• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dry Forage Intake

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The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Plasma Osmolality Controls Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1069-1085
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    • 2011
  • In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to clarify whether or not increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding suppress dry forage intake. Eight large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 3 to 6 years, weighing $72.3{\pm}2.74$ kg) were used in two experiments conducted under sham feeding conditions. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 h during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in the control replenished saliva lost via the esophageal fistula and an intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution (RIHS) in the treatment was carried out in order to reproduce the effects of changing salt content due to feed entering the rumen. In experiment 2, the RIHS control was conducted in the same manner as the RIHS treatment of experiment 1. The treatment group consisted of RIHS-with an intravenous infusion of artificial mixed saliva (VIAMS) treatment that was carried out for 3 h to prevent increases in plasma osmolality during feeding. The results of the RIHS treatment in experiment 1 showed that ruminal fluid osmolality increased and then an increase in plasma osmolality was observed. This resulted in the production of thirst sensations and the reduction of cumulative dry forage intake to 43.3% (p<0.05) of the RIAPS control. The results of the RIHS-VIAMS treatment in experiment 2 indicated that ruminal fluid osmolality was the same as the RIHS control but plasma osmolality significantly decreased, and thirst level was markedly reduced. This caused a significant increase of 31.4% (p<0.05) in cumulative dry forage intake in the RIHS-VIAMS treatment compared to the RIHS control. These results indicate that increases in ruminal fluid osmolality during dry forage feeding indirectly suppresses dry forage intake by causing an increase in plasma osmolality and subsequently inducing thirst sensations. The results of the present study suggest that marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding.

The Main Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kishi, Tetsuya;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.341-352
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    • 2012
  • In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are mainly caused by the two factors, that is, ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst produced by dry forage feeding. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing $85.1{\pm}4.89kg$) were used in two experiments. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 am during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, saliva lost via the esophageal fistula was replenished by an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in sham feeding conditions (SFC) control, and the treatment was maintained under normal feeding conditions (NFC). In experiment 2, a RIAPS and non-insertion of a balloon (RIAPS-NB) control was conducted in the same manner as the SFC control of experiment 1. The intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and insertion of a balloon (RIHS-IB) treatment was carried out simultaneously to reproduce the effects of changing salt content and ruminal distension due to feed entering the rumen. The results of experiment 1 showed that due to the effects of multiple dry forage suppressing factors when feed boluses entered the rumen, eating rates in the NFC treatment decreased (p<0.05) after 40 min of feeding and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period reduced to 43.8% of the SFC control (p<0.01). The results of experiment 2 indicated that due to the two suppressing factors of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst, eating rates in the RIHS-IB treatment were, as observed under NFC, reduced (p<0.05) and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period decreased to 34.0% of the RIAPS-NB control (p<0.01). The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.5% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst are the main factors in the suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats.

Effects of Feeding High Forage Diets and Supplemental Fat on Feed Intake and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows

  • Abdullah, M.;Young, J.W.;Tyler, H.D.;Mohiuddin, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2000
  • Fifty mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a six-week feeding trial to study effects of high-forage, high-fat diets on dry matter intake and production performance. Cows were divided into 10 replicates, each consisting of five cows. Each cow was assigned to a control (diet 1) or one of the four experimental diets (high-forage (75%), high-fat (7.5%) (diet 2); high-forage, medium-fat (5%) (diet 3); medium forage (65%), high-fat (diet 4); medium-forage, medium-fat (diet 5)), or a control diet containing about 50% forage and 2% fat. All diets were isonitrogenous (17.7% crude protein). The forage mixture consisted of 20% alfalfa hay, 40% alfalfa haylage, and 40% com silage. Supplemental fat included 80% rumen-protected fat and 20% yellow grease. Dry matter intake was decreased (p<0.01) in cows fed experimental diets (18.4, 20.9, 19.9, and 22.6 kg for cows fed diets 1-4, respectively vs. 27.5 kg for cows fed the control diet). Daily milk production was lower (p<0.05) for cows consuming experimental diets (30.5, 31.3, 31.0, and 32.5 kg for cows fed greater for cows consuming experimental diets (1.74, 1.55, 1.60, and 1.53 kg milk/kg dry matter intake for cows fed diets 1-4, respectively, vs. 1.26 kg milk/kg dry matter intake for cows fed the control diet).

