• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dry deposition

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Measurement of Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition to Lake Paldang (팔당호로의 질소와 황성분 침적 측정)

  • Ghim Young Sung;Jin Hyoun Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2005
  • Nitrogen and sulfur deposition was measured on Lake Pal dang from March 2002 to October 2003. Wet and dry depositions were separately measured using wet- and dry-only samplers, respectively. In order to measure the dry deposition to the water body, a dry deposition sampler composed of three pans filled with pure water, called the deposition water, was used. Since ammonium was generally in excess in ambient air, more than half of ammonium was present in the gaseous form. Ammonium concentration was also generally higher than the sum of major anion concentrations in the deposition water because gaseous species were much easily deposited than the species in fine particles. Nevertheless, the contribution of gaseous ammonia to the deposition of ammonium was not high as well as that of particulate ammonium while the contribution of gaseous nitric acid was much higher than that of particulate nitrate. Annual wet deposition fluxes of nitrogen and sulfur were five and six times higher than their dry deposition fluxes, respectively. Except for ammonium, the dry deposition flux estimated in the present work was a half of the previous results. This was mainly caused by much smaller dry deposition velocities over the water than over the ground.

Measurement of Atmospheric Dry Deposition and Size Distribution of Particulate PCBs in 1999 at Seoul

  • Park, Seong-Suk;Shin, Hye-Joung;Yi, Seung-Muk;Kim, Yong-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.22 no.E1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2006
  • Ambient particle size distributions of PCBs and their dry deposition fluxes were measured at a site in Seoul to quantify dry deposition fluxes of PCBs and size characteristics of PCBs in the air, and to estimate ambient concentrations of gaseous PCBs and dry deposition fluxes. The dry deposition plate was used to measure dry deposition fluxes of particulate mass and PCBs and a cascade impactor and rotary impactor were used to measure ambient particle size distributions for small ($D_p<9{\mu}m$) and large ($D_p>9{\mu}m$) particles, respectively. Six sample sets were collected from April to July 1999. The fluxes of particulate total PCBs (the sum of 43 congeners) ranged from 160 to $607ng\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$. The size distribution of total PCBs was bimodal with two peaks in small particle size ($D_p{\sim}0.6\;and\;6{\mu}m$, respectively) and, thus, mass concentration being dominant in small particles. The mean particulate PCBs concentration was $6.9{\mu}g$ PCBs/g. The concentrations of PCB homologues in the gas phase were estimated based on the particle/gas partition coefficient ($K_p$) with the measured values of particulate PCBs in this study and they were comparable to those observed in other previous studies. Dry deposition fluxes were estimated by calculating dry deposition velocities.

Measurement of Dry deposition at Seoul, Chunchon and Anmyon-do by Using Filter pack Method (필터팩을 이용한 서울과 춘천, 안면도의 건성 강하량 측정)

  • Kim, Man-Goo;Kang, Mi-Hee;Hong, Young-Min;Park, Ki-Jun;Lee, Bo-Kyung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Kim, San
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2001
  • Atmospheric concentrations of acidic pollutant were measured by the 4 stage filter pak method at Chunchon and by the 3 stage filter pack method at Seoul and Anmyon-do from January to December 1998. The sample was collected for 24 hours on every Wednesday. Concentrations of particulate matters were highest at Anmyon-do. The particulate concentration was much higher during the warm season than other seasons. While the particulate concentration was higher during the warm season, the concentration of gaseous matter was higher in winter. Dry deposition flux was calculated by using reported deposition velocities and concentration of pollutants measured in this study. The dry deposition velocities used in this study for SO$_2$, SO$_{4}^{2}$, HNO$_3$,NO$_{3}^{-}$ and NH$_3$ were 0.29, 0.15, 2.08( 2.13 only for Anmyon-do), 0.20 and 1.00cm/sec, respectively. At Chunchon, annual sulfur flux originated from dry deposition was 384 kg/$textrm{km}^2$, and the flux from wet deposition was 782kg/$textrm{km}^2$. Dry deposition of sulfur was 33% of total sulfur deposition. The annual nitrogen flux originated from dry deposition was 1,892kg/$textrm{km}^2$. And the flux from wet deposition was 1,066kg/$textrm{km}^2$. Dry deposition of nitrogen was 64% of total nitrogen deposition. Dry deposition as well as wet deposition have to be considerd in the study on acidification of environment such as soil or watershed.

