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A STUDY OF THE MECHANISM OF IMPROVING ACID RESISTANCE OF BOVINE TOOTH ENAMEL AFTER PULSED Nd-YAG LASER IRRADIATION (펄스형 Nd-YAG 레이저 조사에 의한 법랑질 내산성 증가 기전에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Soon;Shon, Heung-Kyu
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.640-658
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of improving acid resistance of Nd-YAG laser irradiated tooth enamel and determine the most effective energy density for improving acid resistance. The bovine tooth enamel were lased with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser. The energy densities of exposed laser beam were varied from 10 to $70\;J/cm^2$. To investigate the degree of improving acid resistance by irradiation, all the samples were submerged to demineralize in 0.5 N $HClO_4$ solution for 1 minute. After 1 minute, 0.05 % $LaCl_3$ was added to the solution for interrupting the demineralization reaction. The amounts of dissolved calcium and phosphate in the solution were measured by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the UV/VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. To examine the mechanism of improving acid resistance, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were taken. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the samples were obtained in the $10^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}2{\theta}$ range with $Cu-K{\alpha}$ radiation using M18HF(Mac Science Co.) with X-ray diffractometer operating at 40 KV and 300 mA. The infra-red spectra of the ground samples in 300 mg KBr pellets 10 mm diameter were obtained in the $4000cm^{-1}\;to\;400cm^{-1}$ range using JASCO 300E spectrophotometer. The scanning electron microscopy was carried out using JSM6400(JEOL Co.) with $500{\sim}2000$ times magnification. The results were as follow 1. The concentration of calcium dissolved from laser irradiated enamel with $50J/cm^2$ was significantly lesser than that of unlased control group (p<0.05) 2. From the result of the X-ray diffraction analysis, $\beta$-TCP, which increases acid solubility, was identified in lased enamel but the diffraction peaks of (002) and (004) became sharp with increasing energy density of laser irradiation. This means that the crystals in lased samples were grown through the c-axis and subsequently, the acid solubility of enamel decreased. 3. The a-axis parameter was slightly increased by laser irradiation, whereas the c-axis parameter was almost constant except for a little decrease at $50J/cm^2$. 4. In the infra-red spectra of lased enamels, phosphate bands ($600{\sim}500cm^{-1}$), B-carbonate bands (870, $1415{\sim}1455cm^{-1}$), and A-carbonate band ($1545cm^{-1}$) were observed. The amounts of phosphate bands and the B-carbonate bands were reduced, on the other hand, the amount of the A-carbonate band was increased by increase the energy density. 5. The SEM experiments reveal that the surface melting and recrystallization were appeared at $30J/cm^2$ and the cracks were observed at $70J/cm^2$. From above results, It may be suggested that the most effective energy density for improving acid resistance of tooth enamel with the irradiation of Nd-YAG laser was $50J/cm^2$. The mechanism of improving acid resistance were reduction of permeability due to surface melting and recrystallization of lased enamel and reduction of acid solubility of enamel due to decrease of carbonate content and growth of crystal.

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Development of animal protein(feed for fry) utilizing the rumen ciliates (제1위 섬모충(rumen ciliates)을 이용한 동물성 단백질(치어용 사료) 개발)

