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The Impact of Service Level Management(SLM) Process Maturity on Information Systems Success in Total Outsourcing: An Analytical Case Study (토털 아웃소싱 환경 하에서 IT서비스 수준관리(Service Level Management) 프로세스 성숙도가 정보시스템 성공에 미치는 영향에 관한 분석적 사례연구)

  • Cho, Geun Su;An, Joon Mo;Min, Hyoung Jin
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.21-39
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    • 2013
  • As the utilization of information technology and the turbulence of technological change increase in organizations, the adoption of IT outsourcing also grows to manage IT resource more effectively and efficiently. In this new way of IT management technique, service level management(SLM) process becomes critical to derive success from the outsourcing in the view of end users in organization. Even though much of the research on service level management or agreement have been done during last decades, the performance of the service level management process have not been evaluated in terms of final objectives of the management efforts or success from the view of end-users. This study explores the relationship between SLM maturity and IT outsourcing success from the users' point of view by a analytical case study in four client organizations under an IT outsourcing vendor, which is a member company of a major Korean conglomerate. For setting up a model for the analysis, previous researches on service level management process maturity and information systems success are reviewed. In particular, information systems success from users' point of view are reviewed based the DeLone and McLean's study, which is argued and accepted as a comprehensively tested model of information systems success currently. The model proposed in this study argues that SLM process maturity influences information systems success, which is evaluated in terms of information quality, systems quality, service quality, and net effect proposed by DeLone and McLean. SLM process maturity can be measured in planning process, implementation process and operation and evaluation process. Instruments for measuring the factors in the proposed constructs of information systems success and SL management process maturity were collected from previous researches and evaluated for securing reliability and validity, utilizing appropriate statistical methods and pilot tests before exploring the case study. Four cases from four different companies under one vendor company were utilized for the analysis. All of the cases had been contracted in SLA(Service Level Agreement) and had implemented ITIL(IT Infrastructure Library), Six Sigma and BSC(Balanced Scored Card) methods since last several years, which means that all the client organizations pursued concerted efforts to acquire quality services from IT outsourcing from the organization and users' point of view. For comparing the differences among the four organizations in IT out-sourcing sucess, T-test and non-parametric analysis have been applied on the data set collected from the organization using survey instruments. The process maturities of planning and implementation phases of SLM are found not to influence on any dimensions of information systems success from users' point of view. It was found that the SLM maturity in the phase of operations and evaluation could influence systems quality only from users' view. This result seems to be quite against the arguments in IT outsourcing practices in the fields, which emphasize usually the importance of planning and implementation processes upfront in IT outsourcing projects. According to after-the-fact observation by an expert in an organization participating in the study, their needs and motivations for outsourcing contracts had been quite familiar already to the vendors as long-term partners under a same conglomerate, so that the maturity in the phases of planning and implementation seems not to be differentiating factors for the success of IT outsourcing. This study will be the foundation for the future research in the area of IT outsourcing management and success, in particular in the service level management. And also, it could guide managers in practice in IT outsourcing management to focus on service level management process in operation and evaluation stage especially for long-term outsourcing contracts under very unique context like Korean IT outsourcing projects. This study has some limitations in generalization because the sample size is small and the context itself is confined in an unique environment. For future exploration, survey based research could be designed and implemented.

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Effect of Fly Ash Fertilizer on Paddy Soil Quality and Rice Growth (비산재로 제조한 비료가 논토양 질과 벼 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Se Jin;Yun, Hyun Soo;Oh, Seung Min;Kim, Sung Chul;Kim, Rog Young;Seo, Yung Ho;Lee, Kee Suk;Ok, Yong Sik;Yang, Jae E.
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2013
  • Coal ash can be added to agricultural soils to increase the chemical properties of soil such as pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability of - B, Ca, Mo etc-. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of fly ash as a soil amendment in paddy soils. Selected fly ash was mixed with bentonite and calcium hydroxide at the ratio of 80:15:5 (w/w) and manufactured as a pellet type at the size of 10 mm. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of fly ash fertilizer on the soil quality and crop growth compare to the control (no fertilizer) and, - traditional fertilizer. Results showed that soil pH and organic matter in paddy soils after applying the manufactured fly ash fertilizer were not increased compared to the other two treatments. However, the concentration of available phosphate and silicate in paddy soils were higher than those of the control and traditional fertilization. With regard to crop growth, no significant difference was observed between three different treatments. However, the content of protein in the rice grain cultivated with the fly ash fertilizer was higher than in the rice cultivated by other two treatments. Overall, fly ash fertilizer could increase the concentration of available silicate and phosphate in the paddy soil and improve the rice quality. In conclusion, fly ash can be utilized in agricultural soils as soil amendment, especially in the rice paddy soil.

