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Interaction among the East Asian Summer and Winter Monsoons, the Tropical Western Pacific and ENSO Cycle

  • Huang, Rong-Hui;Lu, Ri-Yu;Chen, Wen;Chen, Ji-Rong
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.47-68
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    • 2003
  • Recent advances in the studies on the interaction between Asian monsoon and ENSO cycle are reviewed in this paper. Through the recent studies, the East Asian summer monsoon circulation system and the East Asian climate system have proposed. Moreover, different responses of the (winter and summer) monsoon circulation and summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia to ENSO cycle during its different stages have been understood further. Recently, the studies on the dynamical effect of East Asian monsoon on the thermal variability of the tropical western Pacific and ENSO cycle have been greatly advanced. These studies demonstrated further that ENSO cycle originates from the tropical western Pacific, and pointed out that the dynamical effect of East Asian winter and summer monsoons on ENSO cycle may be through the atmospheric circulation and zonal wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific, which can excite the oceanic Kelvin wave and Rossby waves in the equatorial Pacific. Besides, the scientific problems in the interaction between Asian monsoon and ENSO cycle, which should be studied further in the near future, are also pointed out in this paper.

Comparison of Stomach Contents of Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in Korean Coastal Waters (우리나라 연안에 서식하는 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 위 내용물 비교)

  • Park, Chung Youl;Gwak, Woo Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2009
  • The diet of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the East Sea, Yellow Sea and Jinhae Bay was studied by analysis of stomach contents. In total, 518 individuals ranging from 15.5 to 77.0 cm standard length SL were analyzed. Prey organisms of the Pacific cod in the East Sea consistedof Caridea, Cephalopoda and Pisces, whereas In the Yellow Sea, the main food items of Pacific cod were similar to those of East Sea Pacific cod except for Cephalopoda. Interestingly, the stomach contents of Pacific cod in Jinhae Bay is mainly Pisces, which is in contrast to those of the two different coastal areas, the East Sea and the Yellow Sea. Although various species of food were eaten by smaller Pacific cod, both Caridea and Pisces were mainly taken by larger Pacific cod. Consequently, the diet of Pacific cod within acertain size is mainly influenced by prey abundance and prey-size spectrum in its habitat. Higher stomach emptiness of Pacific cod in Jinhae Bay might indicate that fully matured Pacific cod temporally stop feeding during their spawning period.

Interannual variabilities of the East Asia precipitation associated with tropical and subtropical sea surface temperature (열대 및 아열대 SST에 관련된 동아시아 강우량의 경년 변동성)

  • 하경자
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.413-426
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    • 1995
  • The aim of the present study is to investigate the interannual variabilities of the East Asia monsoon rainfall associated with the global sea surface temperature anomaly(SSTA). For this study, the summer rainfall(from June to August) over the twenty-eight period of 1961-1988 were analyzed with being divided by nine-subregions over East Asia including Korea, China and Japan. From the analysis of the principal modes explaining the interannual variation, the interannual variabilities of summer rainfalls in South Japan and Korea are larger than those of the other subregions of the East Asia. There is a strong negative correlation between the summer rainfalls of south China and Korea. In this study, the relationship between the summer monsoon of each subregion and SSTs of the tropical NINO regions, of western Pacific warm pool, and of the subtropical ocean were investigated. The longitudinal sections of the lagged cross correlations of the summer rainfal1 anomaly in (a) Korea and (b) south China, and the monthly SSTA in the equatorial(averaged from 65 to 6N) Pacific were analyzed. The negative maximum correlation pattems of Korea's stammer rainfal1 and SSTs over the eastern Pacific is transfered to positive maximum conrlation over central Pacific region with a biennial periodicity. In South China, the significant positive correlations are found at -12 month lag over the eastern Pacific and maximum negative correlation at 16 month lag over the central Pacific with the quasi-biennial oscillation. But the correlation coefficient reverses completely to that in Korea. In order to investigate the most prevailing interannual variability of rainfall related to the favored SSTA region, the lagged cross correlations between East Asia rainfall and SSTs over the moO regions(NINO 1+2(0-105, 90W-80W), NINO 3(5N-5S, 150W-90W), NINO 4(5N-5S, 160E-l50W) and the western Pacific worm pool (5N-5S, 120E-l60E) were analyzed. Among the lagged cross-correlation cycles in NINO regions, the maximum correlations for the negative lagged months prevail in NINO 1+2 and NINO 3, and the cross correlations for the positive lagged months NINO 4. It is noteworthy that correlation between the western Pacific warm pool SSTA and the monsoon rainfall in Korea and South China have the maximum value at negative 4 month lag. The evolution of the correlation between the East Asia monsoon rainfall and SSTA is linked to the equatorial convective cluster and related to northward propagating situation, and raising the possibility that the East Asia monsoon precipitation may be more fundamentally related to the interaction of intraseasonal oscillations and the sub-regional characteristics including the surface boundary conditions and the behavior of climatological air mass.

