• Title, Summary, Keyword: EC-SOD

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Dietary Copper Intakes and Nutritional Status of Copper in Serum among Elementary Schoolchildren in Chungnam Province in Korea: Comparison between Remote Rural and Urban Areas (일부 학령기 아동의 구리 섭취량 및 구리 영양 상태에 관한 연구: 충남 벽지농촌과 도시간의 비교)

  • Kim Sun-Hyo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.381-391
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    • 2006
  • This study is performed to compare the dietary intakes and food sources of copper (Cu) using the database of Cu content developed in this study between the elementary schoolchildren in remote rural areas (RA, n=58, $9.9{\pm}1.7$ yrs) and those in urban area (UA, n=60, $9.4{\pm}1.8$ yrs), and to analyze the relationship between serum Cu concentration and serum antioxidant status in the RA. The results obtained in this study were as followings: 1) Dietary intakes of calorie, calcium and iron in the RA were in the 3/5-4/5 of the Korean RDA while the UA were similar to or more than the Korean RDA, 7th ed. except iron. 2) More than 273 kinds of food consumed by the subjects were analyzed the content of Cu and database of Cu content were developed in the present study. The mean dietary intake of Cu per day in the RA was $0.99{\pm}0.07mg/d$ ($170.0{\pm}13.2%$ of the USA RDA) while it was $1.22{\pm}0.07mg/d$ ($203.4{\pm}13.1%$ of the RDA) in the UA. The percentage of dietary intakes of Cu less than 213 of the RDA was 8.6% in the RA in comparison to 0% in the UA. 3) The RA and the UA consumed more than 80% of total dietary intakes of Cu from plant foods. Thus, the RA and the UA consumed Cu from cooked rice, vegetables and fruits as a major source. However the RA had less Cu from meat and their products than did the UA (p<0.05) .4) Crab stew including crab and juice was the highest food source of Cu for the total subjects, followed by seasoned bud of aralia, cooked; beef rib meat, roasted; soybean paste soup w/mallow; and soybean paste soup w/mallow & beef. Major food source of Cu was similar for the RA and the UA such as cooked rice, vegetables and fruits. 5) Mean concentration of serum Cu in the RA was $18.1{\pm}0.7{\mu}M/L$ that was in the normal value, and all subjects in this group were in more than normal value. In the RA serum Cu concentration related positively with serum ceruloplasmin concentration, serum vitamin C concentration and EC SOD activity, respectively. However, serum Cu concentration did not relate with serum TBARS concentration in the RA. Above results showed that the RA had good status of Cu nutrition based upon dietary intake and serum concentration, however some of the RA had lower intake of Cu than the RDA. The overall children in the UA had good Cu nutrition. Therefore, the subgroup of the RA should be supported to improve their Cu nutrition, and this support could give them better antioxidant status based upon positive relationship between serum Cu concentration and serum antioxidant status in the RA.

Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of seaweed extracts (해조류 추출물의 항산화 및 α-glucosidase 저해 활성)

  • Kim, Jin-Hak;Kang, Hye-Min;Lee, Shin-Ho;Lee, Ju-Young;Park, La-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.290-296
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    • 2015
  • The antioxidant and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activities of 10 kinds of seaweeds Ecklonia cava (EC), Ecklonia stolonifera (ES), Eisenia bicyclis (EB), Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF), Sargassum fulvellum (SF), Undaria pinnatifida (UP), Sargassum thunbergii (ST), Codium fragile (CFr), Hizikia fusiformis (HF), and Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) were investigated. Among all the tested seaweed extracts, the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the EB extract were highest 150.81 mg/g and 77.02 mg/g, respectively. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities of the EB ethanol extract (1 mg/mL) were 86.26% and 99.71%, respectively, and its SOD-like activity and reducing power were 21.34% and 1.710 ($OD_{700}$). The ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activities of the EC, EB, and ST were above 98% at the 0.1 mg/mL concentration. These results suggest that seaweed extracts effectively prevent the what of antioxidants and decrease the blood glucose level, and may be used to develop various functional products.

