• Title/Summary/Keyword: Ecotoxicity

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Ecotoxicity Assessment for Livestock Waste Water Treated by a Low Impact Development(LID) Pilot Plant (파일럿 규모의 LID공법을 적용한 축산폐수 처리수에 대한 생태독성 평가)

  • Park, Da Kyung;Chang, Soon-Woong;Choi, Hanna
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.662-669
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    • 2017
  • This study evaluated the ecotoxicological properties of livestock waste water treated by a LID (Low Impact Development) system, using a mixture of bio-reeds and bio-ceramics as suitable bed media for a subsequent treatment process of a livestock wastewater treatment plant. The relationship between the pollutant reduction rate and the ecotoxicity was analyzed with the effluents from the inlet pilot plant, with vegetated swale and wetlands and the batch type of an infiltration trench. Each pilot plant consisted of a bio process using bio-reeds and bio-ceramics as bed media, as well as a general process using general reeds and a bed as a control group. The results indicated that, after applying the HRT 24 hour LID method, the ecotoxicity was considerably lowered and the batch type pilot plant was shown to be effective for toxicity reduction. The LID method is expected to be effective for water quality management, considering ecotoxicity by not only as a nonpoint source pollution abatement facility but also, as a subsequent treatment process linked with a livestock manure purification facility. It is necessary to take the LID technic optimization study further to apply it as a subsequent process for livestock wastewater treatment.

Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Microalgae as Standard Species for Marine Ecotoxicity Tests (Skeletonema sp., Dunaliella tertiolecta) (해양생태독성시험 표준생물로서 미세조류의 특성 비교 연구(Skeletonema sp., Dunaliella tertiolecta))

  • Kim, Tae Won;Moon, Chang Ho;Lee, Su Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.514-522
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    • 2020
  • To understand the ecotoxicological differences between representative Skeletonema sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta, both producers as international standard test species for marine ecotoxicity testing, we compared each standard test method, and comparatively analyzed the suitability of the species for environmental assessment and their sensitivity to various test substances. Although most of the test conditions were the same in each method, there were differences in limitation of pH changing and the initial inoculation density in the validation criteria, which is supposed to originate from the low growth rate of D. tertiolecta. In terms of suitability, both species showed consistency in test performance by repeatedly meeting the validation criteria required by the standard test methods. The salinity ranges available for testing were 20 and 10 psu for Skeletonema sp. and D. tertioelecta, respectively. Finally, regarding sensitivity, the toxicity sensitivity of Skeletonema sp. was relatively higher than that of D. tertiolecta for the reference toxicant, actual polluted water discharged (ballast water), and other chemicals. This implies that using at least two species of microalgae from different classification groups could help increase the reliability and objectivity of test results in the performance of marine ecotoxicity tests using producers.

Toxic Effects of Metal Plating Wastewater on Daphnia magna and Euglena agilis (Daphnia magna와 Euglena agilis를 이용한 도금폐수 독성평가)

  • Lee, Junga;Park, Da Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2016
  • The ecotoxicity tests for metal plating wastewater were conducted using Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Euglena agilis (E. agilis). Evaluation for sources of toxicity was performed by 1) Correlation analysis between the concentration of individual metals in the metal plating wastewater and the toxic effects on D. magna, 2) Toxicant identification evaluation methods including graduated pH method, EDTA procedure and sodium thiosulfate procedure, 3) Comparison of toxic effect value ($EC_{50}$ or $LC_{50}$) of individual metal on D. magna and it's concentration in the metal plating wastewater. To evaluate the possibility of E. agilis, a Korean domestic organism, as a test model organism for metal plating waste water, E. agilis toxicity test was also assessed using on-line euglena ecotoxicity system (E-Tox system). Based on toxicant characterization test using D. magna, it was expected that SS, oxidants and heavy metals are responsible for toxicity of metal plating waste water. Especially Cu, Hg, and Ag were the major cationic metals that caused toxicity. E. agilis is less sensitive than D. magna based on the $EC_{50}$ value however it shows prompt response to toxic test substances. E. agilis shows even a significant effect on the cell swimming velocity within 2 min to toxic metal plating wastewater. Our study demonstrates that E. agilis test can be a putative ecotoxicity test for assessing the quality of metal plating waste water.

