• Title, Summary, Keyword: Donor Cumulus Cell

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In Vitro Development of Reconstructed Bovine Embryos and Fate of Donor Mitochondria Following Nuclear Injection of Cumulus Cells

  • Do, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Bo-Yon;Kim, Seung-Bo;Lee, Hoon-Taek;Chung, Kil-Saeng
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.11-11
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    • 2001
  • In this study, we examined the developmental potential of reconstructed bovine embryos and the fate of donor mitochondria during their preimplantation development after nuclear transfer. Isolated cumulus cells were used as donor cells in nuclear transfer. Cumulus cells labelled with MitoTracker Green FM fluorochrome were injected into enucleated bovine MII oocytes and cultured in vitro. MitoTracker labelling on donor cells did not have a detrimental effect on blastocyst formation following nuclear transfer. Cleavage rate was about 69%(56/81) and blastocyst formation rate was 6.2% (5/81) at 7 days after nuclear transfer. The labelled mitochondria dispersed to the cytoplasm and became distributed among blastomeres and could be identified up to the 8- to 15-cell stages. Small patches of mitochondria were detected in some 8- to 15-cell stage embryos (5/20). However, donor mitochondria were not detected in embryos at the 16-cell stage and subsequent developmental stages. In the control group, mitochondria could be identified in arrested 1-cell embryos up to 7 days after nuclear transfer These results suggest that donor mitochondria disappear from recipient cytoplasm before 16-cell stage following nuclear transfer in reconstructed bovine embryos.

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Effects of Donor Cell Passage, Size and Type on Development of Porcine Embryos Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

  • Zhang, Y.H.;Song, E.S.;Kim, E.S.;Cong, P.Q.;Lee, S.H.;Lee, J.W.;Yi, Y.J.;Park, Chang-Sik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.194-200
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor cell passage, size and type on the development of nuclear transfer embryos. Porcine cumulus cells, fetal fibroblasts and oviductal epithelial cells from 1-2, 3-6 and 7-10 passages were used for the nuclear transfer. In the oocytes with the cumulus donor cells, fusion and cleavage rates of oocytes and cell numbers per blastocyst among the three different passage groups did not show any differences, but the rates of blastocyst formation from 1-2 and 3-6 passage groups were higher than those from 7-10 passage group. The rates of fusion, cleavage and blastocyst formation, and the cell numbers per blastocyst were higher in the embryos with the sizes of <20 and 20 ${\mu}m$ cumulus donor cells compared to the >20 ${\mu}m$ cumulus donor cell. In the oocytes with the fetal fibroblast donor cells, the rate of blastocyst formation from the 3-6 passage group was higher than from 1-2 and 7-10 passage groups. The embryos with the size of 20 $\mu{m}$ fetal fibroblast donor cell showed higher rate of blastocyst formation compared to those with <20 and >20 ${\mu}m$ donor cells. In the oocytes with the oviductal epithelial cells, the rates of blastocyst formation from 1-2 and 3-6 passage groups were higher compared to those from 7-10 passage group. The embryos with the sizes of <20 and 20 ${\mu}m$ oviductal epithelial donor cells had a higher rate of blastocyst formation compared to those with >20 ${\mu}m$ donor cell. Fusion and cleavage rates of oocytes, and cell numbers per blastocyst among the three different donor cell types from the 3-6 passage did not show any differences. However, the rate of blastocyst formation of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with the fetal fibroblast donor cell was higher than that of blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos with the cumulus and oviductal epithelial donor cells.

