• Title, Summary, Keyword: Effect

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A Research on the Correct Concept of the Greenhouse Effect (온실 효과에 대한 바른 개념 고찰)

  • Shin Hyoun-Youn;Lee Du-Gon
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.122-132
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    • 2006
  • This research compared the mechanism of the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere with retaining warmth in the actual greenhouse, analyzed the styles of explaining the greenhouse effect in current textbooks, and investigated teachers' and students' degrees of understanding the effect. The mechanisms of the actual greenhouse and the greenhouse effect are not the same. Nevertheless, in all the current textbooks, the radiation phenomenon by the atmosphere is described as the 'greenhouse effect'. Using the words of the 'greenhouse effect' to refer to the effect of air being kept warm by the heat absorbing gases, causes confusion of concepts. To make learners understand the greenhouse effect exactly, concrete principles such as radiating electromagnetic phenomenon should be explained. However, teachers and current textbooks explained the radiating electromagnetic phenomenon as actual greenhouse. Therefore, it is difficult for learners to understand the greenhouse effect, scientifically. Because of this, learners maybe confused about greenhouse effect concepts.

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VHTR Construction Ripple Effect Analysis Using Inter-Industry Tables (산업연관분석을 통한 초고온가스로 건설 파급효과 분석)

  • Lee, Tae-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2015
  • The VHTR (Very High Temperature gas-cooled nuclear Reactor) has been considered as a major heat source and the most safe generation IV type reactor for mass hydrogen production to prepare for the hydrogen economy era. The VHTR satisfies goals for the GIF (Generation IV International Forum) policy such as sustainablility, economics, reliability and proliferation resistance and physical protection, and safety. As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the ripple effect on the whole industry due to the lack of information about Inter-industries relationship. In many case, the ripple effect are based on experts' knowledge or uncertain qualitative assumptions. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt${\times}$4 modules construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK (Nth Of A Kind). Because inducement effect values have been published annually, we predict inducement effect's relation function and estimated values including production inducement effect value, added value inducement effect value, and employment inducement effect value using time series and estimated values are verified with published inducement effects' value. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence using a time series analysis and inter-industry table. This ripple effect analysis techniques can be applied to effect expectation analysis as well as other type reactor's ripple effect analysis including VHTR for process heat.

Effect of Spousal Attachment on Job Attachment/Commitment, Job Quality, and the Support Provided for Wife in Male Early Adulthood (성인전기 남성의 부부애착이 직무애착 및 헌신, 직무의 질과 아내를 위한 지지에 미치는 영향)

  • Whaung, Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.171-191
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of spousal attachment on job attachment/commitment, job quality, and the support provided for wife in male early adulthood. The research method was survey research. Based on adult attachment approach, the hypothesis was established. The secure attachment with spouse was no significant effect on job attachment/commitment, The anxious-avoident attachment with spouse was no significant effect on job attachment/commitment, and The anxious-ambivalent attachment with spouse was significant negative effect on job attachment/commitment. The secure attachment with spouse was significant positive effect on job quality. The anxious-avoident attachment with spouse as no significant effect on job quality, and The anxious-ambivalent attachment with spouse was significant negative effect on job quality. The secure attachment with spouse was significant positive effect on ordinary support for wife, The anxious-avoident attachment with spouse was significant negative effect on ordinary support for wife, and The anxious-ambivalent attachment with spouse was no significant effect on ordinary support for wife. The secure attachment with spouse was significant positive effect on nonordinary for wife, The anxious-avoident attachment with spouse was significant negative effect on nonordinary support for wife, and The anxious-ambivalent attachment with spouse was no significant effect on nonordinary support for wife. The results was discussed on the importance of spousal attachment for healthy job life and family life.