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Seasonal Variations of $SO_2$Dry Deposition Velocity Obtained by Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer (초음파 풍속온도계를 이용한 $SO_2$건성침착속도의 계절변화 특징)

  • 이종범;박세영
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.465-478
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    • 1998
  • In this study, seasonal variations of the dry deposition velocity and deposition flux for the sulfur dioxide were analysed. The field observation was performed during one year (from November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996) in Chunchon basin. The turbulence data were measured by 3-dimensional sonic anemometer/thermometer, and were estimated by mean meteorological data obtained at two heights (2.5 m and 10 m) of meteorological tower. Also, the estimation methods were evaluated by comparing the turbulence data. The results showed that the estimated dry deposition velocity and turbulence parameter such as uc and sensible heat flux using mean meteorological data were relatively similar to the sonic measurements, but all showed somewhat large differences. The dry deposition velocity was large in summer and small in winter mainly due to canopy resistance (rc). The major factor which affects diurnal variation of the velocity was aerodynamic resistance (rw). The SO2 dry deposition flux was large in winter and small in summer in Chunchon.

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Estimation of Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition over the Yellow Sea Region (황해 지역의 질소와 황 침적 추정)

  • 김진영;김영성;이승복;문길주
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.217-229
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    • 2003
  • The amounts of nitrogen and sulfur deposited in the region of the Yellow Sea in both dry and wet forms were estimated by using the measurement data published in tile literature during tile past 10 years. In the estimation of dry deposition, concentrations at ground stations including those at a station on the Chinese side and concentrations from shipboard and aircraft measurements were used as well as deposition velocities. Wet deposition flux was determined at ground stations on the Korean side either by taking the flux data themselves or by calculating them from precipitation data in the literature. The dry deposition flux over the Yellow Sea was much greater than those China was confirmed from the fact that the total amount summing wet and dry depositions exceeded the emission amount from Korea. Dry deposition was principally made in the gaseous form due to a larger deposition velocity. Nevertheless, since the deposition velocity over water was smaller than that over the ground, dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen was smaller than wet deposition. As a whole, wet depositions of nitrogen and sulfur were 2.3 and 1.9 times 1arger than corresponding dry depositions, respectively.

Atmospheric Dry Deposition Characteristics of Nitrogen-containing Compounds into Juam Reservoir (주암호에 대한 질소화합물의 대기건식침적 특성)

  • Cheong Jang-Pyo;Jang Young-Hoan
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.657-666
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    • 2005
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate atmospheric dry deposition of inorganic nitrogen-containing compounds to waterbody. Target waterbody is Juam reservoir functioning as one of the major water supply sources in Chollanamdo. Nitrate and ammonium dry deposition fluxes were directly measured using dry deposition plate (DDP) covered with greased strips and a water surface sampler (WSS). The daytime average $NO_{3}^{-}\;and\;NH_{4}^{+}$ fluxes measured with DDP and WSS were $1.7\∼2.6$ times higher than those at nighttime. The seasonal average flux of $NH_{4}^{+}$ showed the highest value in summer. The daytime and nighttime average dry deposition fluxes of particulate phase Nitogen-containing Compounds ($1.13,\;0.80\;mg/m^{2}$ day) were much higher than those of gas phase compounds ($0.50,\;0.24\;mg/m^{2}$ day).

Numerical Simulations of Dry and Wet Deposition over Simplified Terrains

  • Michioka, T.;Takimoto, H.;Ono, H.;Sato, A.
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.270-282
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    • 2017
  • To evaluate the deposition amount on a ground surface, mesoscale numerical models coupled with atmospheric chemistry are widely used for larger horizontal domains ranging from a few to several hundreds of kilometers; however, these models are rarely applied to high-resolution simulations. In this study, the performance of a dry and wet deposition model is investigated to estimate the amount of deposition via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with high grid resolution. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are implemented for a cone and a two-dimensional ridge to estimate the dry deposition rate, and a constant deposition velocity is used to obtain the dry deposition flux. The results show that the dry deposition rate of RANS generally corresponds to that observed in wind-tunnel experiments. For the wet deposition model, the transport equation of a new scalar concentration scavenged by rain droplets is developed and used instead of the scalar concentration scavenged by raindrops falling to the ground surface just below the scavenging point, which is normally used in mesoscale numerical models. A sensitivity analysis of the proposed wet deposition procedure is implemented. The result indicates the applicability of RANS for high-resolution grids considering the effect of terrains on the wet deposition.

