• Title, Summary, Keyword: EGFR-TKIs

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Subsequent Treatment Choices for Patients with Acquired Resistance to EGFR-TKIs in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Restore after a Drug Holiday or Switch to another EGFR-TKI?

  • Song, Tao;Yu, Wei;Wu, Shi-Xiu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 2014
  • The outcomes of first-generation EGFR-TKIs (Gefitnib and Erlotinib) have shown great advantages over traditional treatment strategies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but unfortunately we have to face the situation that most patients still fail to respond in the long term despite initially good control. Up to now, the mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs has not been fully clarified. Herein, we sought to compile the available clinical reports in the hope to better understanding the subsequent treatment choices, particularly on whether restoring after a drug holiday or switching to another EGFR-TKI is the better option after failure of one kind of EGFR-TKI.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Versus Placebo as Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Alimujiang, S.;Zhang, Tao;Han, Zhi-Gang;Yuan, Shuai-Fei;Wang, Qiang;Yu, Ting-Ting;Shan, Li
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2413-2419
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    • 2013
  • Background: Use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs ) is now standard for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the effects of EGFR-TKIs in maintenance therapy for advanced NSCLC patients are still unclear. The preent meta-analysis was performed to examine pooled data of randomized control trials (RCT) where EGFR-TKIs were compared against placebo in maintenance regimens for patients with advanced NCSLC to quantify potential benefits and determine safety. Methods: Several data bases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL, and we performed an internet search of conference literature. The endpoints were objective response rates (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We performed a meta-analysis of the published data, using Comprehensive Meta Analysis software (Version 2.0). with a fixed effects model and an additional random effects model, when applicable. The results of the meta-analysis are expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) or risk ratios (RRs), with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Results: The final analysis included six trials, covering 3,758 patients. Compared with placebo, EGFR-TKIs maintenance therapy improved ORR and PFS for patients with advanced NSCLC, the difference being statistically significant (P<0.05), but proved unable to prolong patients' OS. The main adverse reactions were diarrhea and rashes. Conclusion: EGFR-TKIs demonstrated encouraging efficacy, safety and survival when delivered as maintenance therapy for patients with advanced NSCLC after first-line chemotherapy, especially for the patients who had adenocarcinomas, were female, non-smokers and patients with EGFR gene mutations.

Factors that Predict Clinical Benefit of EGFR TKI Therapy in Patients with EGFR Wild-Type Lung Adenocarcinoma

  • Kim, Seo Yun;Myung, Jae Kyung;Kim, Hye-Ryoun;Na, Im Il;Koh, Jae Soo;Baek, Hee Jong;Kim, Cheol Hyeon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.82 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 2019
  • Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancers have emerged as key predictive biomarkers in EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, a few patients with wild-type EGFR also respond to EGFR TKIs. This study investigated the factors predicting successful EGFR TKI treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with wild-type EGFR. Methods: We examined 66 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma carrying wide-type EGFR who were treated with EGFR TKIs. The EGFR gene copy number was assessed by silver in situ hybridization (SISH). We evaluated the clinical factors and EGFR gene copy numbers that are associated with a favorable clinical response to EGFR TKIs. Results: The objective response rate was 12.1%, while the disease control rate was 40.9%. EGFR SISH analysis was feasible in 23 cases. Twelve patients tested EGFR SISH-positive, and 11 were EGFR SISH-negative, with no significant difference in tumor response and survival between EGFR SISH-positive and -negative patients. The overall median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 66 patients were 2.1 months and 9.7 months, respectively. Female sex and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0-1 were independent predictors of PFS. ECOG PS 0-1 and a low tumor burden of extrathoracic metastasis were independent predictors of good OS. Conclusion: Factors such as good PS, female sex, and low tumor burden may predict favorable outcomes following EGFR TKI therapy in patients with EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma. However, EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of survival.

PNA-mediated Real-Time PCR Clamping for Detection of EGFR Mutations

  • Choi, Jae-Jin;Cho, Min-Hey;Oh, Mi-Ae;Kim, Hyun-Sun;Kil, Min-Seock;Park, Hee-Kyung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.3525-3529
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    • 2010
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently used in the treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer. Recent studies on non-small cell lung cancer have shown that some patients carry somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Such mutations correlate with the effectiveness of certain TKIs. To detect a small amount of mutant EGFR among an abundance of wild-type EGFR, we have developed a highly sensitive and simple method using PNA-mediated real-time PCR clamping. The PNA-mediated real-time PCR clamping enables detection of EGFR mutants down to approximately 1% mutant -to- wild type. The total assay time was short as it required only 2.0 hr. Thus, PNA-mediated real-time PCR clamping can easily be applied to clinical samples for identification of DNA carrying EGFR mutations and also appear to be the best assay to detect somatic mutations.