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Combined Effect of the East Atlantic/West Russia and Western Pacific Teleconnections on the East Asian Winter Monsoon

  • Oh, Hyoeun;Jhun, Jong-Ghap;Ha, Kyung-Ja;Seo, Kyong-Hwan
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.273-285
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    • 2017
  • This study investigates the individual effects of the East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection patterns and their combined effect on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The contributions of the respective EATL/WRUS and WP teleconnection patterns to the EAWM are revealed by removing the dependence on the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using a linear regression, which are named as N_EATL/WRUS and N_WP, respectively. This is because the EATL/WRUS (WP) is closely linked to the Arctic (tropics) region. A significant increase (decrease) in temperature over East Asia (EA) corresponding to a weak (strong) EAWM is associated with the N_EATL/WRUS and N_WP teleconnection patterns during the positive (negative) phases. In order to examine impacts of these two teleconnections on the EAWM, three types of effects are reconstructed on the basis of ${\pm}0.5$ standard deviation: 1) Combined effect, 2) N_EATL/WRUS effect, and 3) N_WP effect. The positive N_EATL/WRUS teleconnection induces to a weakened Siberian High and a shallow EA trough at the mid-troposphere through wave propagation, leading to the weak EAWM. During the positive N_WP pattern, warm air from the tropics flows toward the EA along western flank of an anomalous anticyclone over the North Pacific that is relevant to the meridional shift of the Aleutian Low. When the two mid-latitude teleconnections have the in-phase combination, the increase in temperature over EA appears to be more pronounced than the individual effects by transporting warm air from tropics via strong southeasterly wind anomalies induced by anomalous zonal pressure gradient between the Siberian High and Aleutian Low. Therefore, the impact of the mid-latitude teleconnections on the EAWM becomes robust and linearly superimposed, unlike a nonlinear in-phase combined effect of the AO and ENSO.

Comparison of Biological Characteristics of Pacific Cod Gadus microcephalus between the East and Yellow Seas, Korea (동해와 황해 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 생물학적 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Kyunghwan;Cha, Hyung Kee;Kim, Yeonghye;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Jung, Sukgeun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.499-508
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    • 2016
  • We investigated regional differences in the growth and maturation rate of Pacific cod in the East and Yellow Seas. Significant regional differences were detected in the von Bertalanffy growth equation and mean length at maturity (L50). Cod in the East Sea grew at a faster rate than those in the Yellow Sea, with females growing faster than males in both populations. Cod of both sexes matured earlier in the Yellow Sea (age of maturity: 2.3 years for males, 2.6 years for females) than in the East Sea (age of maturity: 3.9 years for males, 4 years for females). These regional differences suggest that Pacific cod in the Yellow Sea, which is at the southwestern extremity of global cod distribution and thus likely to be an inhospitable habitat for this species, have adapted to their environment by developing earlier maturation and slower growth than cod in the East Sea or the Korea Strait. These regional differences must be taken into account when setting biological reference points for management of the Pacific cod fishery in Korean waters.

Future Changes in Atmosphere Teleconnection over East Asia and North Pacific associated with ENSO in CMIP5 Models (CMIP5 모형에서 나타난 겨울철 동아시아와 북태평양 지역의 엘니뇨 원격상관의 미래변화)

  • Kim, Sunyong;Kug, Jong-Seong
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.389-397
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    • 2015
  • The changes in the teleconnection associated with El Nin?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the East Asia and North Pacific under greenhouse warming are analyzed herein by comparing the Historical run (1970/1971~1999/2000) and the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 run with 31 climate models, participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). It is found that CMIP5 models have diverse systematic errors in simulating the ENSO teleconnection pattern from model to model. Therefore, we select 21 models based on the models' performance in simulating teleconnection pattern in the present climate. It is shown that CMIP5 models tend to project an overall weaker teleconnection pattern associated with ENSO over East Asia in the future climate than that in the present climate. It can be also noted that the cyclonic flow over the North Pacific is weakened and shifted eastward. However, uncertainties for the ENSO teleconnection changes still exist, suggesting that much consistent agreements on this future teleconnections associated with ENSO should be taken in a further study.

Korean-Russian Surveys of Cephalopods in the East/Japan Sea in November and December 1993 and 1994

  • Shevtsov, G.A.;Mokrin, N.M.;Choi, Young-Min;Kim, Joo-Il;Choi, Kwang-Ho;Choi, Jung-Hwa
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2006
  • We examined the distribution and biology of cephalopods collected during joint Korean-Russian surveys of the East/Japan Sea in 1993 and 1994. A total of six species of cephalopods belonging to five families were collected during the surveys: one sepiid squid, four teuthid squids, and one octopus.