Effect of Cell Cycle Stage on the Development of Embryos Produced by Cumulus Cell Nuclear Transfer in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Im, G.S.;Yang, B.S.;Yang, B.C.;Chang, W.K.;Yi, Y.J.;Park, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.759-764
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of activation timing, cell cycle and passage on the development of embryos produced by cumulus cell nuclear transfer in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Nuclear donor cumulus cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at $38.5^{\circ}C$ in a humidified atmosphere of 5% $CO_2$ in air. The 1~6 passages of serum deprived or actively dividing cumulus cells were isolated and used as donor cells. The in vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then the isolated donor cells were introduced. One pulse of 180 volts for $15{\mu}s$ was applied to induce the fusion between karyoplast and cytoplast. The activation was done before or after the fusion. To activate, oocytes were treated with $10{\mu}M$ calcium ionophore for 5 min immediately followed by 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 3 h. The nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in $500{\mu}l$ of modified CRlaa supplemented with 3 mg/ml BSA in four well dish covered with mineral oil. After 3 days culture, culture medium was changed into modified CRlaa medium containing 1.5 mg/ml BSA and 5% FBS for 4 days. The incubation environment was 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$, 90% $N_2$ at $38.5^{\circ}C$. There was no blastocyst formation when the nuclear transfer embryos were activated before the fusion, whereas, 29.9% of blastocyst formation was shown when the nuclear transfer embryos were activated after the fusion. When serum deprived and actively dividing cumulus cells were used as nuclear donor cells, the developmental rates to blastocyst were 38.5% and 40.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference between serum deprived and actively dividing cells in the developmental rates. The developmental rates to blastocyst according to 1~6 passages were 37.5~44.4%. However, there were no significant differences among passages. These results indicate that 1~6 passage cumulus cell irrespective of cell cycle could support development of nuclear transfer embryos activated after the fusion.

Establishment of an Efficient System for the Production of Transgenic Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

  • Cho, J.K.;Bhuiyan, M.M.U.;Jang, G.;Park, E.S.;Chang, K.H.;Park, H.J.;Lim, J.M.;Kang, S.K.;Lee, B.C.;Hwang, W.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.75-75
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    • 2002
  • The present study was conducted for the production of transgenic cloned cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that secrete human prourokinase into milk. To establish an efficient production system for bovine transgenic SCNT embryos, the offset was examined of various conditions of donor cells including cell type, size, and passage number on the developmental competence of transgenic SCNT embryos. An expression plasmid far human prourokinase (pbeta-ProU) was constructed by inserting a bovine beta-casein promoter, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene, and a human prourokinase target gene into a pcDNA3 plasmid. Three types of bovine somatic cells including two adult cells (cumulus cells and ear fibroblasts) and fetal fibroblasts were prepared and transfected using a lipid-meidated method. In Experiment 1, developmental competence and rates of GFP expression in bovine transgenic SCNT embryos reconstructed with cumulus cells were significantly higher than those from fetal and ear fibroblasts. In Experiment 2, the effect of cellular senescence in early (2 to 4) and late (8 to 12) passages was investigated. No significant differences in the development of transgenic SCNT embryos were observed. In Experient 3, different sizes of GFP-expressing transfected cumulus cells [large (>30 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) or small cell (<30 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$)] were used for SCNT. A significant improvement in embryo development and GFP expression was observed when small cumulus cells were used for SCNT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (1) adult somatic cells could serve as donor cells in transgenic SCNT embryo production and cumulus cells with small size at early passage were the optimal cell type, and (2) transgenic SCNT embryos derived from adult somatic cells have embryonic development potential.

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The Effects of Donor Cell Type and Culture Medium on in vitro Development of Domestic Cat Embryos Reconstructed by Nuclear Transplantation

  • Fahrudin, Mokhamad;Otoi, Takeshige;Karja, Ni Wayan Kurniani;Murakami, Masako;Suzuki, Tatsuyuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1057-1061
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    • 2001
  • In this study we explored the possibility of performing nuclear transfer in the domestic cat and assessed the ability of different culture media to support in vitro development of reconstructed cat embryos. Donor somatic cells were derived from cultured cumulus cells or explants of oviduct tissue, and recipient cytoplasts from in vitro matured oocytes. A higher percentage of cleavage (84.6% and 86.5%) and development to the morula stage (35.9% and 44.2%) was found when reconstructed embryos receiving cumulus or oviduct cells were cultured in MK1 medium, compared with those cultured in CR1aa (58.7% and 72.5%, 13.8% and 13.6%, respectively). There was no significant difference between MK1 and CR1aa media with respect to the proportion developing to the blastocyst stage (15.4% and 17.3% vs 6.8% and 8.6%, respectively, p>0.05). There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of donor cell type (cumulus and oviduct cells) on the rates of fusion (65.0% and 52.5%), cleavage (84.6% and 86.5%), development to the morula (35.9% and 44.2%), and blastocyst (15.4% and 17.3%) stages when reconstructed embryos were cultured in MK1 medium. Similar results were found for the reconstructed embryos cultured in CR1aa medium. These results show that culture medium has a significant impact on the early development of reconstructed cat embryos, whereas donor cell type does not have a significant effect.

