• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dose limit

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Using RESRAD-BUILD for Potential Radiation Dose Estimation the Korea Research Reactor-1 When It Opens to the Public as a Memorial Hall

  • Lee, Sangbok;Yoon, Yongsu;Kim, Sungchul
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate and analyze the potential radiation dose that the future visitors and the cleaning staff will be exposed to when the KRR-1 reactor is converted into a memorial hall. The radiation doses were estimated using the RESRAD-BUILD software, where case, building, receptor, shielding, and source parameters were applied as the input data. Also, the basic data for the assessment of the radiation doses were determined in an indirect manner using the data on the waste generated during the decommissioning process of the reactor. The assessment results indicate that the potential radiation dose to the visitors and the cleaning staff will be less than 1 mSv, the annual dose limit for the general public. However, if anyone for a significant period of time is close to the reactor, the overall dose will increase. The radiation dose for the future visitors and the cleaning staff was determined to be lower than the annual dose limit for the general public. Given such a risk, systematic measures, such as periodic monitoring or limiting hours, are imperative.

The study on Measuring of Environmental Radioactivity in the Vicinity of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant (영광 원자력 발전소 주변 환경 방사능 측정에 관한 연구)

  • 박종섭
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.273-280
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    • 1999
  • In order to protect inhabitans' health and to collect data for prediction of the effcts from accidental emission of rasioactive materials from nuclear power plant, exposed dose rate be monitored within the limit dose rate. This research was carried out to investigate the accumulation of environmental radioactivity around Younggwang Nuclear Power Plant, and to infer and in infer and assay the additional exposed dose rate of inhabitants in Younggwang site from the operation of nuclear plant operation. External radiation dose rate, radiation environmental samples, and exposed dose rate of inhabitants in Younggwang site were investigated for estimaing environment activity in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant area. For the external radiation dose rate, the result showed that range of normal variation was found and any artificial radioisotope was not deteted in the analysis of environmental samples. Exposed dose rate of inhabitants was lower than 0.4% of the limit value of ICRP and it may be concluded that there was no effect on inhabitants and environment from the operation of nuclear power plant.

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Acute Toxicity of CKD-602, a New Anticancer Agent, in Rats

  • Kim, Jong-Choon;Shin, Dong-Ho;Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Joon-Kyun;Cha, Shin-Woo;Han, Jung-Hee;Suh, Jeong-Eun;Chung, Moon-Koo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2004
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of CKD-602 by a single intravenous dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. Ten males females were used in each test groups: a vehicle control, 34.7, 4l.7, 50.0, 60.0 and 72.0 mg/kg groups, and were given different single intravenous doses of CKD-602 to the test animals. Mortalities, clinical findings, and body weight changes were monitored for the 14-day period following the administration. At the end of l4-day observation period, all animals were sacrificed and complete gross postmortem examinations were performed. One, 1, 2, 8 and 9 cases of deaths occurred in the male dose groups of 34.7, 41.7, 50.0, 60.0 and 72.0 mg/kg, respectively, and 1, 5 and 9 cases in the female dose groups 50.0, 60.0 and 72.0 mg/kg, respectively. An increase in the incidence of clinical signs such as alopecia, skin pallor skin ulcerations, emaciation and change of fecal material was found in the both sexes of all treatment groups. A decrease or Suppression in the body weight was also observed in a dose-dependent manner. In autopsy, male and/or female rats of the treatment groups showed treatment-related gross findings such as splenomegaly, atrophy of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, ovary, uterus and thymus which were dose-dependent in incidence and severity. Based on these results, it was concluded that a single intravenous injection of CKD-602 to rats caused significant toxicities in gastrointestinal, hematopoietic, and reproductive systems. The $LD_{50}$ value was 53.8 (95% confidence limit: 48.5~60.6) mg/kg for males and 60.l (95% confidence limit: 55.3~65.8) mg/kg for females. The $LD_{10}$ value was 39.9 (95% confidence limit: 3l.7~44.8) mg/kg for males and 50.3 (95% confidence limit: 40.6~54.8) mg/kg for females.

