• Title, Summary, Keyword: Doxorubicin

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Identification of Marker Genes Related to Cardiovascular Toxicity of Doxorubicin and Daunorubicin in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs)

  • Kim, Youn-Jung;Lee, Ha-Eun;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.246-253
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    • 2007
  • Doxorubicin and daunorubicin are excellent chemotherapeutic agents utilized for several types of cancer but the irreversible cardiac damage is the major limitation for its use. The biochemical mechanisms of doxorubicin- and daunorubicin- induced cardiotoxicity remain unclear. There are many reports on toxicity of doxorubicin and doxorubicin in cardiomyocytes, but effects in cardiovascular system by these drugs are almost not reported. In this study, we investigated gene expression profiles in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to better understand the causes of doxorubicin and doxorubicininduced cardiovascular toxicity and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Through the clustering analysis of gene expression profiles, we identified 124 up-regulated common genes and 298 down-regulated common genes changed by more than 1.5-fold by all two cardiac toxicants. HUVECs responded to doxorubicin and doxorubicin damage by increasing levels of apoptosis, oxidative stress, EGF and lipid metabolism related genes. By clustering analysis, we identified some genes as potential markers on apoptosis effects of doxorubicin and doxorubicin. Six genes of these, BBC3, APLP1, FAS, TP53INP, BIRC5 and DAPK were the most significantly affected by doxorubicin and doxorubicin. Thus, this study suggests that these differentially expressed genes may play an important role in the cardiovascular toxic effects and have significant potential as novel biomarkers to doxorubicin and doxorubicin exposure.

Expression Profiles of Streptomyces Doxorubicin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Using DNA Microarray System (DNA Microarray 시스템을 이용한 방선균 독소루비신 생합성 유전자군의 발현패턴 분석)

  • Kang Seung-Hoon;Kim Myung-Gun;Park Hyun-Joo;Kim Eung-Soo
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2005
  • Doxorubicin is an anthracycline-family polyketide compound with a very potent anti-cancer activity, typically produced by Streptomyces peucetius. To understand the potential target biosynthetic genes critical for the doxorubicin everproduction, a doxorubicin-specific DNA microarray chip was fabricated and applied to reveal the growth-phase-dependent expression profiles of biosynthetic genes from two doxorubicin-overproducing strains along with the wild-type strain. Two doxorubicin-overproducing 5. peucetius strains were generated via over-expression of a dnrl (a doxorubicin-specific positive regulatory gene) and a doxA (a gene involved in the conversion from daunorubicin to doxorubicin) using a streptomycetes high expression vector containing a strong ermE promoter. Each doxorubicin-overproducing strain was quantitatively compared with the wild-type doxorubicin producer based on the growth-phase-dependent doxorubicin productivity as well as doxorubicin biosynthetic gene expression profiles. The doxorubicin-specific DNA microarray chip data revealed the early-and-steady expressions of the doxorubicin-specific regulatory gene (dnrl), the doxorubicin resistance genes (drrA, drrB, drrC), and the doxorubicin deoxysugar biosynthetic gene (dnmL) are critical for the doxorubicin overproduction in S. peucetius. These results provide that the relationship between the growth-phase-dependent doxorubicin productivity and the doxorubicin biosynthetic gene expression profiles should lead us a rational design of molecular genetic strain improvement strategy.

Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis of Various Concentrations of Doxorubicin in Methylcholanthrene- induced Rat Fibrosarcoma(MCA) Cells (Methylcholanthrene 유도 섬유육종세포주에서 Doxorubicin 농도에 따른 세포독성과 자멸사의 변화)

