• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dry Feed Intake

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The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Significance of Hypovolemia in Feed Intake Control of Goats Fed on Dry Feed

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Prasetiyono, Bambang W.H.E.;Shinjo, Akihisa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1267-1271
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to examine the significance of feeding induced hypovolemia (decrease in plasma volume) in controlling the feed intake of goats fed on dry feed. In order to alleviate hypovolemia with feeding, a 2 h intravenous infusion (16-18 ml/min) of artificial saliva or mannitol solution was begun 1 h prior to feeding and continued until 1h after the start of the 2 h feeding period. In comparison with no infusion (NI), cumulative feed intake was increased by 41% with artificial saliva infusion (ASI) and by 45% with mannitol infusion (MI) by the completion of the 2 h feeding period. Both infusion treatments (ASI and MI) were significantly different (p<0.05) from the NI treatment in terms of the cumulative feed intake. The cumulative feed intake between the ASI and MI treatments was not significantly different (p>0.05). No infusion treatment (NI) had the lowest cumulative feed intake (929 g DM), whereas MI had the highest (1345 g DM), after completion of the 2 h feeding period. Generally, infusion treatments also increased the rate of eating at all time points after feeding was commenced. Following the first 30 mins of feeding, the rate of eating decreased sharply, and subsequently declined gradually in all treatments. Compared to the NI, both ASI and MI significantly (p<0.05) decreased thirst level (water intake for 30 mins after the completion of the 2 h feeding period) by approximately 13%. However, the thirst level caused by ASI and MI was not significantly different (p>0.05). Both ASI and MI decreased the plasma concentrations of osmolality and total protein, and hematocrit at 1 h after infusion. The results suggested that the thirst sensation in the brain could be produced by feeding induced hypovolemia. Moreover, the results indicate that hypovolemia is one of the factors controlling the feed intake of goats fed on dry feed.

Physiological Relationship Between Thirst Level and Feed Intake in Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay Cubes

  • Prasetiyono, Bambang W.H.E.;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Shinjo, Akihisa;Shiroma, Sadao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1536-1541
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    • 2000
  • The present study was carried out to measure changes of feed intake and thirst level caused by water deprivation in goats fed on dry feed and to elucidate the relationship between those two parameters. Water deprivation significantly (p<0.01) decreased cumulative feed intake and rate of eating at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively, after feed presentation. Cumulative feed intake, after completion of 2 h feeding, was reduced by about 20, 21 and 64 % due to water deprivation during feeding for 2 h (WD2), for 22 h (WD22) and for 46 h (WD46), respectively, compared to free access to water (FAW). Compared to the FAW, WD2, WD22 and WD46 increased thirst level by about 5, 5 and 9 times, respectively. Mean thirst level (X, g/30 min) was negatively correlated with cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=1302-0.2 X, $r^2=0.97$, p<0.05). Water deprivation depressed plasma volume and there was a significant positive regression between plasma volume (X, ml) and cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=-1003+0.6 X, $r^2=0.99$, p<0.01). Mean plasma osmolality (X, mOsmol/l) correlated significantly and negatively with cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=27004-84.9 X, $r^2=0.95$, p<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease of feed intake during water deprivation is mainly due to an increase of thirst level quantitatively, and the act of feeding itself induces thirst more than the length of water-deprivation periods in goats fed on dry feeds. The present findings suggest that plasma osmolality and plasma volume which affect thirst level are involved in the decrease of feed intake in water-deprived goats.

Feed Restriction and Compensatory Growth in Guzerá Females

  • Neto, S. Gonzaga;Bezerra, L.R.;Medeiros, A.N.;Ferreira, M.A.;Filho, E.C. Pimenta;Candido, E.P.;Oliveira, R.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.791-799
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    • 2011
  • This study examined the effect of restricting feed intake and the subsequent compensatory growth in Guzera females. Eighteen animals with an initial age of 21 months and a mean weight of 268.17 kg were placed in three groups according to the alimentary regime: feed ad libitum; feed restricted to 20% dry matter; and feed restricted to 40% dry matter. In the restricted feed phase, the dry mater intake decreased as the restriction levels increased, influencing the reduction in intake of other nutrients. In the realimentation phase, the 40% restricted feed group ingested more dry matter (% BW) and crude protein ($weight^{0.75}$) than the group fed ad libitum (p<0.001). The serum nutrient concentrations were inversely proportional (p<0.001) to the restriction level, and there was no difference (p>0.001) in the realimentation phase. In the restricted feed phase, the final live weight decreased (p<0.05) as the restriction level increased. For the daily mean weight gain in the control group, there was no difference (p>0.05) compared to the animals with 20% feed restriction, but this was higher than in the group with 40% feed restriction. In the re-alimentation phase, the group with 40% feed restriction achieved higher weight gain rates, which was different from the control and 20% restriction groups. In both phases, the animals in the group with 40% feed restriction presented better feed conversion which was different (p<0.05) from the control group. In the feed restriction phase, it was observed that the intake of N, nitrogen excreted in feces and urine, nitrogen balance and nitrogen retention decreased (p<0.05) with the restriction level. None of the variables were influenced in the re-alimentation phase. These results show that feed restriction by 40% can be adopted as a nutritional management practice.