Deprivation of Esophageal Boluses and Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Van Thang, Tran;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kato, Seiyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1174-1183
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    • 2010
  • In goats fed on dry forage twice a day, an esophageal fistula was used to investigate the physiological factors present in the marked suppression of dry forage intake that occurs after 40 min of feeding. The animals used in this study were five large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats. Roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes with any large remaining chunks removed were used as feed for this research. The study was conducted under both normal feeding conditions (NFC) and sham feeding conditions (SFC). In the NFC control, the esophageal fistulae were closed by plugs and the animals ate dry forage in the normal manner. In the SFC treatment, before starting the experiment the plugs for closing the esophageal fistula were removed and the cannulae for collecting boluses were fitted into the fistulae. Therefore, the esophageal boluses were removed via an esophageal fistula before they entered the rumen. In the NFC control, eating rates sharply decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and were subsequently maintained at low levels. However, eating rates in the SFC treatment remained high after 40 min of the feeding period had elapsed and the goats ate continuously during the 2 h feeding period. In comparison with the NFC control ($1,794{\pm}203.80\;g$/2 h), cumulative dry forage intake in the SFC treatment ($3,182{\pm}381.69\;g$/2 h) was 77.4% greater (p<0.05) upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. In the SFC treatment, cumulative bolus output ($6,804{\pm}469.92\;g$/2 h) was about twofold the cumulative dry forage intake due to cumulative salivary secretion volume ($3,622{\pm}104.13\;g$/2 h) upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The result indicates that large amounts of secreted saliva during dry forage feeding act in conjunction with consumed feed to form the ruminal load responsible for ruminal distension. The increased plasma total protein concentrations were higher in the SFC treatment than in the NFC control. However, plasma and ruminal fluid osmolalities increased in the NFC control during and after feeding but were mostly unchanged in the SFC treatment. In comparison with the NFC control ($3,440{\pm}548.04\;g$/30 min), thirst level in the SFC treatment ($1,360{\pm}467.02\;g$/30 min) was 60.5% significantly less (p<0.05) upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the present study indicate that In the second hour of the 2 h feeding period, dry forage intake is regulated by factors produced when boluses enter the rumen.

Salivary Secretion Volume Related Ruminal Distension and Suppression of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1100-1111
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    • 2011
  • Two experiments under sham feeding conditions were conducted to determine whether or not ruminal distension brought about by feed boluses entering the rumen is a factor in the marked suppression of feed intake after 40 min of feeding. In experiment 1, a comparison was made between the intraruminal insertion of a water filled balloon (RIB) treatment and normal control (non-insertion of a balloon, NIB). In experiment 2, saliva lost due to sham feeding conditions was replenished via an intraruminal infusion of iso-osmotic artificial saliva. A comparison of dry forage intake was then conducted between the intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and insertion of a balloon (RRIAS-RIB) treatment, and the intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and non-insertion of a balloon (RRIAS-NIB) control. In experiment 1, eating rates in the RIB treatment 30 min after the commencement of feeding tended to be lower than those in the NIB control. In comparison with the NIB control, cumulative dry forage intake in the RIB treatment was 29.7% less (p<0.05) upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The secreted saliva weight in the NIB control and the RIB treatment during the 2 h feeding period was 53.2% and 60.9% total weight of the boluses, respectively. In experiment 2, eating rates in the RRIAS-RIB treatment 30 min after the commencement of feeding was significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in the RRIAS-NIB control. Cumulative dry forage intake in the RRIAS-RIB treatment was a significant 45.5% less (p<0.05) compared with that in the RRIAS-NIB control upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The secreted saliva weight in the RRIAS-NIB control and the RRIAS-RIB treatment during the 2 h feeding period was 54.1% and 64.2% total weight of the boluses, respectively. The level of decrease in dry forage intake in the RRIAS-RIB treatment of experiment 2 was larger than that in the RIB treatment of experiment 1. In the present experiments, due to the sham feeding conditions, the increases in osmolality of ruminal fluid and plasma, and a decrease in ruminal fluid pH which are normally associated with feeding were not observed. The results indicate that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding.

