• Title/Summary/Keyword: Ecotoxicity

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Developing a Multi-purpose Ecotoxicity Database Model and Web-based Searching System for Ecological Risk Assessment of EDCs in Korea (웹 기반 EDCs 생태 독성 자료베이스 모델 및 시스템 개발)

  • Kwon, Bareum;Lee, Hunjoo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.412-421
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: To establish a system for integrated risk assessment of EDCs in Korea, infrastructure for providing toxicity data of ecological media should be established. Some systems provide soil ecotoxicity databases along with aquatic ecotoxicity information, but a well-structured ecotoxicity database system is still lacking. Methods: Aquatic and soil ecotoxicological information were collected by a toxicologist based on a human readable data (HRD) format for collecting ecotoxicity data that we provided. Among these data, anomalies were removed according to database normalization theory. Also, the data were cleaned and encoded to establish a machine-readable data (MRD) ecotoxicity database system. Results: We have developed a multi-purpose ecotoxicity database model focusing on EDCs, ecological species, and toxic effects. Also, we have constructed a web-based data searching system to retrieve, extract, and download data with greater availability. Conclusions: The results of our study will contribute to decision-making as a tool for efficient ecological risk assessment of EDCs in Korea.

Evaluation of Effluent Toxicity which were Exempted from Applying of Ecotoxicity Criteria (생태독성기준 미적용 업종 사업장 배출수 생태독성 수준 평가)

  • Kim, Jongmin;Shin, Kisik;Lee, Soohyung;Lee, Jungseo;Lee, Taekjune
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2017
  • This paper aimed to evaluate the test results of acute toxicity on effluent samples which were exempted from applying of ecotoxicity criteria. Total 316 effluent samples which were free from controlling of ecotoxicity regulation, were tested. Ratio of effluent samples which were exceeded the ecotoxicity criteria (TU > 1) indicated 23.7%. This ratio was a little bit higher than previous study (22.7%) on effluent samples which were controlled under ecotoxicity criteria. These results mean that our ecotoxicity management system is not appropriate and applying of ecotoxicity criteria to all effluent samples (82 industry categories) were needed in order to improve our ecotoxicity system. In addition, the same numeric criteria (TU 1 or 2) for all industry categories were proposed in consideration of these results. Ratio of effluent samples which exceeded the ecotoxicity criteria (TU > 1) with D. magna indicated 23.7%. However V. fischeri showed 14.6%. As a acute toxicity test organism, D. magna seemed to be more sensitive than V. fischeri. Ratio of samples which were exceeded TU 1 with D. magna by 24 h exposure period test indicated 35 %, whereas 48 h showed 41%.

A Comparative Study of Standard Methods for Assessing Ecotoxicity of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (내분비계장애물질의 생태독성평가를 위한 표준시험법 비교연구)

  • Kwak, Jin Il;Cui, Rongxue;Moon, Jongmin;Kim, Dokyung;An, Youn-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.132-139
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    • 2017
  • Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with endocrine system in organisms, and have different mode of actions compared to conventional chemicals. Therefore, EDCs specific ecotoxicity tests and assessments have been globally developed by some organizations such as OECD, ASTM, and USEPA. In Korea, researches on EDCs and monitoring of EDCs in domestic environments were also continued. However, Korean ecotoxicity test guidelines for EDCs are not suggested till date. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze international ecotoxicity test guidelines for EDCs and the compare ecotoxicity methods and toxicity endpoints among standard test guidelines. We found that there are very limited EDCs specific soil ecotoxicity test guidelines (only in ASTM) compared to aquatic ecotoxicity test guidelines. Currently, fish, amphibian, waterflea, copepoda, earthworm, white worm, springtail, nematode, mite, and midge are suggested as standard ecotoxicity test species for EDCs. Reproduction, hormones, growth, vitellogenin, sex retio and development were proposed as endpoints for EDCs ecotoxicity. This study provided the comparison of EDCs specific ecotoxicity methods and endpoints between standard test guidelines, and suggested the further research to develop the method for assesseing ecotoxicity of EDCs.

Ecotoxicity Assessment of Industrial Effluent in Korea (산업폐수 방류수의 생태독성 평가)

  • Oh, Kyung Taek;Kim, Ji Won;Kim, Woo Kun;Lee, Soon Ae;Yun, Hong Gil;Lee, Sung Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2006
  • Ecotoxicity assessments of 90 selected effluents of 22 industry types from 2002 to 2004 in Korea were evaluated by a toxic battery of bioassay test using fish Oryzias latipes, invertebrate Daphnia magna, algae Selenastrum capricornutum and bacteria Vibrio fischeri with the physicochemical measurement items and permit concentrations on the present Water Quality Conservation Act in Korea. Total toxic unit (${\Sigma}TU$) of 8 industry types of 22 industry types by the toxic battery appeared in order of the value site as follows; Pigment Dye Manufacturing (${\Sigma}TU$ 217.1) > Textile and Dye (${\Sigma}TU$ 39.3) > Semiconductor Electronic Manufacturing (Small) (${\Sigma}TU$ 25.6) > Wastewater and Sewage Treatment Plants (${\Sigma}TU$ 25.4) > Coating (${\Sigma}TU$ 23.8) > Leather Skin Manufacturing (${\Sigma}TU$ 18.0) > Synthetic Resin Manufacturing (${\Sigma}TU$ 15.6) > Assemble Metal Manufacturing (${\Sigma}TU$ 10.7). Our results demonstrate that ecotoxicity assessment, by bioassay test, is effective and practical for industrial wastewater management for 90 selected effluents with the limitation of the physicochemical permit. Among 90 effluents, 9 samples failed physicochemical permit limitation and 81 passed it. In result of ecotoxicity assessment of 90 effluents by the toxic battery, 76 effluents exhibited ecotoxicity and the others did not. The physicochemical measurement items and permit concentrations on the present Water Quality Conservation Act in Korea were low related to the ecotoxicity value by the toxic battery and appeared limited for water quality management to water-ecosystem and environment-friendly management of water.