The Effect of Root Zone Cooling at Night on Substrate Temperature and Physiological Response of Paprika in Hot Climate (고온기 야간시간 근권냉방이 파프리카 배지온도와 생리적 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ki Young;Ko, Ji Yeon;Choi, Eun Young;Rhee, Han Cheol;Lee, Sung Eun;Lee, Yong-Beom
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2013
  • This study examined a technique for cooling root zone aimed at lowering substrate temperature for sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. 'Orange glory') cultivation in coir substrate hydroponics during hot season, from the $16^{th}$ of July to $15^{th}$ of October in 2012. The root zone cooling technique was applied by using an air duct (${\varnothing}12$ cm, hole size 0.1 mm) to blow cool air between two slabs during night (5p.m. to 3a.m.). Between the $23^{rd}$ of July and $31^{st}$ of August (hot temperature period), average daily substrate temperature was $24.7^{\circ}C$ under the root zone cooling, whereas it was $28.2^{\circ}C$ under condition of no cooling (control). In sunny day (600~700 W $m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$), average substrate temperatures during the day (6a.m. to 8p.m.) and night (8p.m. to 6a.m.) were lower about $1.7^{\circ}C$ and $3.3^{\circ}C$, respectively, under the cooling treatment, compared to that of control. The degree of temperature reduction in the substrate was averagely $0.5^{\circ}C$ per hour under the cooling treatment during 6p.m. to 8p.m.; however, there was no decrease in the temperature under the control. The temperature difference between the cooling and control treatments was $1.3^{\circ}C$ and $0.6^{\circ}C$ in the upper and lower part of the slab, respectively. During the hot temperature period, about 32.5% reduction in the substrate temperature was observed under the cooling treatment, compared to the control. Photosynthesis, transpiration rate, and leaf water potential of plants grown under the cooling treatment were significantly higher than those under the control. The first flowering date in the cooling was faster about 4 days than in the control. Also, the number of fruits was significantly higher than that in the control. No differences in plant height, stem thickness, number of internode, and leaf width were found between the plants grown under the cooling and control, except for the leaf length with a shorter length under the cooling treatment. However, root zone cooling influenced negligibly on eliminating delay in fruiting caused by excessively higher air temperature (> $28^{\circ}C$), although the substrate temperature was reduced by $3^{\circ}C$ to $5.6^{\circ}C$. These results suggest that the technique of lowering substrate temperature by using air-duct blow needs to be incorporated into the lowering growing temperature system for growth and fruit set of health paprika.

The Geochemical Characteristics and Environmental Factors on the Marine Shellfish Farm in Namhae-po Tidal Flat of Taean (태안 남해포 갯벌 패류양식해역의 환경특성)

  • Choi, Yoon Seok;Park, Kwang Jae;Yoon, Sang Pil;Chung, Sang Ok;An, Kyoung Ho;Song, Jae Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 2013
  • To assess the effect of environmental factors on the sustainability of cultured production shellfish, we investigated the habitat characteristics of tidal flat (Namhae-po in Taean). We measured the physiochemical parameters (temperature, salanity, pH, dissolved oxygen and nutrients) and the geochemical characteristics (chemical oxygen demand, ignition loss, C/N ratio and C/S ratio). Surface sediments were collected from several site of tidal flat to examine the geochemical characteristics of both the benthic environment and heavy metal pollution. The grain size for research area of tidal flat were similar at the ratio of silt and clay in comparison with the other site of it. The C/N ratio was more than 5.0, reflecting the range arising from the mix of marine organism and organic matter. The C/S ratio (about 2.8) showed that survey area had anoxic or sub-anoxic bottom conditions. The enrichment factor (Ef) and index of accumulation rate (Igeo) of the metals showed that those research areas can be classified as heavily polluted, heavily to moderately polluted, or more or less unpolluted, respectively. Adult surf clam (Mactra veneriformis) density was highest at St. 2 (middle part of the Namhae-po), on the other hand, surf clam spat density was highest at St. 3 (lower part of the Namhae-po). Heavy rain, terrigenous suspended clay with fresh water from neighboring agricultural land, and severe high air temperature during summer could be thought as detrimental causes of spat and adult mortality in Namhae-po tidal flat. We suggested that the growth of shellfish in the tidal flat was effected by the various environmental conditions, so an improvement in the cultured method was needed.