  • 정진용;왕영필;나석주
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.447-453
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    • 2001
  • Background: Although pulmonary resection is the standard approach for the management of pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcoma, most of them are unresectable and chemotherapy remains the only option. The effectiveness of the cytotoxic drugs may be limited by the toxicities that occur before the therapeutic dose is reached. The regional administration of doxorubicin using pulmonary arterial perfusion in a rodent model can produce 10 to 25 times higher concentrations in the lung than systemic administration with minimal systemic toxicities. However, it is unclear whether a high concentration of doxorubicin has beneficial effects for killing cancer cells. Material and Method: We studied this to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin on methylcholanthrene-induced rat fibrosarcoma(MCA) cells. This study examined the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-related gene expressions(Fas, FasL, Bax, caspase 1, caspase 2, caspase 8, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bcl-xS) in MCA cells after 24 hours exposure to various concentrations of doxorubicin such as 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 $\mu$M. Result: Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed after 24 hours exposure to doxorubicin. However, peak apoptosis after 24 hours exposure was observed at 5 $\mu$M of doxorubicin. Above 5 $\mu$M, apoptotic activity was decreased with dose-increment. All mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes after 24 hours exposure were up-regulated above the control level at 1 $\mu$M of doxorubicin and then decreased by doxorubicin dose-increment except caspase 8, which showed higher levels than the control level at 5 $\mu$M. Apoptosis-related protein levels were highest at 1 $\mu$M of doxorubicin and then decreased by doxorubicin dose-increment. However, Bax and Bcl-xL proteins steadily showed higher levels than the control throughout the different concentrations of doxorubicin. Conclusion: These results suggest that apoptosis is the main cytotoxic mechanism in low concentrations of doxorubicin in MCA cells and apoptosis-related genes, such as Bax, caspase 8, and Bcl-xL, are involved. At high concentrations, doxorubicin still can kill MCA cells, even when apoptosis is inhibited, and have its propriety for achieving much cytotoxicity against MCA cells.

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Effects of Non-Cytotoxic Concentration of Anticancer Drugs on Doxorubicin Cytotoxicity in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

  • Lee, Yoon-Ik;Lee, Young-Ik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.314-320
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    • 1996
  • The effects of non-cytotoxic concentrations of tamoxifen, verapamil, and trifluoperazine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity in five human breast cancer cell lines were studied. A non-cytotoxic concentration of tamoxifen resulted in enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in HTB-123, HTB-26, and MCF-7. In these three cell lines, a combination of tamoxifen with verapamil resulted in even more increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Addition of verapamil or trifluoperazine alone did not influence the doxorubicin cytotoxicity significantly. Only in HTB-19 did coincubation with verapamil increase the doxorubicin cytotoxicity. In HTB-123, combination of tamoxifen with trifluoperazine increased the doxorubicin cytotoxicity significantly. In the cell lines where co-incubation with tamoxifen increased doxorubicin sensitivity, high estrogen receptor expression was detected. However, HTB-20, where tamoxifen did not enhance doxorubicin action, was also estrogen receptor positive. None of the cell lines had multidrug resistance related drug efflux and drug retention was not increased by the treatment with tamoxifen and verapamil. Cell cycle traverses were not altered by incubation with tamoxifen, verapamil or combinations thereof. These observatlons suggest mechanism of non-cytotoxic concentrations of tamoxifen and verapamil on doxorubicin cytotoxicity may involve one or more other cellular processes besides those of interference of estrogen binding to its receptor, cell cycle perturbation, or drug efflux blocking.

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Effect of Hypoxia on the Doxorubicin Sensitivity of Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

  • Lim, Soo-Jeong;Kang, He-Kyung
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.287-290
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    • 2007
  • Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major obstacles to effective cancer treatment. Hypoxia is widespread in solid tumors as a consequence of decreased blood flow in the tumor-derived neovasculature. The recent finding of a link between hypoxia and chemoresistance prompted us to investigate whether hypoxia induces doxorubicin resistance in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Low oxygen concentration decreased the doxorubicin sensitivity in MCF-7 cells. The expression of p-glycoprotein, a major MDR-related transporter, and those of apoptosis-related proteins (anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and pro-apoptotic Bax) were not altered by hypoxia in MCF-7 cells. Intracellular uptake of doxorubicin was significantly decreased under hypoxic conditions. Decreased cellular uptake of doxorubicin under hypoxia may contribute to causing doxorubicin resistance in these cells. The use of agents that can modulate the doxorubicin uptake for adjuvant therapy may contribute to improving the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer patients.