Maturity and Spawning of Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the East Sea (한국 동해안 대구(Gadus macerocephalus)의 성숙과 산란)

  • LEE Chae Sung;HUR Young Hee;LEE Jeong Young;KIM Wan Ki;HONG Sung Hyun;HWANG Sean Jae;CHOI Soo Ha
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2005
  • The maturity and spawning of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, was studied using samples caught by gillnets in the East Sea from January to December 2003. Monthly changes of maturity observed with the naked eyes for females showed that maturing Pacific cod appeared from August, and their numbers increased to $83\%\;and\;100\%$ in November and December, respectively. In January, mature and spawning Pacific cod were observed for the first time and composed over $40\%$ of the population. In February, the proportion of spawning individuals increased to over $50\%$, however, the mature individuals decreased to less than $10\%$. In March, mature fish were not found, and all were in an immature (spent) or spawning state. From April to July all fish remained in immature condition. The males maintained this trend with the females, whereas, mature males appeared from November to March. Monthly changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) of females and males showed higher values both in January and February and declined sharply in March. The lower value remained until October and then began to increase from November for the female population. For the males, however, this value remained lower until August, and then began to increase from September, and showed higher values in October through December than in January and February. These results indicated that the spawning season of Pacific cod was from December to March, and the main spawning season was from January to February, and the period of the spawning season was longer for males than the females. The diameter of the matured oocytes was 0.80-1.10 mm with a single mode of 0.95 mm. Fecundity was 1,300,000-9,400,000 in total length of 65-95 cm and the relationship between the total length (TL, cm) and fecundity (Fc) was Fc= $180,248\timesTL-10,883,638$. The total length at first maturity was observed at 57 cm for females and 47 cm for males. The size at $50\%$ group maturity was estimated to be 63.9 cm for females and 56.0 cm for males.

Variability of Surface Chlorophyll Concentration in the Northwest Pacific Ocean (북서태평양의 표층엽록소 변동성)

  • Park, Ji-Soo;Suk, Moon-Sik;Yoon, Suk;Yoo, Sin-Jae
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2008
  • We collected information on seasonal and interannual variability of surface chlorophyll a concentration between 1997-2007 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Satellite data were used to acquire chlorophyll a and sea surface temperature from six regions: East Sea/Ulleung Basin, East China Sea, Philippin Sea, Warm Pool region, Warm Pool North region, and Warm Pool East region. Mixed layer depth (MLD) was calculated from temperature profiles of ARGO floats data in four of the six regions during 2002-2007. In the East Sea/Ulleung Basin, seasonal variability of chlorophyll a concentration was attributed to seasonal change of MLD, while there was no significant relationship between chlorophyll a concentration and MLD in the Warm Pool region. Interannual anomaly in sea surface temperature were similar among the East Sea, East China Sea, Philippin Sea, and Warm Pool North region. The anomaly pattern was reversed in the Warm Pool East region. However, the anomaly pattern in the Warm Pool region was intermediate of the two patterns. In relation to chlorophyll a, there was a reversed interannual anomaly pattern between Warm Pool North and Warm Pool East, while the anomaly pattern in the Warm Pool region was similar to that of Warm Pool North except for the El $Ni\tilde{n}o$ years (1997/1998, 2002/2003, 2006/2007). However, there was no distinct relationship among other seas. Interestingly, in the Warm Pool and Warm Pool East regions, sea surface temperature showed a pronounced inverse pattern with chlorophyll a. This indicates a strong interrelationship among sea surface temperature-MLD-chlorophyll a in the regions. In the Warm Pool and Warm Pool East, zonal distribution of chlorophyll a concentration within the past 10 years has shown a good relationship with sea surface temperature which reflects ENSO variability.

Main Regularities of Eco-geographical Differentiation in Endemic Element of the Russian Far East Flora

  • Kozhevnikov, Andrey Evhenjevicz
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.363-386
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    • 2007
  • Endemic element of the Russian Far East (RFE) flora includes 497 species of 150 genera and 46 families. The level of endemism in structure of regional natural flora reaches 11.1% as a whole, and in structure of its native fraction - 13.1%. As a result of chorologic and ecocenotic analysis of RFE flora endemic element it is revealed that it consists of 8 main geographical groups and 7 main floristic complexes. The largest number of endemic species is concentrated in Arctic - Alpine & Montane (140, 28.2%), Forest (107, 21.5%) and Maritime (88, 17.7%) floristic complexes as well as in Russian Far East - West-Pacific (136, 27.4%), Japan Sea (88, 17.7%) and North-East-Asian - Beringian (69, 13.9%) geographical groups. It's possible to distinguish three main areas with similar eco-geographical differentiation of endemics on RFE as follows: (1) North-East Asia sector of RFE which North-East-Asian - Beringian and Maritime Okhotia - Beringian geographical groups approximately correspond to, (2) Continental part of East Asia sector of RFE (West - Okhotian, Amur - Okhotian, Amur - Ussirian, Okhotsk Sea and Japan Sea groups) and (3) Oceanic part of East Asia sector (Russian Far East - West Pacific group). Taxonomical variety of RFE endemics on these territories makes up accordingly (1) - 99 species (19.9%), (2) - 259 (52.8%) and (3) - 136 (27.4%).