• Title, Summary, Keyword: Effect size

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A Meta-analysis of the Effect of Simulation Based Education - Korean Nurses and Nursing Students - (시뮬레이션 기반 교육 효과에 대한 메타분석 - 국내 간호사와 간호대학생을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, SinHayng;Ham, younsuk
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.308-319
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects size of simulation education targeting korean nurses and nursing students. Methods: Meta-analysis was conducted with 48 papers in domestic master and doctorate degree dissertations and academic journals from 2000 to 2014. Results: The entire effect size in simulation education was relevant to big effect size. Regarding the effect size of individual variables, nurse was identified to have biggest effect size in study subject, standardized patient was identified to have biggest effect size in simulation methods and pediatric nursing was identified to have biggest effect size in study subjects. Effect size in each effect variable was highest in psychomotor domain. Conclusion: This study identified the effect size of simulation education and provided the basic data to contribute to the quality improvement of simulation education which is based on the reasons.

The Comparison Between the Effects of Integrated Arthritis Self-helf Programs and the Effects of Arthritis Exercise Programs Through Meta-analysis (메타 분석을 통한 만성 관절염 환자의 통합 프로그램과 운동 프로그램의 효과 비교)

  • 오현수;서연옥
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.941-957
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to analyze result of 17 studies which investigated the effects of integrated programs, and 11 studies which examined the effects of exercise programs on pain, depression, and disability. The 28 studies analyzed in this work were selected from the following sources. MEDLINE Search, bibliographies of related studies, main academic journals of nursing in Korea, and journals on arthritis issues. For the analysis of the data, homogeniety of effect sizes which were calculated based on data in the 28 studies was tested and its average effect size was computed by using meta analysis software package which was developed by Song(1992, 1998). The results can be summarized as follows : 1) Homogeneity tests were conducted on integrated programs on pain. In the prelimiary homogeneity tests on effect size of all 17 studies, no homogeneity was found. When homogeneity tests on the effect size of the remaining 15 studies were performed, excluding two studies which had extremely larger effect size compared to other studies, the 15 studies were found to be homogeneous(Q=16.38, p=.23). The obtained average effect size, D(Mean Standardized Difference Between Means), was .25. When homogeneity tests on effect size on pain was conducted for the excercise programs, effect size for all nine studies were found to be homogeneous (Q=7.42, p=.49) and the average effect size D=.30. Therefore, Hypothesis 1 was rejected from the results, that an average effect size of the integrated programs on pain was not significantely different from that of the exercise programs on pain. 2) Since only two studies investigated the effect of exercise programs on depression, comparison between the average effect size of integrated programs and that of exercise programs on depression could not be conducted, and hypothesis 2 could not be tested. Thereby, only the average effect size of integrated programs on depression was obtained. Eight studies were tested to be positive on the homogeneity of effect sizes(Q=18.31, p=.02) at $\alpha$<.01 and its average effect size was D=.11. 3) For the analysis of integrated program on disability, 13 studies, except for four which had an extremely large effect size compared to the others were found to be homogeneous at $\alpha$<.01 (Q=22.30, p=.04) and the average effect size on disability was D=.16. For analysis of the exercize programs on disability, eight studies, except for one which had an extremely large effect size compared to others, were found to be homo geneous(Q=7.87, p=.34) and the average effect size on disability was D=.60. Therefore, Hypothesis 3 was accepted from the results that an average effect size of exercise programs on disability was significantly larger than that of integrated programs on disability.

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Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Physical Therapy Methods on Myofascial Pain Syndrome: The Cases of Domestic Research

  • Kim, Chan Myeong;Lee, Jae-Kwang
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.222-227
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The primary purposes of this study were to identify the degree of the effect size and the variables related to it on the effects of physical therapy on myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: This study collected 15 studies published between 2008.01.01 and 2019.12.31. The Analysis results confirmed 57 effect size data. The random-effect model was chosen because of the heterogeneity of the data. Results: First, the full case showed the largest mean effect size of 2.03 (p<0.001). Second, the size of the effect, according to the handson intervention, was 2.74 (p<0.003). Third, the VAS showed an effect size of 2.30 (p<0.001). Fourth, the intervention period showed a 1- to 15-day effect size of 2.94 (p<0.001). The number of interventions showed a 6 to 10 effect size of 2.84 (p<0.006). The number of participants showed a 10 or less effect size of 2.66 (p<0.001). Finally, the 'Trim and Fill' result confirmed that the calibration effect size was 0.93 (p<0.001). Conclusion: Physical therapy had a great effect on myofascial pain syndrome in the neck and shoulders, and that the effect differed according to the methods of the intervention and the methods of evaluation.

Size effect in concrete blocks under local pressure

  • Ince, R.;Arici, E.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.567-580
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    • 2005
  • Numerous tests on concrete structure members under local pressure demonstrated that the compressive strength of concrete at the loaded surface is increased by the confinement effect provided by the enveloping concrete. Even though most design codes propose specific criteria for preventing bearing failure, they do not take into consideration size effect which is an important phenomenon in the fracture mechanics of concrete/reinforced concrete. In this paper, six series of square prism concrete blocks with three different depths (size range = 1:4) and two different height/depth ratios of 2 and 3 are tested under concentrated load. Ultimate loads obtained from the test results are analysed by means of the modified size effect law (MSEL). Then, a prediction formula, which considers effect of both depth and height on size effect, is proposed. The developed formula is compared with experimental data existing in the literature. It is concluded that the observed size effect is in good agreement with the MSEL.