Ecotoxicity Test Using E. agilis Biomonitoring System (Euglena 운동성 측정장치를 이용한 생태독성평가)

  • Lee, Junga;Kim, Kyung Nam;Park, Da Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2016
  • The toxic responses of flagellate Euglena agilis Carter to 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr (VI), Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) were measured using E. agilis system (E-Tox), an automated biomonitoring system. The E-Tox measures cell movement parameters, such as velocity, motility, and forms of the cells, as biological endpoints. $EC_{50}$ values from the E. agilis biomonitoring test were compared with the literature data from the tests with Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and Euglena gracilis. Measurement of the E. agilis movement behavior and D. magna acute toxicity test were also conducted for the wastewater samples. E. agilis is less sensitive than D. magna but is comparable to or more sensitive than V. fischeri and E. gracilis for the heavy metals tested in this study. E. agilis shows prompt changes of these parameters for the toxic metal plating wastewater. Major advantages of the E-tox are automatic, easy to handle and fast ecotoxicity monitoring system compared to other biological test systems. These results imply that E. agilis biomonitoring test using E-Tox can be a putative ecotoxicity test as a good early warning tool for the monitoring of toxic wastewater.

Studies on Toxicological Evaluation of Freshwater Sediment using a PLHC-1 Cell Comet Assay (PLHC-1세포주의 Comet assay를 이용한 하천 퇴적토의 생태독성평가)

  • Bak, Jeong-Ah;Hwang, In-Young;Baek, Seung-Hong;Kim, Young-Sug
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2011
  • In this study, the Comet assay (evaluation of DNA damage) used the fish hepatocellular carinoma cell, PLHC-1, was tried to the sediment extract obtained from freshwater to understand its applicability as a tool for monitoring sediment toxicity. In parallel, induced EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin- O-deethylase) activity and DNA damage (TEM values) in PLHC-1 cells were measured for establishing the tandem endpoints of the PLHC-1cell test to test the ecotoxicity of sediment. Among several study sites in a small river passed through downtown and industrial park area, one of them, site B, showed a higher level of EROD activity and DNA damage than other sites. It indicates that a tandem endpoints of PLHC-1 cells could be useful tools for assessing the toxicity of sediment. The sensitivity of Comet assay with PLHC-1 cells was a little higher than that with a blood cell of frog tadpoles to the solvent extract of sediment. According to the results, a PLHC-1 cell-Comet assay could be used as a useful tool for evaluating ecotoxicity of the freshwater sediment. In addition, more detailed studies are needed to the contaminated site.

Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals of Concern for Initiation of Ecorisk-based Water Quality Standards in Korea (생태수질기준설정을 위한 대상물질의 생태위해성 평가)

  • An, Youn-Joo;Nam, Sun-Hwa;Kim, Yong-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.592-597
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    • 2008
  • Current water quality standard (WQS) in Korea is based on the protection of human health, not considering the protection of aquatic organisms. Most of chemicals can be toxic to ecological biota as well as human. Health of aquatic biota is closely related to the human health via food chain, therefore ecological risk based-WQS needs to be developed to protect the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, we selected the 31 chemicals in the Project entitled 'Development of integrated methodology for evaluation of water environment'. The methodology for calculating water quality criteria was derived from the Australian and New Zealand processes for deriving guideline trigger value for aquatic ecosystem. The available ecotoxicity data were collected from US EPA's ECOTOXicology Database (ECOTOX), TOX-2000 Database, European Chemicals Bureau (ECB)'s International Uniform Chemical Information Database (IUCLID) and Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)'s report 'Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC)'. The aquatic toxicity data for the Korean species were selected for risk assessment to reflect the Korean water environment. The monitoring values were calculated from the water quality monitoring data four main Korean rivers. We suggested the order of priorities of chemicals based on ecological risk assessment. We expect that these results can be useful information for establishing the WQS for the protection of aquatic ecosystem.