  • Jee, Cha-ho;Hyun, Gong-yool
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.327-336
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to develop the animal protein(feed for fry) that was isolated, purified and lyophilized the rumen ciliates from the healthy rumen contents which have $10^5-10^6/g$ ciliates and were discarded in abattoirs. The rumen ciliates are non-pathogenic, anaerobic and the weight of this protozoa is 2% of rumen content. The rumen protozoan and bacterial proteins both have a biological value for rats of 80-81, which is higher than the 72 of brewer's yeasts. Furthermore, the true digestibility and net protein utility of the protozoan protein are 91 and 73, much higher than those of bacterial(74 and 60) or yeast(84 and 60) proteins. The amino acids of rumen protozoa is nutritionally superior than the others. The size of rumen ciliates is $30-200{\times}20-110{\mu}m$ and so we had isolated and purified the rumen ciliates from the rumen contents by the physical methods. The purified rumen protozoa was lyophilized with freezing dryer. The results of this experiment were as follows : 1. Population dynamics of protozoan ciliates in slaughtered rumens; % of samples which small ciliates were predominated was 82.5%(52/63) and that of large ciliates was 17.5%(11/63). 1) predominant species of small ciliates were Entodinium ovinum and E nanellum. 2) predominant species of large ciliates were Epidinium ecaudatum and Diploplastron affine. 2. The lyophilized rumen ciliates which were isolated and purified from 1 kg of rumen content at the pH 6.2-6.8 was about 7.0 gram. 3. The nutrient analysis of lyophilized rqmen ciliates(LRC) was as follows: 1) Proximate analysis of the LRC and the composition of fry feed; moisture 8.05%(below 10.0), protein 35.37%(45), fat 5.39%(4.5), fiber 1.23%(below 2.5), ash 2.25%(below 15.0), Ca 0.26%(below 2.0), P 0.14%(below 1.1), energy 4,608.11(fish meal 5000 cal/g) 2) Amino acids (% in crude protein) of the LRC and the rotifer(Brachionus plicatilis); Arg 5.19%(4.50), His 2.50%(1.55), Ile 5.29%(3.45), Leu 8.11%(5.85), Lys 10.34%(6.15), Met 2.25% (0.85), Phe 5.66%(3.80), Thr 5.14% (3.45), Val 4.18%(3.90), Ala 4.13%(3.35), Asp 13.26%(8.25), Glu 16.62%(9.20), Gly 4.23%(3.10), Pro 3.25%(5.05), Ser 4.85%(3.85), Tyr 5.04%(3.05) 3) Fatty acids(% in fat) of the LRC and the rotifer(biological feed ; Brachionus plicatilis); myristic acid(C14:0) 3.27%(0.3), myristoleic acid(C14:1) 0.83%(-), palmitic acid(C16:0) 39.11% (23.5), palmitoleic acid(C16:1) 2.81%(2.0), stearic acid(C18:0) 9.36%(5.6), oleic acid(C18:1) 25.54%(3.5), linoleic acid(C18:2) 15.05%(32.9), linolenic acid(C18:3) 1.74%(9.8). Judging from the above investigated results, the analytical data of proximate analysis, amino acids, fatty acids of the purified and lyophilized rumen protozoa are reasonable for the feed of freshwater fishes(fry and fingerling). But it was disappointed of our expectation that the crude protein of lyophilized rumen ciliates contains low percentage, it was thought that because of the small ciliates(starch digester) in beef cattle rumens which were administered the concentrated feed, is much difficult to isolate and purify than the large ciliates(fiber digester).

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Study on the viewpoint of the balance(平衡觀) on the 'Sanghan prescription(傷寒方) throughout the academic sources of 'Sang Han Lon' (상한론(傷寒論)의 학술연원(學術淵源)을 통(通)한 상한방(傷寒方)의 평형관 고찰)