No-Tillage Agriculture of Korean-Style on Recycled Ridge II. Changes in Physical Properties : Water-Stable Aggregate, Bulk density, and Three Phase Ratio to Retain Water at Plastic Film Greenhouse Soil in No-Tillage System (두둑을 재활용한 한국형 무경운 농업 II. 시설 무경운 토양의 물리적 특성 : 입단과 용적밀도 및 삼상변화)

  • Yang, Seung-Koo;Shin, Gil-Ho;Kim, Sun-Kook;Kim, Hee-Kwon;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.719-733
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of no-tillage on sequential cropping supported from recycling of first crop ridge on the productivity of crop and physical properties of soil under green house condition. This study is a part of "No-tillage agriculture of Korea-type on recycled ridge". From results for distribution of soil particle size with time process after tillage, soil particles were composed with granular structure in both tillage and no-tillage. No-tillage soil in distribution of above 2 mm soil particle increased at top soil and subsoil compared with tillage soil. Tillage and one year of no-tillage soil were not a significant difference at above 0.25 mm~below 0.5 mm, above 0.5 mm~below 1.0 mm, and above 1.0 mm of water-stable aggregate. Two years of no-tillage soil was significantly increased by 8.2%, 4.5%, and 1.7% at above 0.25 mm~below 0.5 mm, above 0.5 mm~below 1.0 mm, and above 1.0 mm of water-stable aggregate, respectively, compared with one year of no-tillage. Bulk density of top soil was $1.10MG\;m^3$ at tillage and $1.30MG\;m^3$ at one year of no-tillage. Bulk density of top soil was $1.14MG\;m^3$ at two years and $1.03MG\;m^3$ at three years of no-tillage, respectively. Bulk density of subsoil was a similar tendency. Solid phase ratio in top soil and subsoil was increased at one year of no-tillage compared with tillage soil, while soil phase ratio decreased at two and three years of no-tillage. Pore space ratio in tillage top soil (58.5%) was decreased by 8.5% at compared with no-tillage soil (51.0%). Pore space ratio was 56.9% and 61.2% at two and three years of no-tillage soil, respectively. Subsoil was a similar tendency. Gaseous phase ratio was decreased at one year of no-tillage soil, and increased at two and three years of no-tillage soil compared with tillage soil. Liquid phase ratio in top soil was increased at one year of no-tillage (28.3%), and decreased at two years (23.4%) and at three years (18.3 %) of no-tillage soil compared with tillage soil (24.2%). Subsoil was a similar tendency. Liquid phase ratio in subsoil was increased than top soil.

Establishment of Optimal Rearing Conditions for the Production of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (갈색거저리 유충 생산을 위한 효율적인 사육조건 확립)

  • Kim, Sihyeon;Kim, Jong Cheol;Lee, Se Jin;Kim, Jae Su
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.421-429
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    • 2016
  • Tenebrio molitor larvae contain large amounts of proteins, lipids and other functional materials, enabling this insect to be used as an edible food source in animal feeds and for industrialization. Although many efforts have been made to set up mass rearing systems, few studies have been conducted to establish optimal rearing conditions for the production of high quality T. molitor larvae. Herein we investigated 1) the effects of additional diets on the survival and fecundity of the insect, 2) the relationship between oviposition period and the uniformity of larval size, 3) the effects of rearing density and temperature on insect development, and 4) the storage stability of eggs and pupae at low temperatures given possible temporary production discontinuation. The addition of carrot and zucchini to the traditional wheat bran diet significantly increased the survival and fecundity rate of adult T. molitor. Of the three different oviposition sampling periods (3, 7, and 14 days) used to investigate the uniformity of the hatched larvae in each treatment, the period of 3 and 7 days provided higher uniformity than the 14 days oviposition period. Larval development was faster at $30^{\circ}C$ than at 20, 25, and $35^{\circ}C$. Interestingly, oviposition rates were highest at $20^{\circ}C$ but showed much slower larval development and lower uniformity at $30^{\circ}C$. Regarding the effect of larval rearing densities (1, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 larvae per 90 mm diam. dish), larval weight was significantly reduced at higher rearing densities, but larval longevity and length were not influenced by rearing density. The 30 larvae/dish is suggested to be a reasonable density to be applied to mass production systems. When kept at $4^{\circ}C$, T. molitor eggs showed a significant reduction in hatching rate; however, when stored under the same conditions, pupae emergence rates remained high until 10 weeks, suggesting that storage at low temperatures is more suitable for the pupal stage than the egg stage. Our findings suggest that an increase in T. molitor adult survival and fecundity rates and a uniformity of hatched larval development can be achieved with the following recommendations: a combination diet (including wheat bran), a 7-day oviposition period; a larvae-rearing temperature of $30^{\circ}C$, a rearing density of 30 larvae/dish, and the storage of pupal stages at low temperatures in the case of rearing discontinuation. This study serves as a strong foundation for the successful mass production of high quality T. molitor larvae.

