• Title, Summary, Keyword: Duodenal Digesta

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Model to Predict Absorbed Amino Acid Supply at the Proximal Duodenum in Growing Beef Cattle

  • Yan, Xianghua;Xu, Zirong;Zhang, Wen-ju;Wang, Jiaqi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2005
  • Five crossbred beef cattle (Simmental${\times}$yellow cattle, Shantung Province) fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen and T-type cannulae at the proximal duodenum and terminal ileum, were fed five different diets containing corn, cotton meal or soybean meal and ammoniated straw to determine the dry matter, crude protein and amino acid flows in duodenal and ileum digesta, and to calculate the regression equations between theoretical and experimental concentration of AA in duodenal digesta. The results showed that there was a strong correlation between experimental (g/d, y) and theoretical CP flows (g/d, x) at the proximal duodenum, the $R^2$-value regression equation of crude protein is very high (0.9636). The $R^2$-value regression equation of the limiting amino acid (such as Met or Lys) is high (0.7573 or 0.9252 respectively). This results indicated that we can formulate better diets fed to beef cattle according to the theoretical amino acid concentration. A mathematical model has been successfully constructed for predicting the supply of absorbed amino acids at the proximal duodenum in growing beef cattle.

Effects of Different Concentrate and Roughage Ratios on Ruminal Balance of Long Chain Fatty Acids in Sheep

  • Sasaki, H.;Horiguchi, K.;Takahashi, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.960-965
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    • 2001
  • The effects of different feeding ratios of concentrate (C) and roughage (R) on balance of long chain fatty acids and microbial fatty acids in the rumen of sheep were investigated. The diets were divided into 8:2 (concentrate feeding), 4:6 (middle mixture) and 0:10 (roughage feeding) ratios (C:R). Duodenal digesta was collected through 24 hours after feeding. Biohydrogenation rate, total duodenal flow of fatty acids and microbial fatty acids were measured. Total duodenal flow of fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) increased with increasing concentrate. Total duodenal flow of fatty acid was greater than intake of fatty acid in all diets. In comparison with intake of each fatty acid, duodenal flow of stearic acid ($C_{18:0}$) remarkably increased in all diets. Biohydrogenation rate for total C18 unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen tended to increase (p<0.10) when sheep were fed the middle mixture. In particular, biohydrogenation rate of linoleic acid ($C_{18:2}$) and linolenic acid ($C_{18:3}$) with the middle mixture were highest (p<0.05) compared with other diets. Duodenal flow of protozoal fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) increased with the increased supply of concentrate. That of bacterial fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) increased with both concentrate diets compared with the roughage feeding diet. $C_{18:0}$ occupied the greater part of both protozoal and bacterial fatty acids in all treatments. Results indicated that biohydrogenation of free unsaturated fatty acids was actively carried out when the middle mixture diet was supplied, and that microbial uptake and synthesis of fatty acids were accelerated by adding the supply of concentrate.

INFLUENCE OF AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTS TO A STRAW-MAIZE-BASED UREA DIET ON DUODENAL DIGESTA FLOW AND DIGESTION IN SHEEP

  • Fujimaki, T.;Kobayashi, Y.;Wakita, M.;Hoshino, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.137-145
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    • 1994
  • Amino acid (AA) substituted diets had no influence on rumen levels of total volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia and ${\alpha}$-amino-N, but tended to increase molar proportions of isovalerate and counts of total viable AA utilizing and celluloytic bacteria in the rumen as compared with the control urea diet. The AA diets did not affect daily flow to the duodenum of dry matter (DM), organic mater (OM) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), and rumen digestibility of these nutrients. However, the AA diets, in particular the 10 essential AA (EAA) diet improved total digestibility of DM, OM and ADF by decreasing faecal output of these fractions. Although N flow to the duodenum and N retention were not affected with the dietary treatments, duodenal bacterial flow appeared to increase by the AA diets when it was estimated by means of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and nucleic acid-purine bases (PB) as markers. The results suggest that AA supplements to a urea diet could improve feed utilization by stimulating microbial activity and proliferation in the rumen but and increased microbial activity per se is not necessarily associated with improvement of feed conversion.