  • Kim, Ji-hyung;Park, Sun-Dong
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.4
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    • pp.25-52
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    • 1995
  • 'Sang Han Lon' became the sources for treatment and prescription in the Oriental medicine. After that, for some 1800 years the various writings for studying in many ways more than 1000 books which many old sages really intended to inquire into and study the value of books. It is considered that it is the result which the old sages tried to grope for many-sided directions in order to understand 'Sang Han Lon'. In this study, I tried to inquire into prescription and its relevant medicinal substances, that is to say, the crystalization of the physiology, pathology and treating method on the basis of the academic sources of his thoughts. The method to approach is "from what basis of thought system was 'Sang Han Lon' derived first of all?" Secondly, how was the thought system, which became the basis of 'Sang Han Lon', applied to concretely? I studied on the basis of the above important two problems. It is well known to everybody that 'Sang Han Lon' succeeded to the tradition of Naekyung(內經) as well as Cwuyek(周易, Chinese classic on divination). Besides, I inquired into and arrived at conclusion as follows that how the viewpoint on the balance(平衡觀), which was one of the common point between. Cwuyek(周易) and medical science in case of the 'Sanghan prescription'(傷寒方), was applied to concretely. 1. In naming, it is considered that from the same interconnection which the common point with Cwuyek(周易) was the same as obtaining the imigination(取象), the imagination was obtained and was named. 2. In case of being concerned in the gastro-intestinal track, namely, the core of the balance and harmony with the balance and harmony being emphasized, '理中'(It implies 'taking care of gasstro-intestinal track')" and '建中'(It implies 'establishing of gastro-intestinal track'), that is to say, '中'(It implies 'taking care of' & 'establishing of gastro-intestinal track') was emphasized much more. 3. In case of treatment taking advantage of three kinds of medicine in draught, powder and pills in the prescription, while treating during adjusting the slowness and fastness, I maintained the harmony not to damage the righteousness(正氣). 4. In case of the prescription, when exhaling(發散), astringing(收斂), loosing bowels, protecting the gastro-intestinal track and vomitting, he used the medicinal sustances in order to protect the gastro-intestinal track and treated not to damage the righteousness. 5. Especially, in case of the prescription in order to adjust the negative and positive principle of inside-outside(素囊陰陽), he composed of medicinal substances relevant to hot, cold, spicy and sour(寒熱辛酸) in conformity with the prescription and I paid much more attention to the one-sided treatment. Considering the various prescriptions, it is regarded that the adjusting prescription is kept its balance. 6. In the way of processing the medicinal substances in order to change effect of medicine in conformity with the reenactment, he tried to plan the balance of '一升一降' with the decrease of RHEI RADIX ET RHIZOMA(大黃) and increase of wine. 7. In boiling the medicine, he boiled the composed medicine in the time sequence for the purpose of adjusting the slowness and fastness and adapted to harmony of the negative and positive principle(陰陽調和) on the essence function(體峻用純). 8. In taking medicine, he tried to reduce the time of taking the medicine in case of being boiled slowly and tried to increase the dosage and eventually he planned the balance of one time slowness and one time fastness. As I inquired into the above result, a few steps for protecting method to boil the relevant medicinal substances, how to take the medicine and how to process the composed medicinal substances in order to change the effect of medicine can make the human body, which the disease penetrate into, go forward to the righteousness(正氣) and what is much beter, it is considered that this protecting method can be a carefully considerable one in order to protect the righteousness and can subdue the disease, not to damage the gastro-intestinal track and there can exist the viewpoint of balance(平衡觀) on its core.

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THE ELECTROMAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POLAR IONOSPHERE DURING A MODERATELY DISTURBED PERIOD (지자기교란시 극전리층의 전자기적인 특성)

  • 안병호
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.216-233
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    • 1995
  • The distributions of the ionospheric conductivities, electric potential, ionospheric currents, field-aligned currents, Joule heating rate, and particle energy input rate by auroral electrons along with the characteristics of auroral particle spectrum are examined during moderately disturbed period by using the computer code developed by Kamide et al. (1981) and the ionospheric conductivity model developed by Ahn et al. (1995). Since the ground magnetic disturbance data are obtained from a single meridian chain of magnetometers (Alaska meridian chain) for an extended period of time (March 9 - April 27, 1978), they are expected to present the average picture of the electrodynamics over the entire polar ionosphere. A number of global features noted in this study are as follows: (1) The electric potential distribution is characterized by the so-called two cell convection pattern with the positive potential cell in the morning sector extending into the evening sector. (2) The auroral electrojet system is well developed during this time period with the signatures of DP-1 and DP-2 current systems being clearly discernable. It is also noted that the electric field seems to play a more important role than the ionospheric conductivity the conductivity over the poleward half of the westward electrojet in the morning sector while the conductivity enhancement seems to be more important over its equatorward half. (3) The global field-aligned current distribution pattern is quite comparable with the statistical result obtained by Iijima and Potemra (1976). However, the current density of Region 1 is much higher than that of Region 2 current at pointed out by pervious studies (e.g.; Kamide 1988). (4) The Joule heating occurs over a couple of island-like areas, one along the poleward side of the westward electrojet region in the afternoon sector. (5) The maximum average energy of precipitating electrons is found to be in the morning sector (07∼08 MLT) while the maximum energy flux is registered in the postmidnight sector (02 MLT). Thus auroral brightening and enhancement of ionospheric conductivity during disturbed period seem to be more closely associated with enhancement of particle flux rather than hardening of particle energy.