Prediction of commitment and persistence in heterosexual involvements according to the styles of loving using a datamining technique (데이터마이닝을 활용한 사랑의 형태에 따른 연인관계 몰입수준 및 관계 지속여부 예측)

  • Park, Yoon-Joo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.69-85
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    • 2016
  • Successful relationship with loving partners is one of the most important factors in life. In psychology, there have been some previous researches studying the factors influencing romantic relationships. However, most of these researches were performed based on statistical analysis; thus they have limitations in analyzing complex non-linear relationships or rules based reasoning. This research analyzes commitment and persistence in heterosexual involvement according to styles of loving using a datamining technique as well as statistical methods. In this research, we consider six different styles of loving - 'eros', 'ludus', 'stroge', 'pragma', 'mania' and 'agape' which influence romantic relationships between lovers, besides the factors suggested by the previous researches. These six types of love are defined by Lee (1977) as follows: 'eros' is romantic, passionate love; 'ludus' is a game-playing or uncommitted love; 'storge' is a slow developing, friendship-based love; 'pragma' is a pragmatic, practical, mutually beneficial relationship; 'mania' is an obsessive or possessive love and, lastly, 'agape' is a gentle, caring, giving type of love, brotherly love, not concerned with the self. In order to do this research, data from 105 heterosexual couples were collected. Using the data, a linear regression method was first performed to find out the important factors associated with a commitment to partners. The result shows that 'satisfaction', 'eros' and 'agape' are significant factors associated with the commitment level for both male and female. Interestingly, in male cases, 'agape' has a greater effect on commitment than 'eros'. On the other hand, in female cases, 'eros' is a more significant factor than 'agape' to commitment. In addition to that, 'investment' of the male is also crucial factor for male commitment. Next, decision tree analysis was performed to find out the characteristics of high commitment couples and low commitment couples. In order to build decision tree models in this experiment, 'decision tree' operator in the datamining tool, Rapid Miner was used. The experimental result shows that males having a high satisfaction level in relationship show a high commitment level. However, even though a male may not have a high satisfaction level, if he has made a lot of financial or mental investment in relationship, and his partner shows him a certain amount of 'agape', then he also shows a high commitment level to the female. In the case of female, a women having a high 'eros' and 'satisfaction' level shows a high commitment level. Otherwise, even though a female may not have a high satisfaction level, if her partner shows a certain amount of 'mania' then the female also shows a high commitment level. Finally, this research built a prediction model to establish whether the relationship will persist or break up using a decision tree. The result shows that the most important factor influencing to the break up is a 'narcissistic tendency' of the male. In addition to that, 'satisfaction', 'investment' and 'mania' of both male and female also affect a break up. Interestingly, while the 'mania' level of a male works positively to maintain the relationship, that of a female has a negative influence. The contribution of this research is adopting a new technique of analysis using a datamining method for psychology. In addition, the results of this research can provide useful advice to couples for building a harmonious relationship with each other. This research has several limitations. First, the experimental data was sampled based on oversampling technique to balance the size of each classes. Thus, it has a limitation of evaluating performances of the predictive models objectively. Second, the result data, whether the relationship persists of not, was collected relatively in short periods - 6 months after the initial data collection. Lastly, most of the respondents of the survey is in their 20's. In order to get more general results, we would like to extend this research to general populations.