DETERMINATION OF THE APPARENT ILEAL DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS IN FEEDSTUFFS AND MIXED DIETS FOR GROWIG-FINSHING PIGS WITH THE MOBILE NYLON BAG TECHNIQUE

  • Yin, Y.L.;Zhong, H.Y.;Huang, R.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.433-441
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    • 1995
  • A series of experiments was conducted to determine the influence of various pepsin-HCL pretreatment factor, hereby the factors of duration of washing for the retrieved bags, inherent to the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT), on apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein (AIDCP) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter (AIDDM). At last, the AIDCP and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids (AIDAA) in maize, barley, wheat, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and three mixed diets were determined with the MNBT and ileo-rectal anastomis pigs (IRAT). For the MNBT techniques, bag measuring $25{\times}40$ MM and containing 0.75 g feedstuff samples, after pre-digestion in vitro, were introduced into the ileo-rectal anastomis pigs (IRAT) gastrointestinal tract through a duodenal cannula and recovered in the ileal digesta between 6 and 12 h. later. 1. The apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter (AIDDM) and crude protein (AIDCP) of the tested samples, with the exception of fish meal, determined by MNBT were not affected by the different pepsin-HCL pretreatment times in vitro between 2.5 h. and 4 h. 2. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference of the AIDCP and AIDDM of maize determined by the MNBT among different pepsin concentration (0.03%, 0.07% and 0.1 %) treatment in vitro. 3. The AIDCP determined with the MNBT was affected by the washed and unwashed recovered bags from the ileal digesta. 4. The AIDCP and AID amino acids (AIDAA) of maize, barley, wheat, rapeseed meal, soya-bean meal, cottonseed meal and three mixed diets from the MNBT, with a solution of 0.01N HCL (PH 2) and 0.1% of pepsin concentration, a pepsin-HCL pretreatment time in vitro or 4h. and a washing time of the recovered bag from the ileal digesta compared well with those from the IRAT. The linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation (p < 0.01) of AIDCP and AIDDA between the IRAT and MNBT.

Corticosterone Administration Alters Small Intestinal Morphology and Function of Broiler Chickens

  • Hu, Xiaofei;Guo, Yuming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1773-1778
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    • 2008
  • Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on intestinal morphology and function of broilers. In both experiments, birds were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was the control group (CTRL), and the birds were fed with a basal diet. The other was the experimental group (CORT), and the birds were fed with the basal diet plus 30 mg of CORT/kg diet. At 21 days of age, performance, morphological characteristics of intestine, D-xylose level in plasma, activities of digestive enzymes in digesta, digestibility of nutrients and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd)-labeling index of intestinal epithelial cells were determined. CORT administration decreased feed intake, daily gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). CORT also decreased duodenal and jejunal villus height (p<0.05) as well as crypt depth (p<0.05). The D-xylose level in plasma of CORT-treated broilers was lower than that of the control (p<0.05). CORT treatment caused a decrease in apparent digestibility of protein (p<0.05), whereas fat and starch apparent digestibilities were unaffected (p>0.05). CORT administration increased activities of trypsin and amylase (p<0.05), and decreased BrdUrd-labeling index of duodenal and jejunal epithelial cells (p<0.05). In conclusion, CORT administration impaired the normal morphology and absorptive capacity of the small intestine of broiler chickens.

Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Growth, Intestinal Content Viscosity, and Digestive Enzyme Activities in Growing Pigs Fed Rough Rice-based Diet

  • Wang, M.Q.;Xu, Z.R.;Sun, J.Y.;Kim, B.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exogenous non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) enzymes on performance, intestinal content viscosity and digestive enzyme activities of growing pigs fed a rough rice-based diet. A total of 60 crossbred barrows with an initial body weight of 35.16 kg (SD = 0.82) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to two treatments with three replications. Each group was fed the diet based on rice with or without exogenous NSP enzymes (2 g/kg of diet). During the 70 days of the feeding trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. At the end of the feeding trial, six pigs from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect intestinal digesta, intestinal mucosa, and pancreas. The addition of NSP enzymes improved average daily gain (p<0.05) and feed:gain (p<0.05), and decreased viscosity of digesta in the jejunum (p<0.001) and ileum (p<0.01) of pigs. The supplementation of NSP enzymes increased activities of protease (p<0.01), trypsin (p<0.01) and ${\alpha}$-amylase (p<0.05) in duodenal contents. However, digestive enzymes in the pancreas, jejunal and ileal mucosa were unaffected by the supplemental NSP enzymes (p>0.10). The results indicate that the addition of NSP enzymes to rough rice-based diets improved performance of pigs, reduced viscosity and increased digestive activity in the small intestine.

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATE AND NITROGEN SOURCES ON THE UTILIZATION OF AMINO ACIDS IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF SHEEP

  • Lee, N.H.;Armstrong, D.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 1990
  • This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different carbohydrate and nitrogen source upon the utilization of amino acids in the small intestine of sheep. The results obtained are as follows: 1) For the quantities of total amino acid-N(TAA-N), essential amino acid-N(EAA-N) and nonessential amino acid-N(NEAA-N) passing at the duodenum and ileum except NEAA-N passing at the ileum were no significant differences (p>0.05) between diets. The quantities of NEAA-N passing at the ileum for the diets containing meat and bone meal were significantly higher (p>0.05) than the diets containing soybean meal. The mean values for the proportionate disappearance apparently digested TAA-N, EAA-N and NEAA-N within the small intestine for four diets were $0.692{\pm}0.0449$, $0.702{\pm}0.0132$ and $0.682{\pm}0.726$, respectively. 2) There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in duodenal individual amino acid flow between diets with the exception of aspartic acid and glycine. The amounts of each amino acid in duodenal digesta, expressed as a proportion of the amounts ingested for the four diets, were shown that there were net gains of EAA with the exception of arginine and NEAA with the exception of glutamic acid, glycine and praline prior to the small intestine. 3) Within the small intestine, there were no significant losses of each EAA (p>0.05) but significant losses of aspartic acid and glycine of NEAA between diets (p<0.01). The mean values of the proportionate losses of methionine, alanine and lysine within the small intestine were $0.816{\pm}0.04$, $0.767{\pm}0.04$ and $0.732{\pm}0.01$, respectively.

Effects of Enzyme Treated Palm Kernel Expeller on Metabolizable Energy, Growth Performance, Villus Height and Digesta Viscosity in Broiler Chickens

  • Saenphoom, P.;Liang, J.B.;Ho, Y.W.;Loh, T.C.;Rosfarizan, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.537-544
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    • 2013
  • This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE) with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME), growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p<0.05) hemicellulose and cellulose contents of PKE by 26.26 and 32.62%, respectively; and improved true ME (TME) and its nitrogen corrected value ($TME_n$) by 38% and 33%, respectively, compared to the raw sample. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens fed on different dietary treatments in the grower period were not significantly different. Although there was no difference in feed intake (p>0.05) among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet) was higher (p<0.05) than in all treatment groups fed either 20 or 30% PKE, irrespective of with or without enzyme treatment. However, ADG of birds fed with 20% PKE was higher than those fed with 30% PKE. The FCR of chickens in the control was the lowest (2.20) but not significantly different from those fed 20% PKE diets while birds in the 30% PKE diets recorded higher (p>0.05) FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p<0.05) than those in the raw PKE groups. Viscosity of the intestinal digesta was not different (p>0.05) among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose) component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.