WATER DRINKING BEHAVIOUR OF STEERS FED EITHER FRESH CUT FORAGE OR FIRST CUT HAY

  • Sekine, J.;Morita, Z.;Oura, R.;Asahida, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 1988
  • To study the effect of moisture content of the diet on drinking behaviour and the amount of water drunk, observations were made on 8 Holstein steers fed either fresh cut forage or first cut hay. The observations were made in a barn with a mean temperature of about $13^{\circ}C$. Drinking occurred mainly within 3 hours after feeding for the steers fed hay, while those fed soilage drank casually. Frequency of drinking (F) was related to the dry-matter concentration (DMC, %) of herbage: F = 0.47 (${\pm}0.09$) DMC - 6.5, $SE={\pm}0.4$, r = 0.86, P<0.01. Intake of drinking water for each 100 kg of live weight (IDW/100kg) for steers fed soilage was related to the dry-matter concentration: IDW/100kg = 0.55 (${\pm}0.06$) DMC - 8.7, $SE={\pm}0.3$, r = 0.94, P<0.01. The intake of water in each drinking period for animals fed fresh forage was curvilinearly related to the drinking frequency; for the hay-fed steers there was a negative linear relationship. When the drinking frequency for steers fed the fresh forage increased to the same as that observed for the hay, water intake in each drinking period was the same as found for the hay-fed steers.

Study on the Use of Orchargrass-Red Clover Mixture I. Effect of Plant Composition on Intake , Digestibility and Preference by Korean Native Goats. (Orchargrass-Red Clover 혼파이용에 관한 연구 I. 초종구성비율이 산양의 섭취량 , 소화율 및 선택 채식성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, I.D.;Myung, J.;Song, W.S.;Chun, Y.K.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 1987
  • 1. Dry matter intake was significantly increased above the 30% red clover plant composition (p<0.05) as compared with 100% orchardgrass plant composition. However, there was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between the content of CP and dry matter intake, and was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the content of NDF and dry matter intake. 2. Dry matter digestibility was significantly increased with the increase of red clover plant composition as compared with 100% orchardgrass plant composition (p<0.05). Digestible dry matter intake was significantly increased above the 20% red clover plant composition (p<0.05) as compared with 100% orchardgrass plant composition. However, there was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between the content of CP and digestible dry matter intake, and was a significant negative correlation (p<0.01) between the content of NDF and digestible dry matter intake. 3. Preference of herbage samples tended to markedly increased with the increase of red clover plant composition.

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A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kishi, Tetsuya;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.502-514
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    • 2012
  • When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing $85.1{\pm}4.89kg$) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (p<0.05) in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. However, plasma osmolality in the FBR treatment was lower (p<0.05) than compared to the NFC control from 30 min after the start of feeding. Therefore, thirst level in the FBR treatment was 82.7% less (p<0.01) compared with that in the NFC control upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the study indicate that the increased plasma osmolality in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is the main physiological stimulating factor of water intake during and after dry forage feeding in large-type goats.

An Intravenous Replenishment of Salivary Components and Dry Forage Intake in Freely Drinking Large-type Goats

  • Sunagawa, K.;Hashimoto, T.;Izuno, M.;Hashizume, N.;Okano, M.;Nagamine, I.;Hirata, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.538-546
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    • 2008
  • Large-type goats eating dry forage secreted large volumes of saliva which resulted in the loss of $NaHCO_3$ from the blood and decreased plasma volume (hypovolemia). This research investigated whether or not the loss of $NaHCO_3$ from the blood and hypovolemia brought about by dry forage feeding actually depresses feed intake in large-type goats under free drinking conditions. The present experiment consisted of three treatments (NI, ASI, MI). All treatments in this experiment were carried out under free drinking conditions. In the NI control (NI), a solution was not infused. In the ASI treatment, i.v. infusion of artificial saliva was initiated 2 h before feeding and was continued for a total of 3 h concluding 1 h after the commencement of the feeding perod. In the MI treatment, mannitol solution was infused to replenish only water lost from the blood in the form of saliva. The hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations during feeding in the NI control were observed to be higher than pre-feeding levels. This indicated that dry forage feeding-induced hypovolemia was caused by the accelerated secretion of saliva during the initial stages of feeding in freely drinking large-type goats. Increases in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations due to dry forage feeding were significantly suppressed by the ASI treatment. While hematocrit during feeding in the MI treatment was significantly lower than the NI control, plasma total protein concentrations were not different. From these results, it is clear that the MI treatment was less effective than the ASI treatment in mitigating the decreases in plasma volume brought about by dry forage feeding. This indicates that plasma volume increased during dry forage feeding in the ASI treatment which inhibited production of angiotensin II in the blood. The ASI treatment lessened the levels of suppression on dry forage feeding, but the MI treatment had no effect on it under free drinking conditions. The results indicate that despite the free drinking conditions, increases in saliva secretion during the initial stages of dry forage feeding in large-type goats caused $NaHCO_3$ to be lost from the blood into the rumen which in turn caused a decrease in circulating plasma volume and resulted in activation of the renin-angiotensin system and thus feeding was suppressed.