• Title, Summary, Keyword: Eastern Nepal

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Prostate Cancer Screening in a Healthy Population Cohort in Eastern Nepal: an Explanatory Trial Study

  • Belbase, Narayan Prasad;Agrawal, Chandra Shekhar;Pokharel, Paras Kumar;Agrawal, Sudha;Lamsal, Madhab;Shakya, Vikal Chandra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2835-2838
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    • 2013
  • Background: Prostate cancer features a substantial incidence and mortality burden, similarly to breast cancer, and it ranks among the top ten specific causes of death in males. Objective: To explore the situation of prostate cancer in a healthy population cohort in Eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal from July 2010 to June 2011. Males above 50 years visiting the Surgical Outpatient Department in BPKIHS were enrolled in the study and screening camps were organized in four Teaching District Hospitals of BPKIHS, all in Eastern Nepal. Digital rectal examination (DRE) was conducted by trained professionals after collecting blood for assessment of serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA). Trucut biopsies were performed for all individuals with abnormal PSA/DRE findings. Results: A total of 1,521 males more than 50 years of age were assessed and screened after meeting the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of individuals, 1,452 (96.2%), had PSA ${\leq}4.0$ ng/ml. Abnormal PSA (>4 ng/ml) was found in 58 (3.8%). Abnormal DRE was found in 26 (1.72%). DRE and PSA were both abnormal in 26 (1.72%) individuals. On the basis of raised PSA or abnormal DRE 58 (3.84%) individuals were subjected to digitally guided trucut biopsy. Biopsy report revealed benign prostatic hyperplasia in 47 (3.11%) and adenocarcinoma prostate in 11 (0.73%). The specificity of DRE was 66.0%with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a positive predictive value of 38.5%. The sensitivity of PSA more than 4ng/ml in detecting carcinoma prostate was 100% and the positive predictive value for serum PSA was 19.0% Conclusions: The overall cancer detection rate in this study was 0.73% and those detected were locally advanced. Larger community-based studies are highly warranted specially among high-risk groups.

Diversity of the genus Sheathia (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) in northeast India and east Nepal

  • Necchi, Orlando Jr.;West, John A.;Ganesan, E.K.;Yasmin, Farishta;Rai, Shiva Kumar;Rossignolo, Natalia L.
    • ALGAE
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.277-288
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    • 2019
  • Freshwater red algae of the order Batrachospermales are poorly studied in India and Nepal, especially on a molecular basis. During a survey in northeast India and east Nepal, six populations of the genus Sheathia were found and analyzed using molecular and morphological evidence. Phylogenetic analyses based on the rbcL gene sequences grouped all populations in a large clade including our S. arcuata specimens and others from several regions. Sheathia arcuata represents a species complex with a high sequence divergence and several smaller clades. Samples from India and Nepal were grouped in three distinct clades with high support and representing new cryptic species: a clade formed by two samples from India, which was named Sheathia assamica sp. nov.; one sample from India and one from Nepal formed another clade, named Sheathia indonepalensis sp. nov.; two samples from Nepal grouped with sequences from Hawaii and Indonesia (only 'Chantransia' stages) and gametophytes from Taiwan, named Sheathia dispersa sp. nov. Morphological characters of the specimens from these three species overlap one another and with the general circumscription of S. arcuata, which lacks the heterocortication (presence of bulbous cells in the cortical filaments) present in other species of the genus Sheathia. Although the region sampled is relatively restricted, the genetic diversity among specimens of these three groups was high and not closely related in the phylogenetic relationship with the other clades of S. arcuata. These data corroborate information from other groups of organisms (e.g., land and aquatic plants) that indicates this region (Eastern Himalaya) as a hotspot of biodiversity.

