• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dongui Bogam

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Microbial Change and Fermentation Characteristics during Samjung-Hwan Natural Fermentation (천연발효 경과에 따른 삼정환의 미생물 변화 및 발효특성)

  • Shin, Na Rae;Wang, Jing-Hua;Lim, Dongwoo;Lee, Myeong-Jong;Kim, Hojun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Samjung-hwan (SJH), a well-known traditional fermented herb formula recorded in Dongui Bogam, has been commonly used for prolonging life for four hundred years in Eastern Asia. However, fermented SJH has not been investigated in terms of microbial ecology until present time. Methods: SJH was fermented for five weeks and fermentation characteristics during SJH fermentation were performed including pH, acidity and microbial profiling. Also, we measured total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. In order to select starter candidate, several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented SJH. Results: pH of fermented SJH was decreased from 4.7 to 3.0 and acidity was increased from 0.45% to 1.72%. Also, fermented SJH increased antioxidant indicator such as total polyphenol and total flavonoid as well as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Lactobacillus brevis was increased, Pseudanabaena sp. was decreased, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was stable during 5-week fermentation of SJH. L. brevis and L. plantarum were isolated from fermented SJH. Conclusions: Fermented SJH for four weeks had optimal effect on antioxidant and fermentation characteristics such as pH, acidity and microbial profile. Further studies are required to develop starter and analyze functional compounds in oder to produce standardized SJH.

Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of HBX-6 in Sprague-Dawley Rat (HBX-6의 Sprague-Dawley rat를 이용한 단회경구투여 독성시험)

  • Jin, Bo-Ram;Seo, Dong-Wook;Kim, Myoung-Seok;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Yoon, Il-Joo;Kim, Chang Eun;An, Hyo-Jin
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : This study was performed to investigate the single oral toxicity of HBX-6 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods : Twenty SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and were administrated singly to female and male SD rats, as an oral dose of 2000 mg/kg. HBX-6 is a newly combined Korean herbal medicine formula 30 % Ethanol extract derived from The Dongui Bogam. Now we are developing the prescription for the aim of improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) without undesirable side effects. HBX-6 is composed of nine medicinal herbs: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Corni Fructus, Cistanchis Herba, Psoraleae Semen, Dendrobii Herba, Morindae Radix, Cuscutae Semen, Trigonellae Semen, Foeniculi Fructus. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in the body weight, clinical signs, gross observation and necropsy findings for the 14 days according to "Standard for Toxicity Study of Pharmaceuticals" of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guideline and "Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Procedure" of OECD Test Guideline. Results : We could not find any mortality. Compared with the control group, significant weight change was not observed in the experimental group. After administration, the more common symptoms were not observed. There were no gross abnormalities in all cases. Conclusions : Taken together, these results suggest that the approximate lethal dose of HBX-6 in both female and male SD rats were considered as over 2000 mg/kg.

Bridging Basic Knowledge and Clinical Practice in the Education of Traditional Korean Medicine: A case of Pubescent Angelica usages in Internal Bodily Elements section, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine (동의보감·내경편 독활(獨活)의 용법을 통해 본 한의학 기초와 임상의 연계 교육 방안)

  • Hong, Jiseong;Kang, Inhye;Lee, Youngmi;Lee, Hoon-Yeon;Kang, Yeonseok
    • The Journal of Korean Medical History
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2020
  • Pubescent Angelica is generally used in musculoskeletal diseases of lower extremity, itching, external contraction (外感) and furuncle, with the effect of dispelling wind, draining dampness, dispersing the external (解表) and stopping pain. The disease parts of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine (東醫寶鑑) contain 121 examples of the usage of Pubescent Angelica. Cases of musculoskeletal diseases and itching are mainly in the External Bodily Elements section (外形篇), and those of external contraction and furuncle are mainly in the Miscellaneous Disorder section (雜病篇). Internal Bodily Elements section (內景篇) has 10 prescriptions that involve Pubescent Angelica, in Dreams (2), Voice (1), Uterus (4), Parasites (1), and Feces (2) chapters. Their specific symptoms are insomnia and sleep paralysis (Dreams), loss of voice due to external contraction (Voice), uterine hemorrhage (Uterus), phthisis (Parasites), and constipation and diarrhea (Feces). It is not easy for students beginning their clinical training to link the effects of Pubescent Angelica and its actual usage, especially in the area of internal medicine. By Analyzing the whole cases of Pubescent Angelica in the Treasured Mirror, we found various usages out of reach of basic knowledge of the herb. Such method can be utilized not only in developing herbal knowledge-based products, but also in improving Korean medicine education, by enhancing the occupational competency bridging basic and clinical knowledge.