Influence of Level of Feed Intake on Concentration of Purine Derivatives in Urinary Spot Samples and Microbial Nitrogen Supply in Crossbred Bulls

  • George, S.K.;Dipu, M.T.;Mehra, U.R.;Verma, A.K.;Singh, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1291-1297
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    • 2006
  • The potential of the spot urine sampling technique as an alternative to performing a total urine collection to predict the microbial nitrogen supply was evaluated in crossbred bulls. In a completely randomized design, 20 growing crossbred bulls were assigned four levels of feed intake (120, 100, 80 and 60% of voluntary dry matter intake) on diets comprised of wheat straw and concentrate mixture (50:50). After three months of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial was conducted for ten days, during which spot urine collections were performed every 6 h post feeding on days 9 and 10. The daily urinary excretion of allantoin (A) and purine derivatives (PD) decreased with the reduction in feed intake while creatinine (C) excretion remained similar in animals fed at different levels. The microbial nitrogen (MN) supply calculated from the PD excreted in total urine (35.08 to 72.08 g/d) was higher at increased levels of feed intake. PD concentration in spot urine samples had poor correlation with feed intake except at 12 h post feeding. A/C ratio and PD/C ratio in spot urine samples remained similar irrespective of sampling time and significantly (p<0.01) correlated with daily urinary PD excretion, digestible organic matter intake and dry matter (DM) intake. However, no significant differences were evident in these ratios among animals fed at levels 120, 100 and 80% of voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) at different times post feeding. These results suggests that the spot urine sampling technique to predict the microbial protein supply is not suitable for detecting small differences in MN supply and hence, estimation of PD excreted in total urine (mmol/d) is necessary to assess precisely the MN supply in crossbred bulls.

Significance of Feeding Induced Hypovolemia in Feed Intake Control of Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Prasetiyono, Bambang W.H.E.;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.366-370
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    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to examine whether feeding induced hypovolemia (decrease in plasma volume) acts on the regulation of feed intake in goats fed on dry forage. In order to prevent feeding induced hypovolemia, a 2 h intravenous infusion (16-18 ml/min) of isotonic mannitol solution was begun 1 h prior to feeding and continued until 1 h after the start of the 2 h feeding period. The intravenous infusion of isotonic mannitol solution (MI) decreased plasma osmolality by 1.0%, plasma total protein concentration by 4.2% and hematocrit by 5.9%, respectively. In comparison with no infusion (NI), MI significantly decreased thirst level by approximately 13%. At the completion of the 2 h feeding period, cumulative feed intake had been increased by 43% by MI. In conclusion, feeding induced hypovolemia in goats fed on dry forage increased thirst level more than the increase in plasma osmolality did. The results demonstrate that feeding induced hypovolemia is one of the factors controlling feed intake in goats fed on dry forage.

Feeding Dry Sows Ad libitum with High Fibre Diets

  • Ru, Y.J.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.283-300
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    • 2004
  • Currently commercial dry sows are housed in individual stalls and subject to restricted feeding. These sows often show stereotypic behaviours which increase their maintenance energy requirement. Group housing is desirable to improve animal welfare and public perception. However, under restricted feeding systems, group-housed dry sows are also aggressive. The feed intake of these sows is variable, depending on their social rank, which results in different milk production and variable piglet performance. These problems can be solved by ad libitum feeding systems, but the large capacity of intake by dry sows will not allow this feeding system to be practical as high feeding level during pregnancy can reduce reproduction performance of sows. Current research indicates that feeding high fibre diets to dry sows enables sows to be fed ad libitum, but the effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and nutrient utilisation is dependent on the quality of fibre sources. Most research has focused on sugar beet pulp, straw, lucerne meal and by-products, but there is a need to identify and evaluate some widely available and cheap fibre materials and feed grains for developing the best strategy to control nutrient intake of dry sows while feeding ad libitum.

