• Title, Summary, Keyword: ERT

Search Result 107, Processing Time 0.032 seconds

Monitoring water injection with borehole ERT: preliminary results of an experiment carried out in Sindos (N. Greece)

  • Tsourlos, Panagiotis;Kim, Jung-Ho;Vargemezis, George;Yi, Myeong-Jong
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.87-92
    • /
    • 2007
  • This work describes the installation and preliminary measurements of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) system to monitor the injection of recycled water into a confined aquifer in the area of Sindos (Thessaloniki N. Greece). The aim is to provide, through time-lapse ERT measurements and processing, geoelectrical images of rather increased volumetric sampling around and between the holes and to obtain improved understanding of the flow and transport of the injected water. The details about the general setting, the construction and installation of the ERT cables into the boreholes are explained in full. Preliminary measurements involving single and cross-hole ERT measurements were obtained and processed with a 2D inversion algorithm to produce images of the subsurface. Results depict a very good correlation between ERT images and the lithology and resistivity logs; an indication of the reliability of the approach.

  • PDF

The Role of Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Fabry Disease in Cardiology Perspective

  • Hongo, Kenichi
    • Journal of mucopolysaccharidosis and rare diseases
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.21-25
    • /
    • 2018
  • Fabry disease is a hereditary lysosomal storage disorder caused by the reduction or absence of lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A and the accumulation of glycosphingolipids, such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in various organs, including the heart. The prevention of cardiac involvement in Fabry disease can only be achieved by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), and the method of assessing the efficacy of ERT should be confirmed. Changes in the electrocardiogram, such as the shortening of PQ interval, prolongation of QTc and repolarization abnormalities as well as left ventricular hypertrophy in voltage criteria, can be used to identify Fabry disease patients; however, the usefulness of electrocardiograms for evaluating the efficacy of ERT is limited. The assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy using echocardiography has been established to evaluate the efficacy of ERT during long-term period. A new technique involving speckled tracking method might be useful for detecting early cardiac dysfunction and identifying the effect of ERT for a relatively short period. The estimation of left ventricular hypertrophy using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is also useful for assessing the efficacy of ERT. Identifying late gadolinium enhancement in CMR may affect the effectiveness of ERT, and the new technique of T1 mapping might be useful for monitoring the accumulation of Gb3 during ERT. Histopathology in cardiac biopsy specimens is another potentially useful method for identifying the accumulation of GB3; however, the use of histopathology to evaluate of the efficacy of ERT is limited because of the invasive nature of an endomyocardial biopsy.

Field experiment of ERT to detect a tunnel (터널 탐지를 위한 전기비저항 토모그래피 응용 실험)

  • Yi, Myeong-Jong;Kim, Jung-Ho;Cho, Seong-Jun;Kobayashi, Takao
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.215-218
    • /
    • 2007
  • Tunnel detection is known to be one of the challenging problems in geophysical society. Among various geophysical methods, we tried to examine the applicability of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to detect empty tunnel. In this study, we analyzed the ERT data acquired at the test site for tunnel detection. The inversion results have shown reasonable image of the tunnel although the resolution is quite poor. Moreover, we could obtain the three-dimensional attitude of tunnel through 3-D ERT imaging. Therefore, we expect that ERT can make contribution to the tunnel detection problem and further research effort such as fusion of geophysical methods will provide more reliable tunnel detection capability.

  • PDF

Survival and Compliance with the Use of Radiation Therapy for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (미분화 갑상선암에서 방사선치료 순응도와 생존기간)

  • Oh, Yoon-Kyeong;Jang, Ji-Young;Chung, Woong-Ki
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.229-236
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the use of external radiation therapy (ERT) in terms of survival and compliance in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 17 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with ERT between 1993 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. ERT was administered after surgery in 14 patients and after a biopsy in three patients. Among the 14 patients who had undergone surgery, nine underwent a curative resection and five underwent a palliative resection. Six patients had associated well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 14 patients were diagnosed with a tumor size exceeding 5 cm. The radiation dose ranged from $6{\sim}70\;Gy$ (median dose, 37.5 Gy). Eleven patients completed the planned course of ERT, whereas six patients did not. The follow-up period ranged from $1{\sim}104$ months (median, 5 months; mean, 20 months). Results: Five patients started the ERT without the presence of a gross mass and all of the patients competed ERT without a re-growth of tumor. Twelve patients (four patients after a curative resection, five patients after a palliative resection and three patients after a biopsy) started ERT with a gross mass present and only six patients were able to complete the planned course of ERT. Among the six patients who completed ERT, two patients showed a marked regression of the tumor mass, whereas two patients showed slight regression and two patients showed no response. The median survival was five months (range, $1{\sim}104$ months) and the mean survival was 21 months. The overall survival was 41% at 1-year, 24% at 2-years and 12% at 5-years. Significant prognostic factors included the number of primary tumors present, tumor size, whether surgery was performed and completion of ERT as planned. Long-term survivors showed a tendency of having smaller sized initial tumors and smaller sized pre-ERT tumors than the short-term survivors. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients with a small initial tumor (${\leq}5\;cm$), which was treated by surgery (curative resection or palliative resection) before ERT, and without rapid re-growth of the mass seen at the surgical site at the beginning of the ERT course, would be the best candidates for postoperative ERT. In contrast, patients with a large initial tumor (>5 cm) and did not undergo surgery before ERT or that rapid re-growth of the mass was observed at the surgical site are likely to have a short survival time, along with the interruption of ERT. In these cases, the role of ERT is very limited and the omission of ERT could be considered.