Metabolic engineering of Vit C: Biofortification of potato

  • Upadhyaya, Chandrama P.;Park, Se-Won
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.14-14
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    • 2010
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is an essential component for collagen biosynthesis and also for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system in humans. Unlike most of the animals, humans lack the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid on their own due to a mutation in the gene encoding the last enzyme of ascorbate biosynthesis. As a result, vitamin C must be obtained from dietary sources like plants. In this study, we have developed two different kinds of transgenic potato plants (Solanumtuberosum L. cv. Taedong Valley) overexpressing strawberry GalUR and mouse GLoase gene under the control of CaMV 35S promoter with increased ascorbic acid levels. Integration of the these genes in the plant genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. Ascorbic acid(AsA) levels in transgenic tubers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The over-expression of these genes resulted in 2-4 folds increase in AsA intransgenic potato and the levels of AsA were positively correlated with increased geneactivity. The transgenic lines with enhanced vitamin C content showed enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses induced by methyl viologen(MV), NaCl or mannitol as compared to untransformed control plants. The leaf disc senescence assay showed better tolerance in transgenic lines by retaining higher chlorophyll as compared to the untransformed control plants. Present study demonstrated that the over-expression of these gene enhanced the level of AsA in potato tubers and these transgenics performed better under different abiotic stresses as compared to untransformed control. We have also investigated the mechanism of the abiotic stress tolerance upon enhancing the level of the ascorbate in transgenic potato. The transgenic potato plants overexpressing GalUR gene with enhanced accumulation of ascorbate were investigated to analyze the antioxidants activity of enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and their tolerance mechanism against different abiotic stresses under invitro conditions. Transformed potato tubers subjected to various abiotic stresses induced by methyl viologen, sodium chloride and zinc chloride showed significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase, enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase(APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase(DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), and glutathione reductase(GR, EC 1.8.1.7) as well as the levels of ascorbate, GSH and proline when compared to the untransformed tubers. The increased enzyme activities correlated with their mRNA transcript accumulation in the stressed transgenic tubers. Pronounced differences in redox status were also observed in stressed transgenic potato tubers that showed more tolerance to abiotic stresses when compared to untransformed tubers. From the present study, it is evident that improved to lerance against abiotic stresses in transgenic tubers is due to the increased activity of enzymes involved in the antioxidant system together with enhanced ascorbate accumulated in transformed tubers when compared to untransformed tubers. At moment we also investigating the role of enhanced reduced glutathione level for the maintenance of the methylglyoxal level as it is evident that methylglyoxal is a potent cytotoxic compound produced under the abiotic stress and the maintenance of the methylglyoxal level is important to survive the plant under stress conditions.

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Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Activities of Solvent Extract from Styela clava Tunic, Fishery Waste (수산폐기물인 미더덕껍질 용매 추출물의 항산화 및 항고혈압 활성)

  • Lee, Sang-Mee;Lee, Ye-Ram;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Park, Soo-Yun;Jang, Eun-Young;Hwang, Dae-Youn;Jung, Young-Jin;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.917-925
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    • 2015
  • Styela clava tunic is generated in large amounts as a waste from S. clava processing plants and leads to environmental problems. It destroys the beach scenery and causes a bad smell and pollution by trashing on the seashore. Therefore, purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of different solvent extracts from S. clava tunic for recycling of fishery waste. Antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of all extracts were concentration-dependent. Of extracts, hot water extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with the lowest effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) value (0.733 mg/ml). Chloroform extract exhibited the highest metal chelation activity with the lowest $EC_{50}$ value (2.696 mg/ml). Autoclaved water extract showed the highest NO radical scavenging activity with the lowest $EC_{50}$ value (0.491 mg/ml) and n-hexane extract showed the highest reducing power ($A_{700}=1.897$ at 100 mg/ml). And n-butanol extract showed the highest SOD-like activity with the lowest $EC_{50}$ value (19.116 mg/ml) and ACE inhibition activity with the lowest inhibitory concentration($IC_{50}$) value (0.149 mg/ml). These results indicate that extracts obtained from S. clava tunic may potential candidate to reduce diseases caused by various oxidative stresses and hypertension.

