• Title, Summary, Keyword: EGFR

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EGFR Antisense Oligonucleotides Encapsulated with Nanoparticles Decrease EGFR, MAPK1 and STAT5 Expression in a Human Colon Cancer Cell Line

  • Najar, Ahmad Gholamhoseinian;Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh;Omidi, Yadollah;Farajnia, Safar;Nourazarian, Ali Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.495-498
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    • 2013
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in several human cancers. This would suggest that inhibition of EGFR is a reasonable approach for cancer treatment. In this study we investigated EGFR blocking and its effects on the mediated signaling such as MAPK and STATb in HT29 cells. For this aim we used FITC-labeled EGFR antisense oligonucleotides encapsulated with PAMAM nanoparticles to inhibit EGFR expression. Cellular uptake of antisense was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The effect of EGFR antisense on the expression of EGFR in HT29 cells was examined by real time PCR and Western blots, which showed that antisense encapsulated with PAMAM decreased the level of EGFR mRNA and protein. In addition, real time PCR results confirmed that EGFR inhibition had an effective role in the reduction of EGFR dependent downstream genes. In conclusion, EGFR antisense encapsulated with PAMAM nanoparticles down regulated EGFR and EGFR-mediated genes.

Factors that Predict Clinical Benefit of EGFR TKI Therapy in Patients with EGFR Wild-Type Lung Adenocarcinoma

  • Kim, Seo Yun;Myung, Jae Kyung;Kim, Hye-Ryoun;Na, Im Il;Koh, Jae Soo;Baek, Hee Jong;Kim, Cheol Hyeon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.82 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 2019
  • Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancers have emerged as key predictive biomarkers in EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, a few patients with wild-type EGFR also respond to EGFR TKIs. This study investigated the factors predicting successful EGFR TKI treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with wild-type EGFR. Methods: We examined 66 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma carrying wide-type EGFR who were treated with EGFR TKIs. The EGFR gene copy number was assessed by silver in situ hybridization (SISH). We evaluated the clinical factors and EGFR gene copy numbers that are associated with a favorable clinical response to EGFR TKIs. Results: The objective response rate was 12.1%, while the disease control rate was 40.9%. EGFR SISH analysis was feasible in 23 cases. Twelve patients tested EGFR SISH-positive, and 11 were EGFR SISH-negative, with no significant difference in tumor response and survival between EGFR SISH-positive and -negative patients. The overall median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 66 patients were 2.1 months and 9.7 months, respectively. Female sex and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0-1 were independent predictors of PFS. ECOG PS 0-1 and a low tumor burden of extrathoracic metastasis were independent predictors of good OS. Conclusion: Factors such as good PS, female sex, and low tumor burden may predict favorable outcomes following EGFR TKI therapy in patients with EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma. However, EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of survival.

Dual effects of a CpG-DNAzyme targeting mutant EGFR transcripts in lung cancer cells: TLR9 activation and EGFR downregulation

  • Jang, Dahye;Baek, Yu Mi;Park, Hanna;Hwang, Yeo Eun;Kim, Dong-Eun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2018
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly caused by a mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and subsequent aberrant EGFR signaling with uncontrolled kinase activity. A deletion mutation in EGFR exon 19 is frequently observed in EGFR gene mutations. We designed a DNAzyme to suppress the expression of mutant EGFR by cleaving the mutant EGFR mRNA. The DNAzyme (named Ex19del Dz) specifically cleaved target RNA and decreased cancer cell viability when transfected into gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells harboring EGFR exon 19 deletions. The DNAzyme decreased EGFR expression and inhibited its downstream signaling pathway. In addition to EGFR downregulation, Ex19del Dz containing CpG sites activated Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its downstream signaling pathway via p38 kinase, causing an immunostimulatory effect on EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells. Thus, dual effects of this DNAzyme harboring the CpG site, such as TLR9 activation and EGFR downregulation, leads to apoptosis of EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells.

Mechanistic insights into differential requirement of receptor dimerization for oncogenic activation of mutant EGFR and its clinical perspective

  • Cho, Jeonghee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2020
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family (EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4), plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. As a result, aberrant activation of EGFR, mostly mediated through different classes of genomic alterations occurring within EGFR, is closely associated with the pathogenesis of numerous human cancers including lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma, and colorectal cancer. Thus, specific suppression of oncogenic activity of mutant EGFR with its targeted drugs has been routinely used in the clinic as a very effective anti-cancer strategy in treating a subset of tumors driven by such oncogenic EGFR mutants. However, the clinical efficacy of EGFR-targeted therapy does not last long due to several resistance mechanisms that emerge in the patients following the drug treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic tactics specifically targeting mutant EGFR with the focus on the unique biological features of various mutant EGFR. Regarding this point, our review specifically emphasizes the recent findings about distinct requirements of receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation, which are critical steps for enzymatic activation of EGFR and signaling cascades, respectively, among wildtype and mutant EGFR and further discuss their clinical significance. In addition, the molecular mechanisms regulating EGFR dimerization and enzymatic activity by a key negative feedback inhibitor Mig6 as well as the clinical use for developing potential novel drugs targeting it are described in this review.