MicroRNA-214 Regulates the Acquired Resistance to Gefitinib via the PTEN/AKT Pathway in EGFR-mutant Cell Lines

  • Wang, Yong-Sheng;Wang, Yin-Hua;Xia, Hong-Ping;Zhou, Song-Wen;Schmid-Bindert, Gerald;Zhou, Cai-Cun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2012
  • Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations derive clinical benefit from treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors ((EGFR-TKIs)-namely gefitinib and erlotinib. However, these patients eventually develop resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Despite the fact that this acquired resistance may be the result of a secondary mutation in the EGFR gene, such as T790M or amplification of the MET proto-oncogene, there are other mechanisms which need to be explored. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and chemo-resistance. In this study, we firstly successfully established a gefitinib resistant cell line-HCC827/GR, by exposing normal HCC827 cells (an NSCLC cell line with a 746E-750A in-frame deletion of EGFR gene) to increasing concentrations of gefitinib. Then, we found that miR-214 was significantly up-regulated in HCC827/GR. We also showed that miR-214 and PTEN were inversely expressed in HCC827/GR. Knockdown of miR-214 altered the expression of PTEN and p-AKT and re-sensitized HCC827/GR to gefitinib. Taken together, miR-214 may regulate the acquired resistance to gefitinib in HCC827 via PTEN/AKT signaling pathway. Suppression of miR-214 may thus reverse the acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs therapy.

Suppressors for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2/4 (HER2/4): A New Family of Anti-Toxoplasmic Agents in ARPE-19 Cells

  • Kim, Yeong Hoon;Bhatt, Lokraj;Ahn, Hye-Jin;Yang, Zhaoshou;Lee, Won-Kyu;Nam, Ho-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.491-503
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    • 2017
  • The effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were evaluated on growth inhibition of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii in host ARPE-19 cells. The number of tachyzoites per parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) was counted after treatment with TKIs. T. gondii protein expression was assessed by western blot. Immunofluorescence assay was performed using Programmed Cell Death 4 (PDCD4) and T. gondii GRA3 antibodies. The TKIs were divided into 3 groups; non-epidermal growth factor receptor (non-EGFR), anti-human EGFR 2 (anti-HER2), and anti-HER2/4 TKIs, respectively. Group I TKIs (nintedanib, AZD9291, and sunitinib) were unable to inhibit proliferation without destroying host cells. Group II TKIs (lapatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, and AG1478) inhibited proliferation up to 98% equivalent to control pyrimethamine ($5{\mu}M$) at $20{\mu}M$ and higher, without affecting host cells. Group III TKIs (neratinib, dacomitinib, afatinib, and pelitinib) inhibited proliferation up to 98% equivalent to pyrimethamine at $1-5{\mu}M$, but host cells were destroyed at $10-20{\mu}M$. In Group I, TgHSP90 and SAG1 inhibitions were weak, and GRA3 expression was moderately inhibited. In Group II, TgHSP90 and SAG1 expressions seemed to be slightly enhanced, while GRA3 showed none to mild inhibition; however, AG1478 inhibited all proteins moderately. Protein expression was blocked in Group III, comparable to pyrimethamine. PDCD4 and GRA3 were well localized inside the nuclei in Group I, mildly disrupted in Group II, and were completely disrupted in Group III. This study suggests the possibility of a vital T. gondii TK having potential HER2/4 properties, thus anti-HER2/4 TKIs may inhibit intracellular parasite proliferation with minimal adverse effects on host cells.

Afatinib Reduces STAT6 Signaling of Host ARPE-19 Cells Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

  • Yang, Zhaoshou;Ahn, Hye-Jin;Park, Young-Hoon;Nam, Ho-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2016
  • Specific gene expressions of host cells by spontaneous STAT6 phosphorylation are major strategy for the survival of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii against parasiticidal events through STAT1 phosphorylation by infection provoked $IFN-{\gamma}$. We determined the effects of small molecules of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on the growth of T. gondii and on the relationship with STAT1 and STAT6 phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. We counted the number of T. gondii RH tachyzoites per parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) after treatment with TKIs at 12-hr intervals for 72 hr. The change of STAT6 phosphorylation was assessed via western blot and immunofluorescence assay. Among the tested TKIs, Afatinib (pan ErbB/EGFR inhibitor, $5{\mu}M$) inhibited 98.0% of the growth of T. gondii, which was comparable to pyrimethamine ($5{\mu}M$) at 96.9% and followed by Erlotinib (ErbB1/EGFR inhibitor, $20{\mu}M$) at 33.8% and Sunitinib (PDGFR or c-Kit inhibitor, $10{\mu}M$) at 21.3%. In the early stage of the infection (2, 4, and 8 hr after T. gondii challenge), Afatinib inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT6 in western blot and immunofluorescence assay. Both JAK1 and JAK3, the upper hierarchical kinases of cytokine signaling, were strongly phosphorylated at 2 hr and then disappeared entirely after 4 hr. Some TKIs, especially the EGFR inhibitors, might play an important role in the inhibition of intracellular replication of T. gondii through the inhibition of the direct phosphorylation of STAT6 by T. gondii.