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Some Tertiary Interactions in 5S rRNA from Xanthomonas celebensis (Xanthomonas celebensis 5S rRNA의 몇 가지 삼차상호작용)

  • Bongrae Cho;Yeonghoon Lee;Myung-Un Choi;Inwon Park
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 1993
  • The primary and secondary structure of the 5S rRNA isolated from Xanthomonas celebensis were determined by enzymatic and chemical degradation methods. It consists of 119 nucleotides and contains no modified nucleosides. As with the 5S rRNAs of X. maltophilia and X. citri, it contains an additional uridine residue on the 5'-terminus. Its secondary structure was almost identical to the models previously proposed by us for the 5S rRNA of two Xanthomonas species. Its secondary structure consists of five helices, five loops and two bulges. The tertiary interactions in the 5S rRNA molecule were analyzed by Fe(II)-EDTA treatment and hybridization method using deoxyhexamer. From the fact that some adenine residues in loop M, region $I_1-C$, loop $H_1$, and loop $H_2$ become susceptible to diethylpyrocarbonate when the 5S rRNA was hybridized with deoxyhexamer complementary to the sequence $U_{35}CCCAU_{40}$ and that some nucleotide residues in loop M, loop $H_1$ and region $D-I_2$ become resistant Fe(II)-EDTA cleavage in the presence of $Mg^{2+}$, it is presumed that loops $H_1$ and $H_2$ interact with loop M in some way. In the tertiary interaction, the regions $I_1-C$ and $D-I_2$ seem to act as hinges in folding the stems $B-I_1-C$ and $D-I_2-E.$ It was found that loop $H_1$ changes into a smaller loop of three bases by forming noncanonical A : C base-pairs ih acidic environment.

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The Analysis of Forest Vegetation in Mt. Kumjeong (금정산(金井山) 일대(-帶)의 삼림식생분석(森林植生分析))

  • Yun, Chung Weon;Bae, Kwan Ho;Hong, Sung Cheon
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.13
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 1995
  • Mt. Kumjeong is located in south-eastern part of the Korean Peninsular($129^{\circ}$01' to $129^{\circ}$05' E, $35^{\circ}$03' to $35^{\circ}$17' N) and the altitude of the summit is 802 meter. In order to find out the vegetation units which made it possible to classify subtropical forest and south-temperate forest, Mt. Kumjeong (which is located in a border of between subtropical forest and south-temperate forest) was selected as a study area. The primary result of actual vegetation analysis in Mt. Kumjeong based upon the vegetation community analysis methods by the ZM-school, and the relationships between vegetation community and two parameters(altitude, topography) analyzed by using coincidence analysis method were summarized as followings. 1. Based upon analytic methods of the vegetation community by the ZM-schools, the primary analytic result of the analysis of vegetation community in Mt. Kumjeong was divided into 10 communities, 9 groups, 2 subgroups. 2. Eurya japonica group of Pinus densiflora community out of 16 vegetation units was thought as a indicator vegetation group which made it possible to border subtropical forest and south-temperate forest. 3. Natural regeneration of Stewartia koreana group was thought to be difficult because seedling and sapling was rarely showed, 4. In relationship between vegetation units and altitude, Carpinus tschonoskii community, Quercus variabilis community, Quercus serrata community, Wisteria floribunda community,. Eurya japonica group of Pinus densiflora community, Pinus thunbergii community mainly distributed below altitude 500 meter, and Quercus mongolica community, Typical group of Pinus densiflora community, Quercus dentata community, Carpinus coreana community, Quercus acutissima community mainly distributed above altitude 500 meter. 5. In relationship between vegetation units and topography, Carpinus tschonoskii community, Quercus variabilis community, Quercus serrata community, Wisteria floribunda community,. Eurya japonica group of Pinus densiflora community distributed below middle slope, Quercus mongolica community, Typical group of Pinus densifiora community, Quercus dentata community, Carpinus coreana community, Pinus thunbergii community Quercus acutissima communily clistributed above midclle slope.