Effect of Banhasasim-tang on the Hepatic, Splenic and Cardiac Toxicity Induced by Doxorubicin (반하사심탕이 Doxorubicin에 의해 유발된 독성에 미치는 영향)

  • 신민규;황희정;김상찬;변준석
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.41-53
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    • 2003
  • The effect of Banhasasim-tang extracts on the hepatic, splenic and cardiac toxicity induced by doxorubicin administration (three injection protocol) were monitored using male ICR mice. Changes of body weight, clinical signs, necropsy findings and organ weights of liver, spleen and heart were observed with blood GOT and GPT levels. The results were as follows: 1. Decrease of body weight after doxorubicin treatment was dose-dependently inhibited by Banhasasim-tang extracts. 2. The degrees of anorexia, ataxia and dehydration that were observed in doxombicin treatment groups were dose-dependently inhibited by Banhasasim-rang extracts. 3. Increase of absolute and relative liver weight observed in the doxorubicin treatment group were dose-dependently inhibited by Banhasasim-tang extracts. In addition, the degrees of liver congestion and necrotic spot were significantly and dose-dependently decreased in the Banhasasim-rang extracts dosing group compared to that of the doxorubicin-only treatment group. It is also demonstrated that elevated serum GOT and GPT levels in the doxorubicin treatment group were significantly decreased in the Banhasasim-rang extracts dosing group. 4. Decrease of absolute and relative spleen weight observed in doxorubicin treatment groups were dose-dependently inhibited by Banhasasim-rang extracts. In addition, the degrees of splenic atrophy were significantly and dose-dependently decreased in the Banhasasim-rang extracts dosing group compared to that of doxorubicin-only treatment group. 5. Increase of absolute and relative heart weight observed in doxorubicin treatment groups were dose-dependently inhibited by Banhasasim-rang extracts. In addition, the degrees of heart congestion and enlargement were significantly and dose-dependently decreased in the Banhasasim-rang extracts dosing group compared to that of the doxorubicin-only treatment group. In conclusion, the toxicity of doxorubicin treatment (decrease of body weight, clinical signs such as anorexia, ataxia and dehydration, changes of organ weights of liver, spleen and heart, elevation of serum GOT and GPT levels) was inhibited and/or prevented by Banhasasim-rang extracts. According to these results, it is considered that Banhasasim-rang has some preventive effect against the toxicity induced by doxorubicin.

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Endogenous Nitric Oxide Strengthens Doxorubicin-induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Cell Lines (Doxorubicin에 의한 내인성 산화질소가 인간 대장암 세포주에서의 세포사멸에 미치는 효과)

  • Im, Soon Jae;Kim, Ji Hye;Kim, Min Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1137-1143
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    • 2014
  • Doxorubicin is a general chemotherapy drug widely used for a number of cancers. However, the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide ($NO^{\bullet}$) levels and chemoresistance to doxorubicin remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of endogenous $NO^{\bullet}$ on the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 with different p53 status. The cells were treated with either doxorubicin alone or in combination with the $NO^{\bullet}$ synthase (NOS) inhibitor $N^G$-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA). Doxorubicin differentially inhibited the growth of both the HCT116 (p53-WT) and HT29 (p53-MUT) cells, which was mitigated by cotreatment with NMA. Further studies revealed that inhibition of endogenous $NO^{\bullet}$ mitigated doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in the HCT116 and HT29 cells, as evidenced by apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the sub-G1 peak of apoptotic markers. Apoptosis was delayed in the HT29 cells, and its magnitude was greatly reduced, underscoring the importance of the modulation of p53 in the response. RT-PCR analysis revealed that doxorubicin down-regulated levels of inhibitors of the apoptosis family (cellular IAP-1 and-2). Collectively, these data show that induction of apoptosis by doxorubicin in human colon cancer cells is possibly related to modulation of endogenous $NO^{\bullet}$, the expression of the IAP family of genes, and the status of p53. The underlying mechanisms may represent potential targets for adjuvant strategies to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy for colon cancer.