Derivation of benchmark dose lower limit of lead for ADHD based on a longitudinal cohort data set (동집단 자료의 주의력 결핍 과잉행동 장애를 종점으로 한 납의 벤치마크 용량 하한 도출)

  • Kim, Byung Soo;Kim, Daehee;Ha, Mina;Kwon, Ho-Jang
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.987-998
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    • 2014
  • The primary purpose of this paper is to derive a benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL) of lead for the attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) based on a longitudinal cohort data set which is referred to as CHEER data set. The CHEER data were recently recruited from the Ministry of Environment of S. Korea to investigate the effect of environment on children's health We first confirm the correlation of ADHD with the blood lead level using a linear mixed effect model. We report from the longitudinal characteristic of CHEER data that ADHD scores tend to have "regression to the mean". A dose-response curve of blood lead level with ADHD being the end point is derived and from this dose-response curve a few BMDLs are derived based on corresponding assumptions on the benchmark region.

Determination of Derived Release Limits by the Concentration Factor Method (농축인자법에 의한 유도방출 기준 설정)

  • Byung Woo Kim;Byeung Kyu Kim;Jeong Ho Lee
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.267-278
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    • 1985
  • Some kinds of methods have been applied to regulate the exposure doses by the radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants. The essential one is primary dose equivalent limit recommended by the ICRP. When the primary limit cannot be applied directly for regulation, there have been dose equivalent index in case of external exposure, or maximum permissible concentration, annual limit on intake, derived air concentration and maximum permissible body burden in case of internal exposure. But the derived limit is required from the viewpoint of discharge, for those values are inadequate to control discharge rate directly. This study was carried out to derive the release limit for the Wolsung nuclear power plant by the concentration factor method. This method is based on the assumption of steady state transfer between environment compartments.

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Estimated Additional Number of Workers and Additional Collective Dose by Reducing Dose Limits (선량한도 하향이 방사선작업인력 및 집단선량에 미치는 영향예측)

  • Ha, Chung-Woo;Na, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 1998
  • An analysis has been performed to estimate the additional number of workers and the additional collective dose in man-cSv which would be required, nuclear industry-wide as a result of reducing individual dose limit. This analysis can be extended to the reduction in the dose limits recommended by ICRP Publ.60 and BEIR V report as well as the proposed dose limits by regulatory authorities. An industry-wide database was employed in the analysis based on a summary of industry-wide occupational radiation exposure compiled by the Korea Radioisotope Association. Correlation model was employed to compute the affects of setting specific annual individual dose limits. In this study, we have addressed worker non-productivity while in the radiation environment on a parametric or 'sensitivity analysis' basis. This alleviates the need for developing such data underlying a summation of many individual tasks at many nuclear facilities. It has the advantage that very low non-productivity assumptions can readily be defended as conservative, in that it is difficult to approach such low worker non-productivity factors even in the best of environments in any industry. On a per facility basis, for calendar year 1997, the number of workers required would be increased from 231 workers to 269 workers and collective man-cSv dose would be also increased by approximately fourteen percent if the individual dose limit was reduced to 2 cSv/y and an individual worker non-productivity fraction of 0.1 is assumed.

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Occupational Radiation Exposure of Emergency Medical Technicians in Emergency Medical Centers in Korea (우리나라 응급의료센터 응급구조사의 직업적 방사선 노출)

  • Lee, Hyeongyeong;Park, Jeongim
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.170-179
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study aims to investigate the occupational radiation exposures of emergency medical technicians(EMTs) in emergency medical centers in Korea. The results will provide a basis for developing prevention programs to minimize adverse health effects relating to radiation exposure among emergency medical technicians working in this area. Methods: Radiation exposure doses were measured for twenty-two EMTs working in six emergency medical centers. Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters(TLD) were placed on three representative body parts, including chest, neck, and a finger. Measurements were conducted over the entire working hours of the participants for foor weeks. Dosimeters were analyzed according to a standard method by a KFDA-designated lab. Detection rate, annual radiation exposure dose, and relative levels to dose limit were derived based on the measured doses from the dosimeters. SPSS/Win 18.0 software(IBM, US) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Detection rates were 45.5%, 36.4%, and 45.5% for the dosimeters sampled from chest, neck, and a finger, respectively. The average annual doses were $2.39{\pm}3.44mSv/year$(range 0.38-10.0 mSv/year) for the chest, $2.72{\pm}3.05mSv/year$(2.00-11.34) for the neck, and $20.98{\pm}17.57mSv/year$(1.25-53.50) for the hand dose. The average annual eye dose was estimated to $3.61{\pm}2.37mSv/year$(1.50-8.34). The exposure dose levels of EMTs were comparable to those of radiologists, who showed relatively higher radiation dose among health care workers, as reported in another study. Conclusions: EMTs working in emergency medical centers are considered to be at risk of radiation exposure. Although the radiation exposure dose of EMTs does not exceed the dose limit, it is not negligible comparing to other professionals in health care sectors.