Effect of Seedling Age on Growth and Yield at Transplanting of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) (수수 묘의 이식 시기가 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Su-Min;Jung, Ki-Youl;Kang, Hang-Won;Choi, Young-Dae;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Jeon, Seung-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2016
  • Direct seeding of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has a problem of low yield including poor establishment. This poor establishment results from poor quality seed, poor seedbed preparation, seedling pests, poor sowing technique and high soil temperature. This study sought to establish the age at which sorghum seedlings can be transplanted with minimal effects on grain yield. Transplants were raised in 128 nursery tray pot. Five seedling ages were established by transplanting at 10 (T10), 15 (T15), 20 (T20), 25 (T25) and 30 (T30) days after planting (DAP). The treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times with an individual plot size of $6{\times}5m^2$. Each plot had five ridges with a planting space of $0.60{\times}0.20m^2$ at one plants per stand. Results showed that seedling age on transplanting significantly affected growths and yields to sorghum after transplanting. Plant heights and diameters of transplants at T15 were longer than the other transplants. Conclusively, The advantages of this practice were better control of crop density and greater yields; either to fill gaps after emerging and thinning of crops or to compensate for a growth period that was too short for a complete crop cycle.

The Effect of Vigor of a Bearing Shoot in ‘Bluecrop’ Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on Growth Characteristics of Shoots and Fruits (하이부시 블루베리 ‘블루크롭’의 결과지 세력이 신초와 과실 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Yeuseok;Lee, Sung-Hee;Shin, Hyunman;Nam, Sang-Yeong;Oh, Youngjae;Kim, Daeil
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.598-603
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of vigor of a bearing shoot in ‘Bluecrop’ Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on growth characteristics of shoots and fruits. Bearing shoots were classified with BS (bearing shoot) and BMB (bearing mother branch). The vigor of bearing shoots were divided into four arbitrary categories; A was thin (< 6.0 ㎜) BMB and short (< 10 ㎝) BS, B was thin BMB and long (≥ 10 ㎝) BS, C was thick (≥ 6 ㎜) BMB and short BS and D was thick BMB and long BS. Shoots from D were longer (6.5 ㎝) and thicker (1.70 ㎜) than those from the others. Shoots of D had more leaves (5.8 ea) than those of the others. Leaf area of D was larger (13.5 ㎠) than those of the others. The first harvest of D was one week faster than the others. Ratio of big berry (>14 ㎜) from the long BSs was higher (B : 41.7, D : 46.8%) than that from the short BSs. Soluble solid content of small berrys did not show any different according to vigor of bearing shoots, but soluble solid content of big berrys of the long BSs was higher (B : 16.2, D : 15.6°Bx) than those of the short BSs. The thickness of BMB did not affect ratio of fruit size and soluble soild content. The long BSs would be proper than the short BSs for bearing bigger fruits.

The Influences of Additional Nutrients on Phytoplankton Growth and Horizontal Phytoplankton Community Distribution during the Autumn Season in Gwangyang Bay, Korea (가을철 광양만 식물플랑크톤의 수평 분포와 추가 영양염 공급이 식물플랑크톤 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Si Woo;Kim, Dongseon;Kim, Young Ok;Moon, Chang Ho;Baek, Seung Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-48
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    • 2014
  • In order to estimate the effect of additional nutrients on phytoplankton growth and horizontal phytoplankton community distribution during the autumn season in 2010 and 2011, we investigated the abiotic and biotic factors of surface and bottom waters at 20 stations of inner and offshore areas in Gwangyang Bay, Korea. Also, nutrient additional experiments were conducted to assess additional nutrient effects on phytoplankton assemblage using the surface water. In both years, the total nutrients were high at the enclosed inner bay and the mouth of Seomjin River, whereas it was low at the St.15~20 where in influenced by the surface warm water current from offshore of the bay. On the other hand, nano- and pico-sized Chl. a were gradually increased towards the outer bay and their trends were significant in 2011 than in 2010. The cryptophyta species occupied more than 85% of total phytoplankton assembleges in 2010, whereas their abundance in 2011 remainds to be 1/10 levels of 2010. Following the cryptophata species, the diatom Chaetoceros spp. and Skeletonema-like spp. were found to be dominant species. Further the biosaasy experimental results shows that the phytoplankton biomass in the +N and +NP treatments was higher compared to control and +P treatments and its trend was significant at St.8 and St.20 where nutrient concentration were low. Based on the bioassay and field survey, providing the high nutrients may have stimulated to phytoplankton growth such as S. costatum-like spp.. In particular, opportunistic micro-algae such as Cryptomonas spp. were able to achieve the high biomass under the relatively mid nutrient condition from bottom after break down of seasonal stratification in the Gwangyang Bay.