• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dry Period

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Studies on the hematological and blood chemical findings for dry and lactating periods (건유(乾乳)와 필유(泌乳)에 따른 유우(乳牛)의 혈액(血液) 및 혈액화학상(血液化學像)의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Chung-boo;Lee, Kuk-cheon;Lee, Soon-sun;Cho, Hee-taek;Ahn, Dong-won
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.437-443
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the hematological and blood chemical values in dairy cattle during the dry and lactating period. Blood was collected from six healthy dairy cattle in Gyeongnam province. Leucocytes count, hemoglobin concentrations and the percentage of packed cell volume were lowest at the early lactation period. Leucocytes count was not affected during dry the to lactating period. The differential count of eosinophilic leucocytes was low at the late lactation period, while the basophilic leucocytes was high at the dry period. Inorganic phosphorus value was below under normal level. Creatinine value was from 1 to 2mg/100ml of serum. Positive reaction to CRP was shown in normal dairy cattle. The values of AST and ALT were higher during the dry than lactating period. r-GTP and total cholesterol tend to be decreased during the lactating period. CPK value was not affected for dry and lactating period.

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Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

  • Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda;Piroon, Tipapun;Chaisri, Wasana;Suriyasathaporn, Witaya
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.580-585
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows.

A Modified Standardized Precipitation Index (MSPI) and Its Application (수정 표준강수지수의 제안 및 적용)

  • Ryoo, So-Ra;Yoo, Chul-Sang
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.553-567
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    • 2004
  • This study proposes a modified standardized precipitation index (MSPI) which was developed to make up for the weakness of the SPI. Both MSPI and SPI are applied to the monthly rainfall at the Seoul station for the drought analysis. The MSPI proposed is nothing but the SPI for the normalized monthly rainfall, that is, an extra step for normalizing the monthly rainfall is included before driving the SPI. Thus, the MSPI has a structure to transfer the relative amount of rainfall to the next months, but the SPI the absolute amount of rainfall. The monthly rainfall data at the Seoul station used in this study are those collected from 1777 to 1996. The rainfall data collected before and after the long dry period around 1900 were also analyzed separately for the comparison. The results derived are as follows. (1) The MSPI was found to be more practical compared to the SPI. This was assured by comparing the analysis results of the data including and excluding the long dry period around 1900. (2) The MSPI is found to be less sensitive than the SPI to the extreme rainfall events. For the MSPI, the occurrence probabilities of moderate drought before and after the long dry period are similar, but those for the extreme drought becomes slightly decreased after the long dry period (from about 18 years of return period before the long dry period to the 16 years after the long dry period). However, the duration becomes longer after the long dry period (the duration for the extreme drought has been increased from 2 to 2.5 months after the long dry period). This results can also be compared with a rather unreasonable result derived by applying the SPI (for the extreme drought the return period has been decreased to be from 25 to 10 years after the long dry period, on the other hand the duration has been increased from 1.5 months to 3.5 months). So, we man conclude that the MSPI is more practical for the drought analysis that the SPI.

Effects of Changes of Climate, Groundwater Withdrawal, and Landuse on Total Flow During Dry Period (기후, 지하수 취수 및 토지이용 변화의 건기 총유출량에 대한 영향)

  • Lee, Kil-Seong;Chung, Eun-Sung;Shin, Mun-Ju
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.923-934
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    • 2006
  • In this study, the effects of variability in climate, groundwater withdrawal, and landuse on dry-weather streamflows were investigated by input sensitivity analysis using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Since only dry-period precipitation and daily average solar radiation among climate variables have high correlation coefficients to total flow (TF), sensitivity analyses of those were conducted. Furthermore, an equation was derived from simulation results for 30 years by multiple regression analysis. It may be used to estimate effects of various climatic variations (precipitation during the dry period, precipitation during the previous wet period, solar radiation, and maximum temperature). If daily average maximum temperatures increase, TFs during the dry period will decrease. Sensitivities of groundwater withdrawal and landuse were also conducted. Similarly, groundwater withdrawals strongly affect streamflow during the dry period. However, landuse changes (increasing urbanization) within the forested watershed do not appear to significantly affect TF during the dry period. Finally, a combined equation was derived that describes the relationship between the total runoff during the dry period and the climate, groundwater withdrawal and urban area proportion. The proposed equation will be useful to predict the water availability during the dry period in the future since it is dependent upon changes of temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, urban area ratio, and groundwater withdrawal.

The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Is it suitable to Use Rainfall Runoff Model with Observed Data for Climate Change Impact Assessment? (관측자료로 추정한 강우유출모형을 기후변화 영향평가에 그대로 활용하여도 되는가?)

  • Poudel, Niroj;Kim, Young-Oh;Kim, Cho-Rong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.252-252
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    • 2011
  • Rainfall-runoff models are calibrated and validated by using a same data set such as observations. The past climate change effects the present rainfall pattern and also will effect on the future. To predict rainfall-runoff more preciously we have to consider the climate change pattern in the past, present and the future time. Thus, in this study, the climate change represents changes in mean precipitation and standard deviation in different patterns. In some river basins, there is no enough length of data for the analysis. Therefore, we have to generate the synthetic data using proper distribution for calculation of precipitation based on the observed data. In this study, Kajiyama model is used to analyze the runoff in the dry and the wet period, separately. Mean and standard deviation are used for generating precipitation from the gamma distribution. Twenty hypothetical scenarios are considered to show the climate change conditions. The mean precipitation are changed by -20%, -10%, 0%, +10% and +20% for the data generation with keeping the standard deviation constant in the wet and the dry period respectively. Similarly, the standard deviations of precipitation are changed by -20%, -10%, 0%, +10% and +20% keeping the mean value of precipitation constant for the wet and the dry period sequentially. In the wet period, when the standard deviation value varies then the mean NSE ratio is more fluctuate rather than the dry period. On the other hand, the mean NSE ratio in some extent is more fluctuate in the wet period and sometimes in the dry period, if the mean value of precipitation varies while keeping the standard deviation constant.