Selective iNOS Inhibition Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Reperfusion Injury (선택적 iNOS 억제에 의한 골격근 재관류 손상의 감소)

  • Park, Jong-Woong;Lee, Kwang-Suk;Kim, Sung-Kon;Park, Jung-Ho;Wang, Joon-Ho;Jeon, Woo-Joo;Lee, Jeong-Il
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor N-[3-aminomethyl]benzyl]acetamidine (l400W) on the reperfused cremaster muscle. The extracellular superoxide dismutase knockout ($EC-SOD^{-/-}$) mice was used to make the experimental window for ischemia-reperfusion injury. The muscle was exposed to 4.5 h of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion and the mice received either 3 mg/kg of 1400W or the same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) subcutaneously at 10 min before the start of reperfusion. The results showed that 1400W treatment markedly improved the recovery of the vessel diameter and blood flow in the reperfused cremaster muscle compared to that of PBS group. Histological examination showed reduced edema in the interstitium and muscle fiber, and reduced nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of total peroxinitrite ($ONOO^-$) in 1400W-treated muscle compared to PBS. Our results suggest that iNOS and $ONOO^-$ products are involved in skeletal muscle I/R injury. Reduced I/R injury by using selective inhibition of iNOS is perhaps via limiting cytotoxic $ONOO^-$ generation, a reaction product of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion ($O_2^-$). Thus, inhibition of iNOS appears to be a good treatment strategy in reducing clinical I/R injury.

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Antioxidant Activities of Five Melania Snails of the Genus Semisulcospira in Korea (한국산 다슬기류(Semisulcospira spp.) 5종의 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Moon-Hee;Kim, Yeon-Kye;Moon, Ho-Sung;Kim, You-Ah;Yoon, Na-Young;Lim, Chi-Won;Park, Hee-Yeon;Kim, Dae-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 2010
  • The in vitro antioxidant activities of five melania snails in the genus Semisulcospira (S. coreana, S. forticosta, S. libertina, S. tegulata and S. gottschei) were tested in detail. The total phenolic contents of the snails ranged from $32.3{\pm}1.0$ to $87.9{\pm}6.9$ mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry sample. The $EC_{50}$ values for the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were $2.245{\pm}0.179$ mg/mL for S. coreana and $9.319{\pm}1.276$ mg/mL for S. gottschei and differed significantly (P<0.05) among the tested species. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity was highest for S. gottschei at 67.2% and lowest for S. forticosta at 4.7%. However, no significant differences among the species were recognized for the peroxynitrite anion scavenging activity. Comparing the correlation coefficients between the total phenolic contents and the DPPH radical and peroxynitrite anion scavenging activities, there was a low level relationship between each activity.

Seasonal Soil and Foliar Nutrient Concentrations, and Fruit Quality in a Pesticide-Free Pear Orchard as Affected by Seeding Timing and Method of Cover Crops (녹비작물의 파종시기와 방법이 무농약 배과원의 시기별 토양화학성과 엽내 무기성분, 과실품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Kyeong-Ho;Choi, Jin-Ho;Kim, Wol-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Ji;Song, Jang-Hoon;Cho, Young-Sik;Yim, Sun-Hee;Jung, Seok-Kyu;Choi, Hyun-Sug
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of seeding timing and method of rye and/or hairy vetch on seasonal soil and foliar nutrient concentrations as well as fruit quality in a pesticide-free pear orchard. METHODS AND RESULTS: The treatments included as followed: single seeding of rye in September (Sep-Mono), November (Nov-Mono), and January (Jan-Mono), or mix seeding of rye+hairy vetch in November (Nov-Mix) and January (Jan-Mix), or sod culture as a control. Cover crops or vegetation was mown and mulched on the soil surface in April and May for two years. Nov-Mix treatment produced the highest dry matter weight of $12,070kg\;ha^{-1}$, with the lowest dry matter weight for sod culture ($6,520kg\;ha^{-1}$), following Jan-Mix ($7,030kg\;ha^{-1}$). Nov-Mix treatments increased potential amount of N, P, and K from the raw materials of the cover crops as well as improved soil physical properties. Nov-Mix treatments overall elevated soil pH, EC, organic matter, and $P_2O_5$ in May compared to other cover crop treatments or sod culture. The difference of the seasonal nutrient concentrations in leaves or fruit qualities were not consistently occurred amongst treatments. CONCLUSION: Nov-Mix treatments showed playing role in a substitute of a chemical fertilizer. Delayed seeding of cover crops such as Jan-Mix did not increase the potential dry matter production due to the short growing period, and the seeding time would affect the dry matter production of cover crops.