Derivation of Agricultural Water Quality Guidelines for Heavy Metals in Korea (국내 농업용수의 유해중금속 수질권고기준 도출)

  • An, Youn-Joo;Baek, Yong-Wook;Lee, Woo-Mi;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.533-536
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    • 2008
  • Korean water quality guidelines for agricultural were derived to protect agricultural water uses according to the Canadian methodology. The adverse effect of heavy metals in agricultural water was of concern due to its persistence, bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity to crop plants. The ecotoxicity data of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were collected for the crops grown in Korea, and used to estimate the species maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (SMATC), which corresponds to the water quality guideline. Values of irrigation per year and soil bulk density were revised to reflect the Korean situation. The estimated guideline values for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. These values are in agreement with the agricultural water quality guidelines of foreign countries and current Korean water quality standard for the protection of public health. Current water quality standards in agricultural uses were for management of public water resource, and was not prepared to protect crop plants from contaminants. The results of this study will be a basis for the designation of Korean water quality guidelines for the protection of agricultural water uses in the future.

Review of the Extraction Methods of Soil Extracts, Soil Elutriates, and Soil Suspensions for Ecotoxicity Assessments (생태독성평가를 위한 Soil Extracts, Soil Elutriates, Soil Suspensions 추출기법)

  • Nam, Sun-Hwa;An, Youn-Joo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2014
  • Soil pollution has been recognized as a serious problem because it causes groundwater pollution through medium contacts. Although concentration of individual chemical could be more easily measured by physico-chemical analysis, it is not easy to consider the bioavailability of edaphic receptors living in soil or groundwater. To measure the toxicity of soil, the soil extracts (soil elutriates or soil suspensions in the other words) are often used due to the difficulties of extracting soil pore water. In this study, we reviewed 15 toxicity test methods found in literature to analyze the detail of each extraction method and to recommend the most frequently used extraction methods. The identified most commonly used extraction methods are as following: The 1 : 4 soil:water ratio, 24 hours shaking time, room temperature, dark, and separation of supernatant using a $0.45{\mu}m$ pore size filter.

Life Cycle Assessment on the Interior Panel of Electric Motor Unit (EMU) (전동차 내장판넬에 대한 전과정평가 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Choi, Yo-Han;Kim, Yong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.517-523
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    • 2006
  • The sustainable development is a key issue in the whole field of economy, culture and society, which can be accomplished by the improvement of environment. Recently, life cycle assessment(LCA) has been applied to reduce environmental impacts preliminarily by evaluating the environmental performance of a product through its life cycle. In this study, life cycle assessment was performed to analyze quantitatively the environmental impact on the interior panel of electric motor unit(EMU). As a result, the interior panel with aluminum showed the most global warming(GW), while that with phenol and plastic showed high fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity(FAET) and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity(MAET), respectively. Global warming was occurred mainly due to the emission of $CO_2$ by energy consumption. FAET and MAET were caused by the pollutants released from acid-washing and paints coating process. Therefore, an environmental-friendly EMU can be designed considering the environmental impacts of interior panel.

A Study on the Characteristics of Environmental Impact with the Seat Material of Electric Motor Unit (EMU) (전동차 의자의 재질에 따른 환경부하 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Kim, Bo-Kyong;Chun, Yoon-Young;Kim, Yong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.524-531
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    • 2006
  • Environmental problem is one of important global issues. Transportations are main pollutant emission sources. Although railroad is stilt an environmental-friendly transportation, its environmental impact has been increased continuously. Especially, because a large amount of environmental impact is released from vehicles and facilities, it is necessary to assess and to reduce their environmental impact. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a representative method which can evaluate environment impact through the whole life cycle of a product or a process. In this study, the environmental impact of seat in the electric motor unit (EMU) was analyzed quantitatively with its material using lift cycle assessment (LCA). As a result, the characteristics of environmental impact were investigated differently with the material of seat. Among ten impact categories, the seat with aluminum and FRP showed the highest ozone depletion (OD). On the other hand, in the seat with stainless steel and plastic, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (FAET) and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity (MAET) were high relatively. Therefore, the parts of EMU must be selected considering the characteristics of environmental impact in future.