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Environmental Adaptation of Tall Fescue Varieties in Mountainous Pastures II. Varieties differences of dry matter production and yield components in growth period of Autumn (Tall fescue 품종의 환경적응성 II. 가을철 건물생산의 품종간 차이와 수량구성요소)

  • 이주삼;한성윤;조익환
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 1993
  • This experiment was carried out to select for the varieties with high environmental adaptability in mountainous pastures of Taekwalyong area, and the evaluation was based on the data of varietal differences of dry matter production and yield components in Tall fescue cutting at various developmental stages in growth period of autumn. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The varieties with high number of tillers per plant(NT) showed a high dry weight of plant(DW) in all autumn cuttings. These varieties(Barce1 and Fuego) may be more adaptable to mountainous pastures of Taekwalyon area than other varieties. 2. The number of tillers per plant(NT) was significantly positive correlated with dry weight of plant (DW), but dry weight of tiller(WT) was not significantly correlated with dry weight of plant(DW) in all autumn cuttings. 3. The multiple regression equations of autumn cutting stages with mean dry weight of plant(DW) and number of tillers per plant(NT) can be used to estimate the cutting time to obtain maximum mean dry weight of plant(DW) and the highest number of tillers per plant(NT). The maximum mean dry weight of plant(DW) and the highest number of tillers per plant(NT) was estimated at the time of 21 Oct. and 26 Oct, respectively. 4. Dead leaves tended to increase greatly after the 2nd cutting(l4 Oct.) in growth period of autumn. 5. The number of tillers per plant(NT) was an important yield component before tiller density achieved equilibrium, but dry weight of tiller(WT, including dead leaves) was of most significant as a yield determinant after maximum tiller density reached in growth period of autumn.

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Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

  • Safa, S.;Soleimani, A.;Heravi Moussavi, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.630-637
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    • 2013
  • To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 ($p{\leq}0.05$). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

Prepartum Feeding of Cationic or Anionic Diets to Holstein Cows Given 30 or 60 Day Dry Periods: Comparison of Dry Matter Intake, Physiological Measures and Milk Production

  • Gulay, M.S.;Hayen, M.J.;Bachman, K.C.;Head, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2008
  • Eighty-four Holstein cows were used to evaluate effects of feeding two diets that differed in dietary cation-anion difference (cationic; +28 or anionic; -138 mEq/kg DM) on prepartum and postpartum dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), serum Ca concentrations and on subsequent milk production and composition. Treatments were in a $2{\times}3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement that included prepartum diet, dry period length (30 d dry, 30 d dry+estradiol cypionate (ECP), and 60 d dry), and prepartum and postpartum bST ($POSILAC^{(R)}$ 10.2 mg/d). No interaction of prepartum diet with dry period length or bST supplementation was detected for any measure evaluated either prepartum or postpartum. No significant effects of prepartum diet on prepartum DMI, BW or BCS were observed. Mean DMI during the first 28 d postpartum were similar for cows fed the cationic or anionic diets prepartum (25.5 vs. 26.1 kg/d). During postpartum wk 1 to 14, no differences in mean BW or BCS were detected due to prepartum diet fed but decreases for both groups were observed during the first 6 wk postpartum. No differences due to prepartum diet were observed for mean milk or 3.5% FCM yields or for milk composition during the first 10 wk of lactation. Similarly, mean milk yield of cows during the first 21 wk did not differ significantly due to prepartum diet fed (38.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d). Overall, cows fed the prepartum cationic or anionic diets had similar mean postpartum serum concentrations of Ca (9.34 vs. 9.35 mg/dl). Subsequent milk production, milk composition and concentrations of Ca did not differ. Importantly, the two prepartum diets were equally satisfactory in minimizing incidence of milk fever and in supporting initiation of lactation, irrespective of dry period length and supplemental ECP and bST.

Probable Evapotranspiration of Paddy Rice using Dry Day Index

  • 장하우;김성준
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.37 no.E
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 1995
  • To support some knowledge in planning irrigation system, short or long-term irrigation scheduling or determining irrigation reservoir capacity, it is necessary to estimate peak irrigation requirements and seasonal distribution of water demands for various return periods. In this paper Dry Day Index and Probable Evapotranspiration were evaluated to decide seasonal consumptive use of paddy rice for a design year using several decades' daily rainfall data and 5 years'('82~'86) actual evapotranspiration data, respectively. To obtain Dry Day Index that is defined as the number of probable dry days for a given period, Slade unsymmetrical distribution function was adopted. Dry Day Index was analysed for 5 and 10-day intervals. Each of them was evaluated with return periods of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 year. Their singnificance was tested by X$^2$ method. Based on these values, the Probable Evaportanspiration, that is the average daily ET both in dry days and rainy days during a given period, was estimated. Crop coefficient was also determined by the modified Penman equation proposed by Doorenbos & Pruitt.

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