Mechanisms Controlling Feed Intake in Large-type Goats Fed on Dry Forage

  • Sunagawa, K.;Ooshiro, T.;Murase, Y.;Hazama, R.;Nagamine, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1182-1189
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    • 2007
  • An intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of somatostatin 1-28 (SRIF) was used as a thirst-controlling peptide antagonist to investigate whether or not thirst-controlling peptides are involved in the significant decrease in feed intake during the initial stages of feeding large-type goats on dry forage. A continuous ICV infusion of SRIF was conducted at a small dose of $4{\mu}g$ ml/h for 27 h from day 1 to day 2. Goats (n = 5) were fed roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h twice daily and water was given ad libitum. Feed intake was measured during ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and SRIF. The feed intake during SRIF infusion increased significantly compared to that during ACSF infusion. In comparison to the ACSF treatment, plasma osmolality during the SRIF treatment significantly decreased during the first half of the 2 h feeding period. The factor causing the decrease in plasma osmolality during the ICV infusion of SRIF was a decrease in plasma Na, K, Cl, and Mg concentrations. In comparison to the ACSF infusion treatment, parotid saliva secretion volumes during the 2 h feeding period in the SRIF infusion treatment were significantly larger. While there was no significant difference in cumulative water intake (thirst levels) between the SRIF and the ACSF treatments upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period, based on the plasma osmolality results it is thought that thirst level increases brought about by alfalfa hay cube feeding in the first half of the feeding period were reduced. It is thought that the somatostatin-induced increases in feed intake during the 2 h feeding period in the present experiment were caused by decreases in plasma osmolality brought about by the somatostatin infusion. As a result, it is suggested that the significant decrease in feed intake during the initial stages of feeding in large-type goats given roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes, was due to the actions of thirst-controlling peptides.

EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM ON FEED INTAKE AND YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF MILK OF HOLSTEIN COWS

  • Morse, D.;Head, H.H.;Wilcox, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 1994
  • Three concentrations of P (0.33, 0.43 and 0.54%) and two concentrations of Ca (0.60 and 0.97%) in ration dry matter were evaluated for effects on dry matter intake and on milk yield and composition using 24 Holstein cows. Cows were arranged in a $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment as an incomplete randomized block design with three 28-day periods. Each cow consumed at least one ration with each concentration of Ca. Dry matter intake, yield of 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk, and milk composition were not affected by concentration of P, but milk yield was greater when lowest concentration of P was fed (22.8 vs. 22.1 kg/day; p<0.07). Cows fed rations containing 0.60% Ca had greater milk (22.7 vs. 21.9 kg/day; p<0.02) and 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk yields (p<0.03) and slightly greater protein content than when fed 0.97% Ca. Dietary Ca:P ratios between 1.1:1 and 2.9:1 had no effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, or composition. Concentrations of P in plasma were within the normal range for all rations. Because cows had high dry matter intake, mean daily intakes of both P and Ca were greater than required for their level of milk yield.

The Effect of Roughage Source on Voluntary Feed Intake and Digestibility in Korean Native goats (조사료원이 한국 재래산양의 섭취량과 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • 조익환;황보순;전기현;송해범;안종호;이주삼
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 1997
  • A study was carried out to evaluate the values of roughages available in Korea on feed intake and digestibility of Korean native goats and consequently to apply its results to the feeding system of Korean goats as a basic information. The results are as follows. 1. The protein contents in Alfalfa and Acacia leaf were 17.6 and 16.3% respectively 11.7 and 6.8% higher than orchardgrass and pine needle. Ether extract tom pine needle was about two times higher than other roughage sources which are 9.2%. 2. Dry matter intake per day in goats fed alfalfa, acacia leaf and orchardgrass was higher (P < 0.05) at 590.3, 543.8 and 496.58 respectively and 217.lg in pine needle. 3. Dry matter intake per basal weight (DM glkg of B$W^{0.75}$ and DM g/kg of BW%) was higher in goats fed acacia leaf at 68.5 and 3.5% respectively than any other treatments goats fed pine needle showed the lowest (P< 0.05) dry matter intake at 28.6 and 1.5% respectively. 4. Dry matter digestibility was highest (PcO.05) in alfalfa fed goats at 61.4%. Dry matter digestibilities in orchardgrass, pine needle and acacia leaf were 58.0, 46.8 and 46.6% respectively. 5. Total digestible nutrients were highest (P< 0.05) in Alfalfa fed goats at 59.5%. Total digestible nutrients in orchardgrass, pine needle and acacia leaf were 54.2, 50.7 and 47.7% respectively. 6. In conclusion, the value of orchardgrass as feed for goats was as excellent as alfalfa and although acacia leaf had a less value than alfalfa in goats, it is considered to be used as a protein supplement in diets for goats due to its high content of protein and excellent palatability. Intake of pine needle in Korean goats in this study was satisfactory and it indicates the possibility of its use as a supplement in diets for goats. However, fkther investigation will be necessary particularly on the deleterious effects of ether extracts of pine needle

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