Loss of endogenous estrogen increases cardiac toxicity by doxorubicin

  • Lee, Young Ho;Lee, Sang R.;Kwon, Sun Woo;Lee, Seung-yeon;Park, Bae-kuen;Hong, Eui-Ju
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.146-150
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    • 2017
  • Breast cancer is of enormous concern worldwide and linked with age, sex, hormonal factors, and family history. The treatment of early breast cancer includes treating the disease locally with surgery, radiation therapy, or both and treating microscopic systemic disease with either one or a combination of chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or biologic therapy. Doxorubicin is a well-known anthracycline antibiotic and antineoplastic drug usually administered to breast cancer patients. However, there have been some reports suggesting that doxorubicin causes side effects such as cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, breast cancer patients on doxorubicin treatment are commonly prescribed steroid suppression therapy. In addition, it has been previously reported that lack of estrogen elevates cardiotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated whether the steroid suppression therapy might influence the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. We hypothesized that the presence of a steroid hormone, particularly estrogen, is closely related to doxorubicin action. To investigate the effect of estrogen, mice were divided into four groups: control group, doxorubicin-treated group, ovariectomized group, and ovariectomized plus doxorubicin-treated group. We observed upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene and downregulation of apoptotic genes in the groups treated with doxorubicin, particularly in the ovariectomized plus doxorubicin-treated group. This suggests that administration of doxorubicin under a non-steroid condition can excessively damage the heart. In summary, combination treatment of hormonal and doxorubicin therapy for breast or many different types of cancer patients must be prescribed with requisite precautions.

Doxorubicin Productivity Improvement by the Recombinant Streptomyces peucetius with High-Copy Regulatory Genes Cultured in the Optimized Media Composition

  • PARK, HEE-SEOP;KANG, SEUNG-HOON;PARK, HYUN-JOO;KIM, EUNG-SOO
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 2005
  • Doxorubicin is a clinically important anticancer polyketide compound that is typically produced by Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. To improve doxorubicin productivity by S. peucetius, a doxorubicin pathway-specific regulatory gene, dnrI, was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid containing a catechol promoter system. The S. peucetius containing the recombinant plasmid exhibited approximately 9.5-fold higher doxorubicin productivity compared with the wild-type S. peucetius. The doxorubicin productivity by this recombinant S. peucetius strain was further improved through the optimization of culture media composition. Based on the Fractional Factorial Design (FFD), cornstarch, $K_2HPO_4$, and $MgSO_4$ were identified to be the key factors influencing doxorubicin productivity. The Response Surface Method (RSM) results based on 20 independent culture conditions with varying amounts of key factors predicted the highest theoretical doxorubicin productivity of 11.1 mg/l with corn starch of 46.33 g/l, $K_2HPO_4$ of 4.63 g/l, and $MgSO_4$ of 9.26 g/l. The doxorubicin productivity of the recombinant S. peucetius strain with the RSM-based optimized culture condition was experimentally verified to be 11.46 mg/l, which was approximately 30.8-fold higher productivity compared with the wild-type S. peucetius without culture media optimization.

Role of Iridin Isolated from Iris koreana Nakai on Doxorubicin-induced Necrosis in HK-2 Cells, and Effect on Cancer Cells (노랑붓꽃에서 분리된 Iridin의 독소루비신 유도 HK-2 세포 괴사에 대한 역할 및 암세포에 대한 작용)

  • Nho, Jong Hyun;Lee, Ki Ho;Jung, Ho Kyung;Lee, Mu Jin;Jang, Ji Hun;Sim, Mi Ok;Jung, Ja Kyun;Jung, Da Eun;Cho, Hyun Woo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2018
  • Doxorubicin is a anti-cancer drugs that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in human body. Doxorubicin is used to treat different types of cancers that affect the ovary, thyoid and lungs, but induced side effect such as nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Thus, we investigated that the effect of iridin on doxorubicin-induced necrosis in HK-2 cells, a human proximal tubule cell. To confirm effect of iridin on doxorubicin-induced necrosis, HK-2 cells are treated with $10{\mu}M$ doxorubicin and $80{\mu}M$ iridin. $80{\mu}M$ iridin reduced $10{\mu}M$ doxorubicin-induced necrosis, the mitochondrial over activation and caspase-3 activation. However, iridin reduces anti-cancer effect of doxorubicin such as PARP1 and caspase-3 activation, checkpoint proteins (CDK4 and CDK6) in NCI-H1129 cells (Human non-small cell lung cancer cell). In HCT-116 cells (Human colorectan cancer cell), iridin do not increased protein expression of CDK4 and CDK6 decreased by doxorubicin. Results indicate that treatment of iridin was diminished doxorubicin-induced necrosis in HK-2 cells. However, iridin was decreased anti-cancer effect of doxorubicin on NCI-H1229, but not HCT-116. Thus, further experiment are required to iridin treatment on various cancer cells and animal models because effect of iridin different cell type.