Wild edible flowering plants of the Illam Hills (Eastern Nepal) and their mode of use by the local community

  • Ghimeray, Amal Kumar;Sharma, Pankaja;Ghimire, Bimal;Lamsal, Kabir;Ghimire, Balkrishna;Cho, Dong Ha
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.74-77
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    • 2010
  • The Illam district, situated in the extreme North Eastern part (Latitude 26.58N and 87.58E Longitude) of Nepal, is a hot spot for floral diversity. The study of wild edible plants of this region was an attempt to highlight the types of wild flowering plants found there and mode of use by the people of the Illam hills. In this respect, a survey of natural resources of some of the representative regions of the district was undertaken and more than 74 major varieties of plant species were found to be used frequently by the people of the hills. The rich diversity occurring in Dioscoriaceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Arecaceae provided the wild angiospermic species commonly used by the people of the hills.

Socio-cultural position of women in Nepal and Korea: A comparative approach

  • Gadtaulaa, Swechchha;Chung, Yong Kyo
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.162-176
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    • 2016
  • In this study, a part of the social and the economic condition of Nepali women is introduced with a short comparison to the socio-cultural position of the women of Korea. A relative definition of the condition of the past and now: this also briefly introduces the ideas of some of the Nepali women that we have collected through the questionnaire. A comparative literature reviews about the position of women in the past as well as the review of the position of women in present is made. Various articles are used for this as the method of analysis. A quantitative analysis of the status of women (Nepal) taking 24 households through the questionnaire method was done. The answers given by the women are the base for the article. However, the answers to the questionnaire are used to compare the past and the present. Analysis of the received data and their explanation through the tables and graph are done. The charts and tables are followed by a detailed explanation. Conclusively the briefing of the condition of women in both the countries, the changes that are brought or not brought by development; in their life's status and position in society, is mentioned.

Constituents of Mallotus nepalensis Muell. Arg.: a Mild CNS Depressant

  • Rastogi, Subha;Mehrotra, Bishen Narain;Kulshreshtha, Dinesh K.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.237-239
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    • 2004
  • Mallotus nepalensis (Euphorbiaceae) is a small tree found in central and eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Wallich and Sikkim. The 90% ethanolic extract of Mallotus nepalensis exhibited mild CNS depressant activity. Four compounds, lupeol (1), ${\beta}-sitosterol$ (2), ursolic acid (3) and ${\beta}-sitosterol-\;{\beta}-D-glucoside$ (4) were isolated from the 90% ethanolic extract of this plant of which 1, 3 and 4 are being reported for the first time from this species.

A COMPARISON OF JERSEY CROSSBRED AND LOCAL OXEN AS DRAUGHT ANIMALS IN THE EASTERN HILLS OF NEPAL

  • Pearson, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 1991
  • Four pairs of draught oxen (two local and two Jersey crossbred) were studied when they ploughed dry land on local farms. Work done, distance traveled and body temperature of each ox were measured continuously over a 5 h working day. A different team worked each day, completing at least six days work each. Individual food intakes and digestibility of feed were measured when the animals were given rice straw and tree fodder, and housed and fed according to local husbandry practices. The Jersey crossbreds, particularly the longer legged type, had a higher rate of work than the local oxen in this study. They did significantly more work and covered a greater distance during the day. The absence of a hump in the crossbred oxen had no effect on the position of the yoke or the way the oxen pulled when ploughing. The longer legged type of Jersey crossbred tended to work more erratically than any of the other teams. A fast rate of work made the oxen more liable to heat stress. When fed according to local practices and given the same amount of feed as local oxen, Jersey crossbreds tended to do less well. During the ploughing months, the local oxen gained weight, while the crossbreds remained at the same or lost some weight. Although there were some disadvantages to keeping Jersey crossbreds for work, their favourable work output suggests that the introduction of the Jersey crossbred in the hills of Nepal is unlikely to be detrimental to the performance of the work oxen population.