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A Study on Sea Water and Ocean Current in the Sea Adjacent to Korea Peninsula -III. Chemical Characteristics of Water Masses in the Polar Front Area of the Central Korean East Sea- (한반도 근해의 해류와 해수특성 -III. 한국 동해 중부 극전선역에 출현하는 수괴의 화학적 특성-)

  • YANG Han-Soeb;KIM Seong-Soo;KANG Chang-Geun;CHO Kyu-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 1991
  • The vertical distribution and chemical characteristics of water masses were measured along two south-north transects in the polar front region of the central Korean East Sea. In February, a thermocline was present at depth between 50m and loom at the southern sites of a landward A-transect, and its depth was gradually deepened northward. At an outside B-transect, a thermocline was observed at significantly deep depth of 300m to 400m at two northern stations(Stn. 10 and 11), though the depth of the southward stations was nearly identical to that at the northward stations on a A-transect. In September, there were vertically more various water masses, i.e. the Tsushima Warm surface water(TWSW) or more than $20^{\circ}C$, the Tsushima Middle water(TMW) with a range of $12{\~}17^{\circ}C$, the North Korea Cold Water(NKCW) with $1{\~}7^{\circ}C$ temperature, the Japan Sea Proper Water(JSPW) of less than $1^{\circ}C$, and the mixed water. The North Korea Cold Water could be distinguishable from the other waters, especially from the mixed water of the Tsushima Middle Water and the Japan Sea Proper Water by the pattern of $T-O_2$ diagram. For instance, the North Korea Cold Water had higher oxygen by $1{\~}2ml/l$ than those in the mixed water, although both the two water masses ranged $1{\~}7^{\circ}C$ in water temperature. AOU value was the highest in the JSPW and the lowest in the TWSW. Also, AOU indicated a nearly linear and negative correlation with water temperature. However, AOU data for two masses, the NKCW and the TMW, in September departed remarkably from a regression line. Moreover, the ratio of $$\Delta P/\Delta AOU)$ in September was about $0.45{\mu}g-at/ml$ and higher than the value observed in the open sea. This high value could be elucidated by two factors; intrusion of the NKCW with high oxygen and molecular diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the surface into the lower layer. AOU would be a useful tracer for water masses in the polar front area of the Korean East Sea.

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CHLOROFORM IN THE AIR OF INDOOR SWIMMING POOLS AND THE OUTDOOR AIR NEAR THE SWIMMING POOLS IN A CITY OF KOREA (국내 한 도시의 실내 수영장 공기 및 수영장 인근의 실외 공기에서의 클로로포름)

  • 조완근;황영미
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 1994
  • Chloroform present in the swimming water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite is released to the air of swimming pools. The air chloroform concentrations were measured in two swimming pools A and B which applied both sodium hypochlorite a:d ozone. Thew mean concentrations are 28.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3 and 33.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3in the swimming pools A and B, respectively. On the other hand, the mean water chloroform concentrations in the swimming pools A and B were 23.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l and 19.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l, respectively. The air chloroform concentrations were lower in the swimming Bools A and B than those reported by previous studies abroad employed the swimming pools which applied sodium hypochlorite only for water disinfection. The water chloroform concentrations were also lower in this study than in the previous studies. The relationship between the air and water chloroform concentrations measured in this study was significant with p=0.002 and Rz=0.42. At similar time to the indoor air sampling, outdoor air samples were collected at two sites near each of the swimming Pools A and B. The mean outdoor air chloroform concentrations near the swiminE Pools A and B were 0.41 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3 and 0.16 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3, respectively. The outdoor air chloroform concentrations measured in this study were equal to or lower than those reported by previous studies abroad. 'rho chloroform dose inhaled for a typical one-hour swim was estimated to be 25.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per person, corresponding to a specific 0.37 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg body weight for a reference 70 Kg male adult, while the inhalation dose of chloroform from the outdoor air was estimated to be 5.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per person per day, corresponding to a specific 0.08 $\mu\textrm{g}$/Kg/day for the same reference male adult.