Effect of Protein Supplementation, O2 Concentration and Co-Culture on the Development of Embryos Produced by Nuclear Transfer Using Cultured Cumulus Cells in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Im, G.S.;Yang, B.S.;Park, S.J.;Im, S.K.;Yang, B.C.;Yi, Y.J.;Park, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1260-1266
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    • 2001
  • The effect of protein supplementation, $O_2$ concentration and co-culture on the development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer using cultured cumulus cell was investigated. Recipient oocytes and cumulus cells were obtained from the ovaries of the slaughtered Hanwoo cows. Donor cumulus cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum at 5% $CO_2$ in air at $38.5^{\circ}C$. The 1 to 6 passages of cumulus cells were isolated and used as donor cells. The in vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then the isolated donor cells were introduced. One $15{\mu}s$ pulse of 180 volts was applied to induce the fusion between karyoplast and cytoplast. The fused embryos were activated with $10{\mu}M$ calcium ionophore for 5 min and 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 3 h. To examine the effect of protein supplementation, nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were cultured in one of the following 4 treatments : 1) CR1aa + 3 mg/ml BSA for 7 days ; 2) CR1aa + 10% FBS for 7 days ; 3) CR1aa + 1.5 mg/ml BSA + 5% FBS for 7 days ; and 4) CR1aa + 3 mg/ml BSA for first 3 days and then CR1aa + 1.5 mg/ml BSA + 5% FBS for 4 days. Culture took place at 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$ and 90% $N_2$ at $38.5^{\circ}C$. Although there were no significant differences in cleavage rate among different protein supplements, the rates of blastocyst formation were significantly different. When NT embryos were cultured in the medium supplemented with only BSA, they could develop to only morula not to blastocyst. However, when FBS was supplemented, NT embryos developed to blastocyst stage. In order to investigate the effect of $O_2$ concentration and co-culture, NT embryos were cultured in CR1aa + 1.5 mg/ml BSA + 5% FBS with or without cumulus cell co-culture at an atmosphere of 5% $CO_2$ in air (20% $O_2$) or 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$, 90% $N_2$ (5% $O_2$) at $38.5^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. The percentage of blastocyst development was significantly higher when the NT embryos were cultured at an atmosphere of 5% $O_2$ than that of 20% $O_2$ (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between with and without cumulus cell co-culture at an atmosphere of 5% $O_2$ or 20% $O_2$. Fifty embryos were transferred to 25 recipients and 5 recipients were pregnant at 100 days. From 5 pregnant cows, only one cow was delivered of female twin. In conclusion, the embryos reconstructed by enucleation of metaphase II oocytes and introduction of the cycling and quiescent cumulus donor cells in Hanwoo had developmental potential to term after embryo transfer to recipient cows.

Cats Cloned from Fetal Fibroblast Cells by Nuclear Transfer

  • Yin, X.J.;Lee, H.S.;Lee, Y.H.;Hwang, W.S.;Kong, I.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2004
  • This work was undertaken in order to study the developmental competence of nuclear transfer cat embryo with fetal fibroblast and adult skin fibroblast as donor nuclei. Oocytes wererecovered by mincing the ovaries in Hepes-buffered TCM199 and selected the cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) with compact cumulus cell mass and dark. Homogenous ooplasm were cultured for maturation in TCM199 + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 12 hours and used as a source of recipient cytoplast for exogenous somatic nuclei. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effect donor cell types on the reconstruction and development of cloned embryos. Fusion, first cleavage and blastocyst developmental rate was not different between fetal fibroblast and adult skin cell (71.2 vs. 66.8; 71.0 vs. 57.6; 4.0 vs. 6.1 %, P<0.05). In Experiment 2, cloned embryos were surgically transferred into the oviducts of recipient queens. One of seven recipient queens was delivered naturally 2healthy cloned cats and 1 stillborn from fetal fibroblast cell of male origin after 65 days embryo transfer. One of three recipient queens was delivered naturally 1 healthy cloned cat from adult skin cell of female after 65 days embryo transfer. The cloned cats showed genotypes identical to the donor cell lines, indicating that adult somatic cells can be used for feline cloning.