MILK PRODUCTION OF LOCAL AND MURRAH CROSSBRED BUFFALOES AND LOCAL AND JERSEY CROSSBRED COWS ON FARMS IN THE HILLS OF EASTERN NEPAL

  • Shrestha, N.P.;Oli, K.P.;Gatenby, R.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 1994
  • The lactation milk yields of 209 buffaloes and cattle were measured on farms in Taplejung and Dhankuta Districts in East Nepal. This includes local and crossbred buffaloes and cows. The average milk yield (${\pm}\;SD$) of 97 local buffaloes was $833\;{\pm}\;94.6\;kg$ whereas that for 83 local cows was only $455\;{\pm}\;61.5\;kg$. The milk yield of buffaloes decreased with number of calvings, but that for the cows increased. The milk yields of 18 Murrah crossbreds were on average 215 kg higher than the yields of local buffaloes, and the yields of 11 Jersey crossbred cows averaged 247 kg more than the local cows. Lactation length (${\pm}\;SD$) which averaged $326\;{\pm}\;100$ days for the buffaloes and $292\;{\pm}\;98$ days for the cows, was not affected by crossbreeding. The milk yields of the crossbreds were more variable than the local buffaloes and cows. In addition to milk yield the overall productivity of a milking animal depends on calf mortality, age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, food intake, the work performance of male cattle and the meat production of male buffaloes. Among these parameters, the work performance of Jersey crossbred and local male cattle was studied later. However, other factors could not be measured.

THE ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF GINSENG

  • Hu Shiu Ying
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 1978
  • Ginseng is the English common name for the species in the genus Panax. This article gives a broad botanical review including the morphological characteristics, ecological amplitude, and the ethnobotanical aspect of the genus Panax. The species of Panax are adapted for life in rich loose soil of partially shaded forest floor with the deciduous trees such as linden, oak, maple, ash, alder, birch, beech, hickory, etc. forming the canopy. Like their associated trees, all ginsengs are deciduous. They require annual climatic changes, plenty of water in summer, and a period of dormancy in winter. The plant body of ginseng consists of an underground rhizome and an aerial shoot. The rhizome has a terminal bud, prominent leafscars and a fleshy root in some species. It is perennial. The aerial shoot is herbaceous and annual. It consists of a single slender stem with a whorl of digitately compound leaves and a terminal umbel bearing fleshy red fruits after flowering. The yearly cycle of death and renascence of the aerial shoot is a natural phenomenon in ginseng. The species of Panax occur in eastern North America and eastern Asia, including the eastern portion of the Himalayan region. Such a bicentric generic distributional pattern indicates a close floristic relationship of the eastern sides of two great continental masses in the northern hemisphere. It is well documented that genera with this type of disjunct distribution are of great antiquity. Many of them have fossil remains in Tertiary deposits. In this respect, the species of Panax may be regarded as living fossils. The distribution of the species, and the center of morphological diversification are explained with maps and other illustrations. Chemical constituents confirm the conclusion derived from morphological characters that eastern Asia is the center of species concentration of Panax. In eastern North America two species occur between longitude $70^{\circ}-97^{\circ}$ Wand latitude $34^{\circ}-47^{\circ}$ N. In eastern Asia the range of the genus extends from longitude $85^{\circ}$ E in Nepal to $140^{\circ}$ E in Japan, and from latitude $22^{\circ}$ N in the hills of Tonkin of North Vietnam to $48^{\circ}$ N in eastern Siberia. The species in eastern North America all have fleshy roots, and many of the species in eastern Asia have creeping stolons with enlarged nodes or stout horizontal rhizomes as storage organs in place of fleshy roots. People living in close harmony with nature in the homeland of various species of Panax have used the stout rhizomes or the fleshy roots of different wild forms of ginseng for medicine since time immemorial. Those who live in the center morphological diversity are specific both in the application of names for the identification of species in their communication and in the use of different roots as remedies to relieve pain, to cure diseases, or to correct physiological disorders. Now, natural resources of wild plants with medicinal virtue are extremely limited. In order to meet the market demand, three species have been intensively cultivated in limited areas. These species are American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) in northeastern United States, ginseng (P. ginseng) in northeastern Asia, particularly in Korea, and Sanchi (P. wangianus) in southwestern China, especially in Yunnan. At present hybridization and selection for better quality, higher yield, and more effective chemical contents have not received due attention in ginseng culture. Proper steps in this direction should be taken immediately, so that our generation may create a richer legacy to hand down to the future. Meanwhile, all wild plants of all species in all lands should be declared as endangered taxa, and they should be protected from further uprooting so that a. fuller gene pool may be conserved for the. genus Panax.

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