ANTIMUTAGENIC STUDY OF SELENIUM COMPOUNDS

  • Bronzetti, Giorgio;Leonardo Caltavuturo, Marco Cini;Croce, Clara Della
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.10-10
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    • 2001
  • Selenium is an essential nutritional element for several animal species and human. It has been also seen, that low levels of selenium in the diet can cause many diseases. This metalloid was defined like a "double face" element because it possesses antioxidant, antimutagen, anticarcinogen but also mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. The most important metabolic role of selenium in the animal species is its presence in the Glutathione Peroxidase(GSH-Px). (omitted)

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Ecotoxicity of Nonionic Surfactants based on its Chemical Structure for Closterium ehrenbergii (비이온 계면활성제의 화학구조에 따른 Closterium ehrenbergii 대한 생태독성)

  • ;Matsui Saburo
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.15 no.1_2
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2000
  • This study was designed to evaluated the ecotoxicity to Closterium ehrenbergii using Nonionic surfactants based on its chemical structure. Nonionic surfactants ecotoxicity tended to increase with decreasing the number of ethylene oxide units. The Closterium ehrenbergii test was good in sensitivity and agreement with other published results. The use of Closterium ehrenbergii test offers promising potential for ecotoxicological applications.

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Standardization of Ecotoxicity Assay Method for Heavy Metals using Inhibition of Dehydrogenase Activity (탈수소효소 활성도 저해를 이용한 중금속 생태독성 평가법의 표준화)

  • Oh, Kyoung-Hee;Han, Ah-Won;Cho, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.574-579
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    • 2010
  • In this study the enzyme inhibition method using dehydrogenase which has been popularly used to estimate ecotoxicity was optimized. When three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli HB101, Enterobacter asburiae KCAD-4, and Aeromonas media KCAD-13, were compared, KCAD-4 was considered as the adequate strain to estimate toxicity because of its sensitivity and reproducibility. The optimal bacterial density was estimated as $5.4{\times}10^9CFU/mL$, at which the maximum sensitivity was observed. The phosphate buffer was suitable for the reaction solution. When the reaction times required for inhibition of enzyme activity by contact of toxicants and for reaction of damaged bacteria and substrate were tested, the optimal value was estimated as 20 min and 2 hrs, respectively. It is expected that the optimized conditions can be used to develop the standardized kits to estimate ecotoxicity of heavy metals in effluent from the industrial wastewater treatment facilities.

Toxicity Assessment of Heavy Metals in Shihwa Lake and Its Tributaries using the Algae (조류를 이용한 시화호 및 시화호 유입수 내 중금속 물질의 독성 평가 연구)

  • Woo, Minhui;Lee, Gyuyoung;Kim, Jihye;Lim, Jihyun;Lee, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2012
  • This research investigates how using algae as an ecotoxicological test species is easier than using daphnia for identifying toxic causative substances. From the results of the ecotoxicity measurements on the Shihwa lake and its tributaries, heavy metals were considered as one of major factors in causing toxicity. The algae ecotoxicity value was 9.6 while the daphnia ecotoxicity value was 0.8 in the Jeongwang stream. By using algae as the test species, we could identify the toxicity that causes heavy metals which might otherwise have been missed with only daphnia. The results from the EDTA addition test showed that zinc and copper were the main toxic causative substances in the Jeongwang stream and Gunja stream.

Evaluation of Ecotoxicity and Characteristics on Indirect Effluents and Related Wastewater (간접방류사업장 관련 폐수의 생태독성수준 및 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Jongmin;Shin, Kisik;Lee, Soohyung;Lee, Jungseo;Lee, Taekjune
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.481-486
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    • 2017
  • This paper aims to evaluate the characteristics of direct and indirect effluents'toxicity level and difference between two test durations (24 h and 48 h) of test method. The proportion of the indirect effluent samples which exceeded the ecotoxicity permit limitations (TU 1 or TU 2) showed more than 2 times higher than that of direct effluent samples. However, effluent toxicity of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs) indicated less than TU 1 regardless of influent toxicity. From this results, treatment process was thought to have a good efficiency. WTP Salinity was very similar between influent and effluent. This trend could be reconfirmed by the component ratio of ion concentration between them and $Na^+$, $SO_4^{2-}$, $C^-$ lions which have a greater percentage than other ions. In addition, in case of high salinity, toxicity value also showed high level. To judge from above results, indirect effluents which were exempted from application of ecotoxicity standards, may need a new effluent limitations regardless of the treatment efficiency of WTP. According to circumstances, effective countermeasure may need to restrain the discharge of salinity-contained effluents which came from indirect-effluent factories. Test duration comparative study indicated that 48 h results were higher toxicity (exceeding rate of ecotoxicity criteria) than 24 h by the 5 to 5.4 percentage. 24 h test duration seemed to be useful in case of rapid detection, whereas 48 h test method could be applied for reinforcement of ecotoxicity regulatory system.