Effect of vitamin $B_6$ deficiency on antioxidative status in rats with exercise-induced oxidative stress

  • Choi, Eun-Young;Cho, Youn-Ok
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.208-211
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the effect of vitamin $B_6$ deficiency on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in rats with exercise-induced oxidative stress. Forty eight rats were fed either a vitamin $B_6$ deficient diet (B6-) or a control diet (control) for 4 weeks and then subdivided into 3 groups: pre-exercise (PreE); post-exercise (PostE); recess after exercise (recessE). Compared to those of control group, plasma catalase and hepatic cytosol superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activities of B6- group were lower regardless of exercise. The ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) of B6 - group was lower in PreE and there was no difference between PostE and recessE. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) of B6- was significantly higher in PreE and PostE. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level of B6- group was lower regardless of exercise. Atherosclerotic index of $B_6$- group was higher in PreE and there was no difference between PostE and recessE. It is suggested that a reduction in antioxidative status caused by vitamin $B_6$ deficiency may be aggravated under exercise-induced oxidative stress.

Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Added with Portulaca oleracea L. (쇠비름 첨가 설기떡의 품질 특성 및 항산화성)

  • Jeon, Mi Ra;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1447-1452
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to develop a healthy Sulgidduk, a kind of rice cake, added with Portulaca oleracea L.. The effects of P. oleracea L. paste (0% 1%, 3%, or 5%) on the quality characteristics of Sulgidduk were evaluated. As the concentration of P. oleracea L. paste increased, pH decreased and acidity increased. The reducing sugar contents (%) increased with the amount of P. oleracea L. paste. The Hunter a and b values of Sulgidduk increased with an increase in P. oleracea L. paste concentration, whereas L value decreased. DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD like activity of P. oleracea L. Sulgidduk increased with increasing P. oleracea L. paste contents. The sensory results show that overall preference of Sulgidduk with a P. oleracea L paste content of 3% was higher than those of other treatments.

Suppressive Effect of Green Tea Seed Coat Ethyl Acetate Fraction on Inflammation and Its Mechanism in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cell (RAW264.7 Macrophage Cell에서 녹차씨껍질 에틸아세테이트 분획의 염증억제 효과 및 기전 연구)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Min, Kwan-Hee;Chinzorig, Radnaabazar;Lee, Mi-Ock;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.625-634
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    • 2011
  • Green tea seed coat (GTSC) was extracted with 100% ethanol for 4 hr and then fractionated with petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAC) and butanol (BuOH). The EtOAC fraction showed the highest level in total phenol contents and the lowest level in nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cell. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and its mechanisms of GTSC EtOAC fraction in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cell. GTSC EtOAC fraction contained EGC ($1146.48{\pm}11.01\;{\mu}g/g$), tannic acid ($966.99{\pm}32.24\;{\mu}g/g$), EC ($70.88{\pm}4.39\;{\mu}g/g$), gallic acid ($947.61{\pm}1.03\;{\mu}g/g$), caffeic acid ($37.69{\pm}1.46\;{\mu}g/g$), ECG ($35.46{\pm}3.19\;{\mu}g/g$), and EGCG ($15.53{\pm}0.09\;{\mu}g/g$) when analyzed by HPLC. NO production was significantly (p<0.05) suppressed in a dose-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$ of $80.11\;{\mu}g$/mL. Also prostaglandin $E_2$ level was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, iNOS protein expression was suppressed in dose-dependent manner but COX-2 gene expression was not affected. Total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (GSH) levels were enhanced more than the LPS-control. Expressions of antioxidative enzymes including catalase, GSH-reductase and Mn-SOD were elevated compared to LPS-control. Nuclear p65 level was decreased in the GTSC EtOAC fraction in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that GTSC EtOAC fraction inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through elevated GSH levels, antioxidative enzymes expressions and suppression of iNOS expression via NF-${\kappa}B$ down-regulation.