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Screening and Physiological Characteristics of Mutants in Rhizobium japonicum (Rhizobium japonicum에 있어서 변이주(變異株)의 선발(選拔) 및 특성(特性))

  • Park, Chang Dong;Kang, Sang Jai;Park, Woo Churl
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.12
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was conducted to isolate the mutants from S118 and to investigate the physiological characteristics of R. japonicum mutants. The results obtained were as follows; Based on nodulation and acetylene reduction, nodulation of rhizobia was divided into 4 groups, i.e. slow-nodulation, earlier-nodulation, infrequent-nodulation and non-nodulation. At 5% significant level, the growth of inoculated plant with SM255 was bad, but that of HP277 was good. Root-hairs curling was induced by strains S118 and HP277 on soybean, but not by strain SM255. S118 and SM255 were found to be slow-gorwers and produced alkali, whereas strain HP277 was fast-grower and produced acid in YEM broth. In litmus milk reaction, all strains indicated alkaline reaction, and serume-zone was induced weakly by HP277. All of the strains tested in this experiment utilized sucrose. HP277 and LP268 utilized xylose, whereas S118 and SM255 did not. SM255 showed bad growth in nitrogen carriers however utilization of $Ca(NO_3)_2{\cdot}4H_2O$ by HP277 was possible at 25mM and 10mM level. To compare with S118, the protein band of SM255's cell protein electrophoresis was not developed at 0.62 Rm position.

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Chemical and Bacteriological Water Qualify of the Sonakdong River (서낙동강 강수의 화학적${\cdot}$세균학적 수질)

  • KIM Yong Gwan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.347-355
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    • 1986
  • The Sonakdong river is very important water source not only for agricultural water of Kimhae field but also for fishery water. Recently the middle and lower areas of the river have the tendency to be heavily contaminated by domestic sewage and agricultural chemicals. Fifty six water samples were collected from 8 stations from July to December in 1985 for the experiment (Fig. 1). To evaluate the water quality, pH, water temperature, electrical conductivity, chloride ion, nutrients ($NO^{-}_{2}-N,\;NO^{-}_{3}-N,\;NH^{+}_{4}-N,\;PO^{3-}_{4}-P,\;SiO_2-Si$), total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus were determined. Range and mean value of the samples were as follows; pH $6.3{\sim}9.4$, 7.91; water temperature $6.1{\sim}34.8^{\circ}C,\;23.88^{\circ}C$; electrical conductivity (from St. A to G) $1.575{\times}10^2{\sim}30.50{\times}10^2{\mu}{\mho}/cm,\;6.57{\times}10^2{\mu}{\mho}/cm$; chloride ion $23.5{\sim}14,300mg/l$, 770.0mg/l; nitrite-nitrogen $0.007{\sim}0.110mg/l$, 0.053mg/l; nitrate-nitrogen $0.001{\sim}1.638mg/l$, 0.649 mg/l; ammonia-nitrogen $0.017{\sim}4.200mg/l$, 0.497mg/l; phosphate-phoshorus $0.011{\sim}0.281mg/l$, 0.086mg/l; and silicate-silicious $2.4{\sim}6.5mg/l$, 4.43mg/l. Electrical conductivity and chloride ion of the station F(Chomanpo) were $2.676{\times}10^2{\mu}{\Omega}cm$ and 123.99mg/l which were lower than those of others. Among the analyzed nutrients, silicate-silicious concentration was the highest through all the samples. The bacterial density of the samples ranged $36{\sim}110,000/100ml$ for total coliform, $15{\sim}46,000/100ml$ for fecal coliform and $3.6{\sim}15,000/100ml$ for fecal streptococcus. The range and the mean of the TC/FC ratio were $3.0{\sim}9.6$, 5.51 and those of the FC/FS ratio were $1.1{\sim}9.2$, 6.19, respectively. On the other hand, fecal coliform was not detected in about $78\%$ of the water samples examined. Composition of coliform was $52\%$ Escherichia coli group, $3\%$ Citrobacter freundii group, $13\%$ Enterobacter aerogenes group and $31\%$ others.

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