moon, Choon-Geun;Yoon, Jung-In;Jeong, Seok-Kwon;Park, Jong-Un
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2004
  • The current situation of heating and cooling system of the classrooms of our country is rather poor compared not only to those of the developed nation's classrooms but also in case of other buildings such as financial institutions, office compounds. In winter, especially students have been in hatred state with respect to their health due to the fact that the heater is operated by petroleum. Korea has been heavily dependent on foreign nations for the very fact of importing energy in the form of oil or natural gas. So it is important to conserve energy and the picture with respect to energy remains similar till today as it was in long past periods. The purpose of this study is to contribute actively in energy economy and facilitate towards a healthy school life of students and other institutions proving a system of extracting energy from river water and then converting it into heat which can stand as an effective alternate of expensive oil or gas. Installing oil-stove based heating system at classrooms of school could get considerable attentation in several respects. The proposed heat energy could be collected unlimitedly both in time and in amount. The stable and uninterrupted heat energy from river water, optimally utilizing the typical-regional and geographical characteristics has the potential to be long-lasting in duration, cheap in energy economy and beneficial to health as well.

The Development of HACCP-Based Standardized Recipe and the Quality Assessment of Cook/Chilled Soy Sauce Glazed Mackerel (쿡췰(Cook/Chill)시스템을 이용한 고등어조림의 HACCP 레시피 개발 및 생산과정의 품질평가)

  • Kwak, Tong-Kyung;Lee, Kyung-Eun;Park, Hye-Won;Ryu, Kyung;Hong, Wan-Soo;Choi, Eun-Jung;Jang, Hye-Ja;Kim, Sung-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.592-601
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    • 1997
  • The purposes of this study were to develop Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point-based standardized recipe applicable to cook/chilled soy sauceglazed mackerel and to evaluate the qualities related to the product flow of this item. After conducting experimental cooking, preliminary test, and analysis of recipes, critical control points were identified, control methods were determined, and HACCP-based recipe was standardized. At each critical control point, time-temperature profile was recorded and microbiological analysis (total aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophic plate count, coliform, and fecal coliform count), chemical analysis (pH, acid value and volatile based nitrogen (VBN)) and sensory evaluation of the item were done. Time-temperature data showed that the time the menu item had passed through temperature danger zone (5∼60$^{\circ}C$) during all phases was 60 min. At rapid cooling, but after cooling at room temperature, the temperature of this menu item did not drop below the ambient temperature. The results of microbiological test were negative throughout all phases following cooking and the results of chemical analysis did not change significantly in terms of storage periods except for VBN which increased on 7th day significantly(p<0.05). After steam/convection oven reheating and microwave oven reheating, the sensory score of the only appearance decreased significantly related to the storage time of overall quality profiles. But significant differences were not detected according to two reheating methods. In conclusion, this HACCP-based recipe was considered as an effective tool for assuring microbial as well as sensory quality of this cook/chilled item.

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