Estimating the Air Temperature Cooling Effect of the Cheonggyechun Stream Restoration Project of Seoul, Korea

  • Park Chong-Hwa;Kwon Young-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture International Edition
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    • no.2
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    • pp.120-129
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    • 2004
  • Urban stream restoration projects can improve water quality, wildlife habitats, urban landscape, outdoor recreation spaces, and urban microclimate. The objectives of this research were to investigate temperature cooling effect of urban streams by using satellite imagery, to evaluate environmental variables related to stream cooling effect, and to estimate the cooling effect of the Cheonggye stream restoration project of Seoul, Korea. Findings of this research can be summarized as follows. First, a method of estimating temperature distribution around urban streams by using satellite imagery was developed. Scatter plots of distance from stream edges and average temperature obtained through multiple buffering were used for the estimation. Second, urban temperature cooling effect of streams was estimated by comparing background temperature and temperature of each buffer zone. Third, environmental factors affecting stream cooling effect were also identified. Fourth, the temperature cooling effect of the restoration project was estimated based on three scenarios. An estimated cooling effect based on the average cooling effect of existing tributaries showed the most significant effect; $2.0^{\circ}C$ lower than the present level at the edge of the renovated stream. It was estimated that the temperature of the same area would be $1.4^{\circ}C$ cooler than the present level if the cooling effect of the Yangjaechun was used as the bench mark But the effect would be $1.2^{\circ}C$ lower than the present level if environmental variables related to the temperature cooling effect of urban streams were used as the bench mark.

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The Study on Economic Evaluation for Investment Cost When the Distribution Automation System is Applied (배전자동화 투자비대 경제적 효과분석에 관한 연구)

  • 하복남;한용희;한병성;이흥호
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers A
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    • v.52 no.7
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    • pp.407-413
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    • 2003
  • Before expanding of distribution automation application to distribution network, we must examine whether there are economical effect. Investment expense for distribution automation can be divided into facility investment expense, maintenance expense, communication expense, investment expense etc. Effect of distribution automation can classify by effect that can convert into money and effect that can not convert into money. Representative effect is outage time decrease effect, distribution line loss decrease effect, main transformer upload effect, distribution line upload effect, work environment improvement effect of lineman and so on. This paper studied economical effect and break-even Point for investment expense by using data that acquire in KEPCO's distribution network.

Effects of Kanagawa Hemolysin on Blood Pressure and Arterial Tone in Rats

  • Kim, Young-Moon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2002
  • Kanagawa hemolysin (KH), an exotoxin produced from Kanagawa phenomenon-positive Vibrio parahemolyticus, has been shown to possess various biological activities including hemolysis, enterotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of KH on the cardiovascular system and its mechanism, employing in vivo and in vitro experiments of the rat. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 100 mHU KH produced a marked and continuous pressor effect (icv KH-pressor effect), and the icv pressor effect was not repeatable. However, intravenous (iv) injection of the same dose of KH induced a prominent depressor effect (iv KH-depressor effect). The icv KH-pressor effect was inhibited by acid-denaturation, while the iv KH-depressor effect was not. Simultaneous icv administration of the three agents (ouabain, diltiazem, or bumetanide: $10{\mu}g/kg$ each) significantly reduced the pressor effect. The icv KH-pressor effect was inhibited by treatment with iv phentolamine or chlorisondamine, but was not affected by iv candesartan. The iv KH-depressor effect was repeatable and was attenuated by treatment with iv NAME or methylene blue. In vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aorta, $10^{-6}$ M phenylephrine (PE) and 50 mM KCl produced a sustained contraction. In rings contracted with either agents, KH showed relaxant responses in a concentration- dependent fashion and the relaxation (KH-vasorelaxation) was not dependent on the existence of the endothelium. The KH-vasorelaxation in the endothelium-intact rings contracted by PE was abolished by methylene blue treatment. In summary, the present findings suggest that in the icv KH-pressor effect the cation leak-inducing action of KH is implicated, which leads to the increased central sympathetic tone, that the iv KH-depressor effect results from the vasorelaxation via NO-guanylate cyclase system, and that the KH-vasorelaxation is independent of the endothelium and the guanylate cyclase system is involved in it. In conclusion, the mechanism of KH producing the icv pressor effect may not be identical to that of KH producing the iv depressor effect.

