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Effect of the Duck Skin on Quality Characteristics of Duck Hams

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Kyung;Kim, Young-Boong;Sung, Jung-Min;Jang, YoungJin;Shim, Jae-Yun;Han, Sung-Gu;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.360-367
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of duck skin on cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, protein solubility, texture profile analysis (TPA), apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of press type duck ham with different ratio of duck breast meat and duck skin. Five duck ham formulations were produced with the following compositions: T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%), T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%), T3 (duck breast 50% + duck skin 50%), T4 (duck breast 40% + duck skin 60%), and T5 (duck breast 30% + duck skin 70%). The cooking loss and fat separation were lower in T1, and the total expressible fluid separations were lower in T1 and T2 than others. The pH ranged from 6.48 to 6.59, with the highest values in T4 and T5. T5 had the highest CIE $L^*$-value, and T1 and T2 had the highest CIE $a^*$-values; however, CIE $b^*$-values did not differ significantly between the duck ham samples. The protein solubility and TPA (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness) were the highest in T1. T1 and T2 had higher scores for color, tenderness, and overall acceptability. T1, T2, and T3 showed significantly higher values, but there were no significant differences for flavor and juiciness. Regarding apparent viscosity properties, T1 and T2 had higher viscosity values than the other formulations. In conclusion, the T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%) and T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%) duck hams show the highest quality characteristics.

The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham

  • Shim, Jae-Yun;Kim, Tae-Kyung;Kim, Young-Boong;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Ahn, Kwang-Il;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.162-171
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest (p<0.05) and that of the control and T4 was the lowest (p<0.05). The fat content of control was higher than all treatments (p<0.05). T2 had the lowest values in cooking loss, total expressible fluid, fat separation, hardness, springiness, and gumminess (p<0.05). The score of overall acceptability of all treatments with pre-emulsified skin was higher than control (p<0.05). Therefore, the pre-emulsification process can improve the quality characteristics of duck ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.