Seasonal Deposition Characteristics of Water-soluble Ion Species in Ambient Aerosol in Iksan City (익산지역 대기에어로졸 중 수용성 이온성분의 계절별 침적 특성)

  • Kang, Gong-Unn
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.56-70
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This paper aims to investigate the seasonal deposition characteristics of water-soluble ion species by comparing the deposition amount of two samples taken according to different sampling methods of deposition for ambient aerosol such as gases and particulate matters. Methods: Deposition samples were collected using two deposition gauges in the downtown area of Iksan City over approximately two weeks of each season in 2004. The type of deposition gauges consisted of two different sampling methods known as dry gauge and a wet gauge. The dry gauge was empty and used a dry PE bottle with an inlet diameter of 9.6 cm. Before the beginning of each deposition sampling, a volume of 30-50 ml distilled ionized water was added to the wet gauge to wet the bottom during the sampling period. Deposition samples were measured twice per day and analyzed for inorganic water-soluble ion species using ion chromatography. Results: The daily deposition amounts of all measured ions in the dry gauge and the wet gauge showed a significant increase when precipitation occurred, having no difference of deposition amount between in the wet gauge and in the dry gauge. By excluding two samples from rainy days during the sampling period, the mean daily deposition of all ions in dry gauge and wet gauge were $6.58mg/m^2/day$ and $18.16mg/m^2/day$, respectively. The mean deposition amounts of each ion species were higher in the wet gauge than in the dry gauge because of the surface difference of the sampling gauge, especially for $NH_4{^+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$. The mean deposition amounts of $NH_4{^+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$ in the wet gauge were found to be about 15.4 times and 5.2 times higher than that in dry gauge, with a pronounced difference between spring and summer, while the remaining ion species were 1.1-2.0 times higher in the wet gauge than in the dry gauge. Dominant species in the dry gauge were $Ca^{2+}$ and $NO_3{^-}$, accounting for 36.4% and 18.1% of the total ion deposition, whereas those in the wet gauge were $NH_4{^+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$, accounting for 32.5% and 25.0% of the total ion deposition, respectively. Conclusion: The seasonal differences in deposition amounts of water-soluble ion species in ambient aerosol depending on the two types of different sampling methods were identified. This suggests that the removal of ambient aerosol is strongly influenced by the weather conditions of each season as well as the condition of earth's surface, such as dry ground and water.

Estimation of Dry Deposition Velocity for Elements in Atmospheric Aerosols by Low-Pressure Impactor (저압 임팩터를 이용한 대기 에어로졸 중 원소 성분의 건성침착속도 추정에 관한 연구)

  • 박정호;최금찬
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.445-451
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    • 2000
  • To estimate dry deposition flux of 12 elements in aerosols, aerosol particles were sampled by a low-pressure impactor(LPI) and a dust jar. The concentrations of 12 elements in aerosol particle and dry deposition were analyzed by a PIXE analysis using as a 2.0 MeV-proton beam. The mean dry deposition velocities of 12 elements were estimated by ranges of 0.74∼2.62 cm/sec. The results showed that the highest value was 3.26 cm/sec for Ca and the lowest value 0.74 cm/sec for Fe. The dry deposition flux for elements was calculated as a function of particle size by 1-step method and 12-step method. In this work, dry deposition velocities were computed with the two existing models; the coarse-particle fraction(4∼30 mm diameter) using the dry deposition velocity model of the Noll and Fang(1998) and the fine-particle fraction (0.05∼4mm diameter) using the Shemel and Hodgson(1980) model. The ratios of the mean calculated/measured fluxes were 3.59 for 1-step method and 0.60 for 12-step method respectively.

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Effect of Dry Deposition on Water Quality -The comparison of several methodologies for estimating dry deposition flux (수질에 대한 대기건식침적의 영향 - 건식침적량 추정 방법론의 비교를 중심으로)

  • Cheong, Jang-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2008
  • A special field experiment has been carried out from March 2001 to June 2001 at the Changhowon in Kyunggi to investigate a better methodology for the estimation of dry deposition of pollutions applicable in Korea. In this study, dry deposition plate was used to measure of total and water soluble acidic mass fluxes, and CPRI(Coarse Particle Rotary Impactor), CI(Cascade Impactor) were also used to measure ambient concentrations in various particle size ranges. Sehmel-Hodgson model was used to estimate dry depostion velocity and Weibull probability distribution function was applied to get generalized particle size distribution for the size fractioned concentration data sampled by CPRI and CI. Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of mass and ionic matters estimated by the various techniques(one-step, multi-step, equi-concentration, subdivision for only the coarse particle range, applying Weibull distribution function, etc.) were compared to flux data sampled by DDP. It was found out that the deposition fluxes estimation methodology calculated by the each particle size range devided by particle size distribution characteristics and the rapidly changed points of deposition velocity using Weibull probability distribution function was the most applicable.