Size Effect on Axial Compressive Strength of Notched Concrete Specimens (노치가 있는 콘크리트 실험체의 축압축 강도에 대한 크기효과)

  • 이성태;김봉준;김진근
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2000
  • The size effect on axial compressive strength in notched concrete specimens was experimentally investigated. Based on the concept of the fracture mechanics and size effect law, theoretical studies for axial compressive failure of concrete were reviewed, and two failure modes of concrete specimens under compression were discussed. In this study, experiments of axial compressive failure, which is one of the two failure modes, was carried out by using cylindrical specimens. Adequate notch length was taken from the experimental result of strength variation based on the notch length. And, by taking various sizes of specimens the size effect on axial compressive strength of concrete was investigated. Also, model equations were suggested by modified size effect law (MSEL). The test results show that size effect appears conspicuously for all series of specimens. Additionally, the effect of initial notch length on axial compressive strength was also apparent.

Statistical notes for clinical researchers: effect size

  • Kim, Hae-Young
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.328-331
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    • 2015
  • Though p values give information on statistical significance, they are confounded with the sample size. Effect size can make up the weak point, by providing information on the actual effect which is independent of the sample size. Therefore, reporting the effect size as well as the p value is recommended.

A Review on the Use of Effect Size in Nursing Research (간호학 연구에서 효과크기의 사용에 대한 고찰)

  • Kang, Hyuncheol;Yeon, Kyupil;Han, Sang-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.641-649
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to introduce the main concepts of statistical testing and effect size and to provide researchers in nursing science with guidance on how to calculate the effect size for the statistical analysis methods mainly used in nursing. Methods: For t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis which are used frequently in nursing research, the generally accepted definitions of the effect size were explained. Results: Some formulae for calculating the effect size are described with several examples in nursing research. Furthermore, the authors present the required minimum sample size for each example utilizing G*Power 3 software that is the most widely used program for calculating sample size. Conclusion: It is noted that statistical significance testing and effect size measurement serve different purposes, and the reliance on only one side may be misleading. Some practical guidelines are recommended for combining statistical significance testing and effect size measure in order to make more balanced decisions in quantitative analyses.

Compression Strength Size Effect on Carbon-PEEK Fiber Composite Failing by Kink Band Propagation

  • Kim, Jang-Ho
    • KCI Concrete Journal
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2000
  • The effect of structure size on the nominal strength of unidirectional fiber-polymer composites, failing by propagation of a kink band with fiber microbuckling, is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Tests of novel geometrically similar carbon-PEEK specimens, with notches slanted so as to lead to a pure kink band (without shear or splitting cracks), are conducted. The specimens are rectangular strips of widths 15.875, 31.75. and 63.5 mm (0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 in and gage lengths 39.7, 79.375 and 158.75 mm (1.563, 3.125 and 6.25 in.). They reveal the existence of a strong (deterministic. non-statistical) size effect. The doubly logarithmic plot of the nominal strength (load divided by size and thickness) versus the characteristic size agrees with the approximate size effect law proposed for quasibrittle failures in 1983 by Bazant This law represents a gradual transition from a horizontal asymptote, representing the case of no size effect (characteristic of plasticity or strength criteria), to an asymptote of slope -1/2 (characteristic of linear elastic fracture mechanics. LEFM) . The size effect law for notched specimens permits easy identification of the fracture energy of the kink bandand the length of the fracture process zone at the front of the band solely from the measurements of maximum loads. Optimum fits of the test results by the size effect law are obtained, and the size effect law parameters are then used to identify the material fracture characteristics, Particularly the fracture energy and the effective length of the fracture process zone. The results suggest that composite size effect must be considered in strengthening existing concrete structural members such as bridge columns and beams using a composite retrofitting technique.

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Prediction of Shear Strength for Large Anchors Considering the Prying Effect and Size Effect

  • Kim, Kangsik;Lee, Kwangsoo;An, Gyeonghee
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.451-460
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    • 2016
  • An anchorage system is necessary in most reinforced concrete structures for connecting attachments. It is very important to predict the strength of the anchor to safely maintain the attachments to the structures. However, according to experimental results, the existing design codes are not appropriate for large anchors because they offer prediction equations only for small size anchors with diameters under 50 mm. In this paper, a new prediction model for breakout shear strength is suggested from experimental results considering the characteristics of large anchors, such as the prying effect and size effect. The proposed equations by regression analysis of the derived model equations based on the prying effect and size effect can reasonably be used to predict the breakout shear strength of not only ordinary small size anchors but also large size anchors.

A Comparison Study on the Effect Size According to the Type of Fandom Activities : Based on Meta-analysis (팬덤활동의 유형에 따른 효과크기 비교 연구: 메타분석 기반)

  • Kim, Jhong-Yun;Kim, Eun-Bee
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.259-268
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of our study is to conduct a general·quantitative analysis of fandom activities and verify their organization types and effects. The results are as follows. With regard to the comparison of effect size, the variable related to the social and economic field showed the greatest effect size, which was followed by individual behavior and individual mentality. In terms of influential factors of fandom activities, the effect size of positive variables was intermediate level while the effect size of negative variables was low level. In addition, the effect size of fandom supporting idol groups was the greatest, which was followed by of fandoms supporting sports stars, and actors. In terms of the effect size with regard to the influence on fandom among the objects of study, the effect size of university students was the greatest, which was followed by the whole, adult, middle and high school student, and middle school student. Meanwhile, the result of the analysis according to the classification by country showed that China had the greatest effect size, and the US also showed quite a big effect size. On the other hand, South Korea showed a low level of effect size.