5-Day Repeated Intravenous Dose Toxicity Study of a New Camptothecin Anticancer Agent CKD-602 in Rats

  • Kim, Jong-Choon;Shin, Dong-Ho;Kim, Sung-Ho;Bae, Chun-Sik;Kim, Joon-Kyum;Cha, Shin-Woo;Han, Jung-Hee;Lee, Hyun-Sook;Chung, Moon-Koo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2004
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the potential adverse effects of CKD-602 by a 5-day repeated intravenous dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article, CKD-602, was administered intravenously to male and female rats at dose levels of 0.07, 0.22, 0.67, 2.0 and 6.0 mg/kg/day for 5 days consecutively. Mortalities, clinical findings, and body weight changes were monitored for the 14-day period after cessation of the administration. At the end of 14-day observation period, all animals were sacrificed and complete gross postmortem examinations were performed. There were 2 and 5 treatment related deaths in the 0.67 and 2.0 mg/kg/day dose groups of both genders, respectively. Treatment related clinical signs, including hair loss, skin paleness, decreased locomotor activity, emaciation, and changes in stool were observed in a dose-dependent manner from the third day after initiation of the injection. Decrease or suppression of body weight was also observed dose-dependently in males and females of the treated groups. Gross postmortem examinations revealed a dose-dependent increase in the incidence and severity of atrophy or hypertrophy and white membrane formation in the spleen, atrophy of the thymus, diffuse white spots and paleness of the liver, paleness of the lung, kidney and adrenal gland, and dark red discoloration and dark red contents in the alimentary tract. Based on these results, it was concluded that the 5-repeated intravenous injection of CKD-602 to male and female rats resulted in increased incidence of abnormal clinical signs and death, decreased or suppressed body weight, and increased incidence of abnormal gross findings. In the present experimental conditions, the $LD_{50}$ value was 2.07 (95% confidence limit not specified) mg/kg/day in both genders and the $LD_{10}$ value was 1.72 (95% confidence limit not specified) mg/kg/day in both genders.

Assessment of Spatial Dose Distribution in the Diagnostic Imaging Laboratory by Monte Carlo Simulation (몬테카를로 전산해석에 의한 X선 실습실의 공간선량분포 평가)

  • Cho, Yun-Hyeong;Kang, Bo Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the calculation of the effective spatial dose distribution of the diagnostic imaging laboratory of K university was performed by the Monte Carlo simulation. The radiation generator has a maximum tube voltage of 150 kVp and a maximum current of 700 mA. Using the results, we compared the spatial effective dose distributions of diagnostic imaging laboratory when the shielding door was closed and opened. In conclusion, it was found that the effective dose in the operating room of the diagnostic imaging laboratory does not exceed the annual dose limit (6 mSv/y) of the student (occasional visitor) even when the door is opened. However, since the effective dose when the door is open is about 16 times higher in front of the lead glass window and about 3,000 times higher in front of the doorway than the case when the door is closed, closing the shielding door at the time of the practical exercising reduces unnecessary radiation exposure by great extent.

Preliminary Evaluation of the Activity Concentration Limits for Consumer Goods Containing NORM

  • Jang, Mee;Chung, Kun Ho;Ji, Young Yong;Lim, Jong Myung;Kang, Mun Ja;Choi, Guen Sik
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.101-104
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    • 2016
  • Background: To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment" was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. Materials and Methods: To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the "small room model" surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. Results and Discussion: The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and $19000Bq{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ for $^{226}Ra$, $^{232}Th$ and $^{40}K$, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of $^{40}K$, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. Conclusion: In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.