The Effect of Maslow's Basic Needs on the Clothing Values among Adult Women (Maslow의 기본욕구가 의복가치관에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang Kyung-Ja;Suh Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1989
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of basic needs and demographic variables of adult women upon clothing values. This study was designed with causal model regrading the demographic variables as independent variable: the basic need as interventing variable: the eight clothing values as dependent variables. The major findings of this research can be summarized as following; 1. Age of women has a definite effect on marriage status, school career and income. Age has effect on marriage status in seven values except exploratory value. It has effect on school career in aethetic and political values, and it has also effect on school career and income in social and religious values. 2. Age has no significant direct effect on the basic needs. Marriage status and school career have significant direct effect on the basic needs. Marriage status has positive effect on the need for self-esteem in seven values except exploratory value. The need for self-esteem of unmarried women are stronger than that of married women. School career has negative impact on the need for safety. The women having higher school career do not have strong need for safety in aethetic and social values. 3. School career, income, needs for safety, belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualizing have significant direct effect on clothing values. School career has positive effect on aethetic and political values, and it has negative effect on religious values. Income has negative effect upon social and religious values. Need for safety has negative effect on aethetic values. Need for safety is positively related with need for belongingneses, and they have an effect on the social values. Need for self-esteem has positive effect on the aethetic and political values, and it has negative impact on theoretical, economic, social and religious values. Need for self-actualizing has positive effect on the theoretical values.

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Analysis to the Visual Expression Types and Characteristics of New Materials Utilizing the Lighting (조명을 활용한 신소재의 시각적 표현유형 및 특성분석)

  • Jung, Sun-Hee;Seo, Ji-Eun
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the expression method and visual characteristics of material utilized the lighting in terms of a visual aspect. The method of study is to establish standards for analysis and to classify type of visual effect and expression of that focused on preliminary study. And It is to grasp the visual expression characteristics of new materials. through analysis standards. The results of the study are as follows. First, 'decorativeness', 'symbolization', 'motion-images' and 'interactivity' were selected as the type of visual expression through the precedent studies. And it was classified the visual effects as 3 types like 'a light-emitting effect', 'steric effects' and 'movement effect'. Second, We could know that 'light-emitting effect' was expressed in 7-new materials, 'three-dimensional effect' was expressed in 3-new materials, and 'motion effect' in 4-new materials. Through that. We could know that the new materials represented with 'light-emitting effect' are much more than the other new materials. Third, the results of this study show that 'decorativeness' in the visual types was appeared to 'light-emitting effect' and 'three-dimensional effect'. 'symbolization' to 'light-emitting effect' and 'motion effect', 'motion-images' to 'three-dimensional effect' and 'motion effect' and 'interactivity' to 'light-emitting effect', 'three-dimensional effect' and 'motion effect'. And It was appeared to three effects in 'interactivity'. We could know that it is more effective to be presented the visual effect simultaneously to communication with the visual perception.

Major Effect Models of Social Support and Its Statistical Methods in Korean Nursing Research (사회적지지의 효과 모델 및 통계분석방법에 관한 국내간호논문 분석)

  • 이은현;김진선
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1503-1520
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of the present study is 1) to explain major effect models (main, moderating, and mediating) of social support and statistical methods for testing the effect models and 2) to analyze and evaluate the consistency in the use of the effect models and its statistical methods in Korean nursing studies. A total of 57 studies were selected from Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, Journal of Korean Academic Society of Adult Nursing, Journal of Korean Women's Health Nursing Academic Society, Journal of Fundamentals of Nursing, Journal of Korean Community Nursing, Journal of Korean Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Academic Society, and Journal of Korean Pediatric Nursing Academic Society published in the year of 1990-1999. In results, most studies on social support performed in Korea Nursing Society were about a main effect model. There are few studies on moderating or mediating model of social support. Thus, it was difficult to find research findings how, why, under what conditions social support impacted on health outcomes. Most studies on the moderating or mediating effect model of social support used statistical methods for testing main effect model rather than for testing moderating or mediating effect model. That is, there are inconsistency between effect models of social support and its statistical methods in Korean nursing researches. Therefore, it is recommended to perform studies on moderating or mediating effect model and use appropriate statistical methods.

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