Improved ErtPS Scheduling Algorithm for AMR Speech Codec with CNG Mode in IEEE 802.16e Systems (IEEE 802.16e 시스템에서의 CNG 모드 AMR 음성 코덱을 위한 개선된 ErtPS 스케줄링 알고리즘)

  • Woo, Hyun-Je;Kim, Joo-Young;Lee, Mee-Jeong
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
    • /
    • v.16C no.5
    • /
    • pp.661-668
    • /
    • 2009
  • The Extended real-time Polling Service (ErtPS) is proposed tosupport QoS of VoIP service with silence suppression which generates variable size data packets in IEEE 802.16e systems. If the silence is suppressed, VoIP should support Comfort Noise Generation (CNG) which generates comfort noise for receiver's auditory sense to notify the status of connection to the user. CNG mode in silent-period generates a data with lower bit rate at long packet transmission intervals in comparison with talk-spurt. Therefore, if the ErtPS, which is designed to support service flows that generate data packets on a periodic basis, is applied to silent-period, resources of the uplink are used inefficiently. In this paper, we proposed the Improved ErtPS algorithm for efficient resource utilization of the silent-period in VoIP traffic supporting CNG. In the proposed algorithm, the base station allocates bandwidth depending on the status of voice at the appropriate interval by havingthe user inform the changes of voice status. The Improved ErtPS utilizes the Cannel Quality Information Channel (CQICH) which is an uplink subchannel for delivering quality information of channel to the base station on a periodic basis in 802.16e systems. We evaluated the performance of proposed algorithm using OPNET simulator. We validated that proposed algorithm improves the bandwidth utilization of the uplink and packet transmission latency

Archaeological Investigations in Urban Areas through Combined Application of Surface ERT and GPR Techniques

  • Papadopoulos, Nikos;Yi, Myeong-Jong;Sarris, Apostolos;Kim, Jung-Ho
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.113-118
    • /
    • 2008
  • Among the geophysical methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) comprise the most promising techniques in resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. In this work, two case studies which involve an integrated geophysical survey employing the surface three dimensional (3D) ERT and GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterize the investigated areas, are presented. Totally more than 4000 square meters were investigated from the test field sites, which are located at the centre of two of the most populated cities of the island of Crete, in Greece. The ERT and the GPR data were collected along dense and parallel profiles. The subsurface resistivity structure was reconstructed by processing the apparent resistivity data with a 3D inversion algorithm. The GPR sections were processed with a systematic way applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information context. Finally, horizontal depth slices representing the 3D variation of the physical properties were created and the geophysical anomalies were interpreted in terms of possible archaeological structures. The subsequent excavations in one of the sites verified the geophysical results, enhancing the applicability of ERT and GPR techniques in the archaeological exploration of urban territories.

  • PDF

A Comparison of Image Reconstruction Techniques for Electrical Resistance Tomography (Electrical Resistance Tomography의 영상복원 기법의 비교)

  • Kim, Ho-Chan;Boo, Chang-Jin;Lee, Yoon-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.119-126
    • /
    • 2005
  • Electrical resistance tomography(ERT) maps resistivity values of the soil subsurface and characterizes buried objects. The characterization includes location, size and resistivity of buried objects. In this paper, Gauss-Newton, truncated least squares(TLS) and simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique(SIRT) methods are presented for the solution of the ERT image reconstruction. Computer simulations show that the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images by the TLS approach is improved as compared to those obtained by the Gauss-Newton and SIRT method.