Endocytic Regulation of EGFR Signaling

  • Chung, Byung-Min
    • Interdisciplinary Bio Central
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.3.1-3.7
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    • 2012
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family (ErbB1-4) of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). EGFR controls numerous physiological functions, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. Importantly, aberrant signaling by EGFR has been linked to human cancers in which EGFR and its various ligands are frequently overexpressed or mutated. EGFR coordinates activation of multiple downstream factors and is subject of various regulatory processes as it mediates biology of the cell it resides in. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to understanding EGFR biology and targeting the protein for the goal of controlling tumor in clinical settings. Endocytic regulation of EGFR offers a promising area for targeting EGFR activity. Upon ligand binding, the activated receptor undergoes endocytosis and becomes degraded in lysosome, thereby terminating the signal. En route to lysosome, the receptor becomes engaged in activating various signaling pathways including PI-3K, MAPK and Src, and endocytosis may offer both spatial and temporal regulation of downstream target activation. Therefore, endocytosis is an important regulator of EGFR signaling, and increasing emphasis is being placed on endocytosis in terms of cancer treatment and understanding of the disease. In this review, EGFR signaling pathway and its intricate regulation by endocytosis will be discussed.

Insulin activates EGFR by stimulating its interaction with IGF-1R in low-EGFR-expressing TNBC cells

  • Shin, Miyoung;Yang, Eun Gyeong;Song, Hyun Kyu;Jeon, Hyesung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2015
  • The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important diagnostic marker for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which lack three hormonal receptors: estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as epidermal growth factor receptor 2. EGFR transactivation can cause drug resistance in many cancers including TNBC, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that insulin treatment induces EGFR activation by stimulating the interaction of EGFR with insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) in the MDA-MB-436 TNBC cell line. These cells express low levels of EGFR, while exhibiting high levels of IGF-1R expression and phosphorylation. Low-EGFRexpressing MDA-MB-436 cells show high sensitivity to insulinstimulated cell growth. Therefore, unexpectedly, insulin stimulation induced EGFR transactivation by regulating its interaction with IGF-1R in low-EGFR-expressing TNBC cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 342-347]

Lack of Mutations in Protein Tyrosine Kinase Domain Coding Exons 19 and 21 of the EGFR Gene in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

  • Mehta, Dhaval Tushar;Annamalai, Thangavelu;Ramanathan, Arvind
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4623-4627
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    • 2014
  • Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a vital role in the activation and inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Mutations in exons 19 and 21 of EGFR are commonly found to be associated with non small cell lung carcinoma and triple negative breast cancer, enhancing sensitivity to EGFR targeting chemotherapeutic agents. Since amplification and prolonged activation of EGFR molecules have been identified in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we investigated whether OSCCs carried mutations in exons 19 and 21 of EGFR to their incidence. Materials and Methods: Tumor chromosomal DNA isolated from forty surgically excised oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues was subjected to PCR amplification with intronic primers flanking exons 19 and 21 of the EGFR gene. The PCR amplicons were subsequently subjected to direct sequencing to elucidate the mutation status. Results: Data analysis of the EGFR exon 19 and 21 coding sequences did not show any mutations in the forty OSCC samples that were analyzed. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have investigated the genetic status of exons 19 and 21 of EGFR in Indian OSCCs and identified that mutation in EGFR exon 19 and 21 may not contribute towards their genesis. The absence of mutations also indicates that oral cancerous lesions may not be as sensitive as other cancers to chemotherapeutic agents targeting EGFR.