PNA-Mediated PCR Clamping for the Detection of EGFR Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포폐암에서 PNA-Mediated PCR Clamping을 이용한 EGFR 돌연변이 분석법)

  • Lee, Kye-Young;Kim, Hee-Joung;Kim, Sun-Jong;Yoo, Gwang-Ha;Kim, Won-Dong;Oh, Seo-Young;Kim, Wan-Seop
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.4
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2010
  • Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotype is the most important predictive marker to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and first-line gefitinib treatment will be approved in the near future for use in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with the EGFR mutation. Direct sequencing is known to be the standard for detecting EGFR mutations; however, it has limited sensitivity. Peptide nucleic acids (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping method is a newly introduced method for analyzing EGFR mutations with increased sensitivity and stability. Methods: A total of 71 NSCLC patients were analyzed for EGFR mutations using the PNA-mediated PCR clamping technique. Sixty-nine patients were analyzed for clinicopathologic correlation with EGFR genotype; 2 patients with indeterminate results were excluded. In order to determine EGFR-TKI drug response, 57 patients (42 gefitinib, 15 erlotinib) were included in the analysis. Results: The EGFR mutation rate was 47.8%. Being female, a non-smoker, and having adenocarcinoma were favorable clinicopathologic factors, as expected. However, more than a few smokers (33.3%), male (28.1%), and patients with non-adenocarcinoma (28.6%) had the EGFR mutation. Having a combination of favorable clinicopathologic factors did not increase the EGFR mutation rate significantly. Drug response to EGFR-TKIs showed significant differences depending on the EGFR genotype; ORR was 14.3% for wild type vs 69.0% for mutant type; DCR is 28.6% for wild type vs 96.6% for mutant type. The median EGFR-TKI treatment duration is 7.6 months for mutant type group and 1.4 months for wild type group. Conclusion: EGFR genotype determined using the PNA-mediated PCR clamping method is significantly correlated with the clinical EGFR-TKI responses and PNA-mediated PCR.

Concomitant EGFR Inhibitors Combined with Radiation for Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma

  • Zheng, De-Jie;Yu, Guo-Hua;Gao, Jian-Feng;Gu, Jun-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4485-4494
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    • 2013
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is considered to be one of the key driver genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several clinical trials have shown great promise of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the first-line treatment of NSCLC. Many advances have been made in the understanding of EGFR signal transduction network and the interaction between EGFR and tumor microenvironment in mediating cancer survival and development. The concomitant targeted therapy and radiation is a new strategy in the treatment of NSCLC. A number of preclinical studies have demonstrated synergistic anti-tumor activity in the combination of EGFR inhibitors and radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo. In the present review, we discuss the rationale of the combination of EGFR inhibitors and radiotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC.

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of EFGR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Monotherapy with Standard Second-line Chemotherapy in Previously Treated Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Qi, Wei-Xiang;Shen, Zan;Lin, Feng;Sun, Yuan-Jue;Min, Da-Liu;Tang, Li-Na;He, Ai-Na;Yao, Yang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5177-5182
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitormonotherapy (EFGR-TKIs: gefitinib or erlotinib) with standard second-line chemotherapy (single agent docetaxel or pemetrexed) in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We systematically searched for randomized clinical trials that compared EGFR-TKI monotherapy with standard second-line chemotherapy in previously treated advanced NSCLC. The end points were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), 1-year survival rate (1-year SR) and grade 3 or 4 toxicities. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials (totally 3218 patients) were eligible. Our meta-analysis results showed that EGFR-TKIs were comparable to standard second-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC in terms of overall survival (HR 1.00, 95%CI 0.92-1.10; p=0.943), progression-free survival (HR 0.90, 95%CI 0.75-1.08, P=0.258) and 1-year-survival rate (RR 0.97, 95%CI 0.87-1.08, P=0.619), and the overall response rate was higher in patients who receiving EGFR-TKIs(RR 1.50, 95%CI 1.22-1.83, P=0.000). Sub-group analysis demonstrated that EGFR-TKI monotherapy significantly improved PFS (HR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.55-0.97, p=0.03) and ORR (RR 1.96, 95%CI: 1.46-2.63, p=0.000) in East Asian patients, but it did not translate into increase in OS and 1-year SR. Furthermore, there were fewer incidences of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia and neutrotoxicity in EGFR-TKI monotherapy group, excluding grade 3 or 4 rash. Conclusion: Both interventions had comparable efficacy as second-line treatments for patients with advanced NSCLC, and EGFR-TKI monotherapy was associated with less toxicity and better tolerability. Moreover, our data also demonstrated that EGFR-TKImonotherapy tended to be more effective in East Asian patients in terms of PFS and ORR compared with standard second-line chemotherapy. These results should help inform decisions about patient management and design of future trials.