Performance Comparison of Regularization Methods in Electrical Resistance Tomography (전기 저항 단층촬영법에서의 조정기법 성능비교)

  • Kang, Suk-In;Kim, Kyung-Youn
    • Journal of IKEEE
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.226-234
    • /
    • 2016
  • Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is an imaging technique where the internal resistivity distribution inside an object is reconstructed. The ERT image reconstruction is a highly nonlinear ill-posed problem, so regularization methods are used to achieve desired image. The reconstruction outcome is dependent on the type of regularization method employed such as l2-norm, l1-norm, and total variation regularization method. That is, use of an appropriate regularization method considering the flow characteristics is necessary to attain good reconstruction performance. Therefore, in this paper, regularization methods are tested through numerical simulations with different flow conditions and the performance is compared.

Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Patients Who Have Mucopolysaccharidosis and Are younger than 5 years old (5세 미만 뮤코다당체침착증 환자에서의 효소 대체 요법)

  • Park, Seong-Won;Son, Yeong-Bae;Kim, Se-Hwa;Jo, Seong-Yun;Ji, Seon-Tae;Jin, Dong-Gyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
    • /
    • v.10 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-66
    • /
    • 2010
  • Enzyme replacement of therapy (ERT) is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders. ERT is available in three types of Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS): for MPS I (Aludrazyme$^{(R)}$), MPS II (Elaprase$^{(R)}$) and MPS VI (Naglazyme$^{(R)}$) patients who are over 5 years old. But recently, early diagnosis can be done by expert clinicians and even in prenatal case. We describe the case of ERT under 5 years old MPS patients. Up to June, 2010 in Samsung Medical Center, there are 6patients who were diagnosed as MPS and started ERT under 5 years old. 3 patients were MPS I, 3 patients were MPS II. 2 patient who was diagnosed as MPS I was female and others were male. Their age at diagnosis were 4 to 37month-old (4, 13, 16, 25, 27, 37 month-old) and they are now 9 to 60 month-old (9, 39, 32, 81, 60 month-old). The youngest patient was started ERT at 4 month-old and others were started at their 13 to 49 month-old (13, 29, 27, 28, 49 month-old). First manifested symptoms of patients were macrocephaly, kyphosis and coarse face appearance. Especially, in 2 of them, one was MPS I and the other was MPS II had elder brother with same disease. And the youngest one was diagnosed by the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene analysis from chorionic villi sampling. His mother knew that she was a heterozygous carrier of IDS gene mutation because her younger brother died from MPS II. All of them confirmed as MPS by the enzyme assay in leukocytes and fibroblast skin culture. We started ERT with ${\alpha}$-L-iduronidase(Aldurazyme$^{(R)}$) to MPS I and did recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase (Elaprase$^{(R)}$) to MPS II patients as recommended dose as over 5 years old. But for MPS II patient who was 4 month old, we started ERT by recombinant human IDS (Elaprase$^{(R)}$) with reduced dose 0.1 mg/kg and increased dose every 2 weeks by 0.1mg/kg up to 0.5mg/kg IV infusion. During ERT, all patients had no adverse effects and the excretion of GAGs were decreased. We have evaluated other clinical symptoms such as liver/ spleen volume, heart function and neurologic evaluation. We describe a successful ERT to MPS I and MPS II patient under 5 years old without any adverse event. It indicates that ERT in young children are well tolerated and that it has several effects which may confer clinical benefits with long-term therapy.

  • PDF

Estimation of Mercury Emission from Major Sources in Annex D of Minamata Convention and Future Trend (국내 비의도적 주요 배출원의 지역별 수은 대기 배출량 산정 및 미래 활동도 변화와 최적가용기술 적용 시 배출량 추이)

  • Sung, Jin-Ho;Oh, Joo-Sung;Back, Seung-Ki;Jeong, Bup-Mook;Jang, Ha-Na;Seo, Yong-Chil;Kim, Seong-Heon
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.193-207
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study discusses the present status of mercury emission and distribution from major anthropogenic sources in Korea and the future trend of mercury emission by activity changes and application of BATs. Atmospheric mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources based on Annex D of Minamata convention was estimated to around 4.89 tonne in 2012. Emission ratios of cement clinker production, coal-fired power plant, waste incineration and non-ferrous metal smelting were 68.68%, 24.75%, 6.29% and 0.28%, respectively. High mercury emission regions were characterized by the presence of cement clinker production facilities and coal-fired power plants. Prediction of future activities was carried out by linear regression of the previous year data. The (total) mercury emission was estimated to decrease up to 48% Under the scenario of BATs to be applied and the change of future activities. Emissions from coal-fired powerplants and cement clinkers were expected to decrease significantly.