Expression of EGFR in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and its Effects on Survival (비소세포 폐암에서 EGFR의 발현률과 생존률에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hak-Ryul;Jeong, Eun-Taik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1285-1295
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    • 1997
  • Background : EGFR is one of the initial step in signal transduction pathway about multistep carcinogenesis. It is homologous to oncogene erbB-2 and is the receptor for EGF and TGF alpha. EGFR has important role in the growth and differentiation of tumor cells. So, EGFR in non-small cell lung cancer was examined to search for possible evidence as clinical prognostic factor. Methods : To investigate the role of EGFR in lung cancer, the author performed immunohistochemical stain of EGFR on 57 resected primary non-small cell lung cancer specimens. And the author analyzed the correlation between EGFR expression, clinical parameters, Sand $G_1$ phase fraction and survival. Results : 1) EGFR were detected in 56% of total 57 patients (according to histologic type, squamous cancer 50%, adenocarcinoma 63%, large cell cancer 75%) (according to TNM stage, stage I 64%, stage II 38%, stage III 55%) (according to cellular differentiation, well 50%, moderately 52%, poorly 65%). All differences were insignificant 2) Using the flow cytometric analysis, mean S-phase fraction of EGFR (+) and (-) group were 22.3(${\pm}10.5$)%. 18.0(${\pm}10.9$)% (p>0.05), mean $G_1$-phase fraction of EGFR (+) and (-) group were 68.4(${\pm}11.6$)%, 71.1(${\pm}12.8$)%, (p>0.05) 3) Two-year survival rate of EGFR (+) and (-) group were 53%, 84%, median survival time of EGFR (+) and (-) group were 26, 53 months. (p<0.05, Kaplan-Meier, generalized Wilcox) Conclusion : EGFR immunostaining may be a simple and useful method for survival prediction in non-small cell lung cancer.

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δ-Catenin Increases the Stability of EGFR by Decreasing c-Cbl Interaction and Enhances EGFR/Erk1/2 Signaling in Prostate Cancer

  • Shrestha, Nensi;Shrestha, Hridaya;Ryu, Taeyong;Kim, Hangun;Simkhada, Shishli;Cho, Young-Chang;Park, So-Yeon;Cho, Sayeon;Lee, Kwang-Youl;Lee, Jae-Hyuk;Kim, Kwonseop
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.320-330
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    • 2018
  • ${\delta}$-Catenin, a member of the p120-catenin subfamily of armadillo proteins, reportedly increases during the late stage of prostate cancer. Our previous study demonstrates that ${\delta}$-catenin increases the stability of EGFR in prostate cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism behind ${\delta}$-catenin-mediated enhanced stability of EGFR was not explored. In this study, we hypothesized that ${\delta}$-catenin enhances the protein stability of EGFR by inhibiting its lysosomal degradation that is mediated by c-casitas b-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), a RING domain E3 ligase. c-Cbl monoubiquitinates EGFR and thus facilitates its internalization, followed by lysosomal degradation. We observed that ${\delta}$-catenin plays a key role in EGFR stability and downstream signaling. ${\delta}$-Catenin competes with c-Cbl for EGFR binding, which results in a reduction of binding between c-Cbl and EGFR and thus decreases the ubiquitination of EGFR. This in turn increases the expression of membrane bound EGFR and enhances EGFR/Erk1/2 signaling. Our findings add a new perspective on the role of ${\delta}$-catenin in enhancing EGFR/Erk1/2 signaling-mediated prostate cancer.

Mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

  • Kim, Aeri;Jang, Min Hye;Lee, Soo Jung;Bae, Young Kyung
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.150-159
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is considered a potential therapeutic target for anti-EGFR therapy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the frequency of EGFR gene mutation in TNBC is low and varies with ethnicity. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of EGFR gene mutation in TNBC. Methods: EGFR protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays of 493 TNBC cases using four different primary antibodies, which included mutation-specific antibodies. For cases with an immunoreactivity level ${\geq}1+$, we performed pyrosequencing analysis for EGFR gene mutation. A case was considered mutation-positive when its mutation frequency minus its limit of detection (LOD) was >10%. Cases with mutation frequency higher than LOD were assessed for EGFR gene mutation status using the Cobas assay and by peptide nucleic acid-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PNA-clamping). Results: Among 493 TNBCs, 148 (30.0%) exhibited staining ${\geq}1$+ for EGFR, including 78 with 1+, 49 with 2+, and 21 with 3+. Positive EGFR expression (${\geq}2+$) was significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion (p=0.010), but not with overall survival (p=0.444) or disease-free survival (p=0.388). None of the 493 TNBCs harbored an EGFR gene mutation. Among 148 cases with an EGFR staining result ${\geq}1+$, five (3.4%) showed mutation frequencies (4.4%-10.9%) higher than LOD (2.6%-4.3%) in exons 19 (L747_P753>Q) or 21 (L858R and L861Q) as determined by pyrosequencing. However, Cobas and PNA-clamping failed to detect the presence of EGFR gene mutation in these five cases. Conclusion: No activating mutation of EGFR gene of clinical significance was observed in 148 TNBC cases using three commercially available methods. Thus, EGFR gene mutation appears to be an extremely rare event in patients with TNBC.