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The Effect of Oocyte Donor Age and Micromainpulation Medium on the Development of Mouse Cloned Embryos (생쥐 복제수정란 발달에 있어서 난자공여 생쥐 연령과 미세조작 배양액의 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Youn-Su;Oh, Keon-Bong;Hwang, Seong-Soo;Im, Gi-Sun;Park, Jin-Ki
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.313-317
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of oocyte donor age and micromanipulation medium on the development of mouse cloned embryos receiving cumulus cells. Mouse oocytes were obtained from 6 to 11 week-old mice BDF1 female mice(experiment 1) and cumulus cells were used as donor cells. Micromanipulation procedures for nuclear transfer(NT) were performed in FHM, M2 or Hepes-buffered TCM199(TCM199) medium(experiment 2). After nuclear transfer, the reconstructed oocytes were activated by 10 mM $SrCl_2$ in Ca-free CZB medium in the presence of 5 II ${\mu}$g/ml cytochalasin B for 5 h and cultured in KSOM medium for 4 days. In experiment 1, the survival rate of oocytes after injection of cumulus cells were significantly(p<0.05) lower in oocytes from 6~7 week-old mice(53.3%) than in oocytes from 8~9(80.9%) and 10~11 week-old mice(77.1%). In experiment 2, the survival rate of oocytes after cell injection were significantly(p<0.05) higher in FHM and M2 medium(71.7% and 76.9%) than in TCM199 medium(51.2%). The activation rates of cloned embryos were not different among the micromanipulation media. However, the embryos developed to blastocyst stage were significantly(p<0.05) higher in FHM medium(13.9%) than in M2 and TCM199 medium(0.0% and 0.0%). In conclusion, the present study suggest that oocytes from above 8 week-old mice are superior to oocytes from 6~7 week-old mice as a source of recipient cytoplasm and FHM is superior to M2 and TCM199 as a micromanipulation medium for mouse somatic cell cloning.

Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy in Cloned Bovine Embryos following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

  • Do, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Bo-Yon;Kim, Seung-Bo;Lee, Hoon-Taek;Chung, Kil-Saeng
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.40-40
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    • 2002
  • Nuclear transfer (NT) has the potential to produce large number of identical progeny and would greatly benefit ongoing research efforts, Cloned animals produced by NT, however, may not be genetically identical to the donor cell. In NT procedures, nucleus genes originate from donor cell, and mitochondrial genes originate from recipient oocytes. (omitted)

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Developmental Rate of Rabbit Parthenogenetic Embryos Derived Using Different Activating Protocols

  • Chrenek, P.;Makarevich, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.617-620
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    • 2004
  • The present study compares development of rabbit embryos generated using different oocyte activation protocols and reconstructed with embryonic or cumulus cells as nuclear donor. In vivo matured oocytes were collected from New Zealand White rabbits at 16 h after ovulation treatment and were activated at18 h of post-ovulation treatment. The following schemes of oocytes activation were tested: 1) single electric pulse (EP, 3.2 kV/cm, 3${\times}$20 $\mu$s, 0.3 M mannitol)+5 min culture in the presence of 5 mM Ionomycin, 2) single electric pulse (EP, 3.2 kV/cm, (${\times}$20 $\mu$s, 0.3 M mannitol)+1 h culture in the presence of 2 mM 6-DMAP, and 3) three electric pulses 30 min apart. Cleavage rate, percentage of expanded and hatched blastocysts as well as total cell number of blastomeres of parthenogenetic embryos were significantly higher using either EP+6-DMAP or 3${\times}$EP schemes, comparing with EP+Ionomycin. Development rate up to hatched blastocyst stage of cloned rabbit embryos using the EP+6-DMAP for activation of nuclei were 19% for embryonic cell nuclei and 36% for cumulus cell nuclei. The best activation protocol optimalized in this study was the combined treatment "P+6-DMAP" which may be potentially used for nuclear transfer protocol.