Preservation of World Records Heritage in Korea and Further Registry (한국의 세계기록유산 보존 현황 및 과제)

  • Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.27-48
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    • 2005
  • This study investigates the current preservation and management of four records and documentary heritage in Korea that is in the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. The study analyzes their problems and corresponding solutions in digitizing those world records heritages. This study also reviews additional four documentary books in Korea that are in the wish list to add to UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. This study is organized as the following: Chapter 2 examines the value and meanings of world records and documentary heritage in Korea. The registry requirements and procedures of UNESCO's Memory of the World Register are examined. The currently registered records of Korea include Hunmin-Chongum, the Annals of the Choson Dynasty, the Diaries of the Royal Secretariat (Seungjeongwon Ilgi), and Buljo- Jikji-Simche-Yojeol (vol. II). These records heritage's worth and significance are carefully analyzed. For example, Hunmin-Chongum("訓民正音") is consisted of unique and systematic letters. Letters were delicately explained with examples in its original manual at the time of letter's creation, which is an unparalleled case in the world documentary history. The Annals of the Choson Dynasty("朝鮮王朝實錄") are the most comprehensive historic documents that contain the longest period of time in history. Their truthfulness and reliability in describing history give credits to the annals. The Royal Secretariat Diary (called Seungjeongwon-Ilgi("承政院日記")) is the most voluminous primary resources in history, superior to the Annals of Choson Dynasty and Twenty Five Histories in China. Jikji("直指") is the oldest existing book published by movable metal print sets in the world. It evidences the beginning of metal printing in the world printing history and is worthy of being as world heritage. The review of the four registered records confirms that they are valuable world documentary heritage that transfers culture of mankind to next generations and should be preserved carefully and safely without deterioration or loss. Chapter 3 investigates the current status of preservation and management of three repositories that store the four registered records in Korea. The repositories include Kyujanggak Archives in Seoul National University, Pusan Records and Information Center of National Records and Archives Service, and Gansong Art Museum. The quality of their preservation and management are excellent in all of three institutions by the following aspects: 1) detailed security measures are close to perfection 2) archiving practices are very careful by using a special stack room in steady temperature and humidity and depositing it in stack or archival box made of paulownia tree and 3) fire prevention, lighting, and fumigation are thoroughly prepared. Chapter 4 summarizes the status quo of digitization projects of records heritage in Korea. The most important issue related to digitization and database construction on Korean records heritage is likely to set up the standardization of digitization processes and facilities. It is urgently necessary to develop comprehensive standard systems for digitization. Two institutions are closely interested in these tasks: 1) the National Records and Archives Service experienced in developing government records management systems; and 2) the Cultural Heritage Administration interested in digitization of Korean old documents. In collaboration of these two institutions, a new standard system will be designed for digitizing records heritage on Korean Studies. Chapter 5 deals with additional Korean records heritage in the wish list for UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, including: 1) Wooden Printing Blocks(經板) of Koryo-Taejangkyong(高麗大藏經) in Haein Temple(海印寺); 2) Dongui-Bogam("東醫寶鑑") 3) Samguk-Yusa("三國遺事") and 4) Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong. Their world value and importance are examined as followings. Wooden Printing Blocks of Koryo-Taejangkyong in Haein Temple is the worldly oldest wooden printing block of cannon of Buddhism that still exist and was created over 750 years ago. It needs a special conservation treatment to disinfect germs residing in surface and inside of wooden plates. Otherwise, it may be damaged seriously. For its effective conservation and preservation, we hope that UNESCO and Government will schedule special care and budget and join the list of Memory of the Word Register. Dongui-Bogam is the most comprehensive and well-written medical book in the Korean history, summarizing all medical books in Korea and China from the Ancient Times through the early 17th century and concentrating on Korean herb medicine and prescriptions. It is proved as the best clinical guidebook in the 17th century for doctors and practitioners to easily use. The book was also published in China and Japan in the 18th century and greatly influenced the development of practical clinic and medical research in Asia at that time. This is why Dongui Bogam is in the wish list to register to the Memory of the World. Samguk-Yusa is evaluated as one of the most comprehensive history books and treasure sources in Korea, which illustrates foundations of Korean people and covers histories and cultures of ancient Korean peninsula and nearby countries. The book contains the oldest fixed form verse, called Hyang-Ka(鄕歌), and became the origin of Korean literature. In particular, the section of Gi-ee(紀異篇) describes the historical processes of dynasty transition from the first dynasty Gochosun(古朝鮮) to Goguryeo(高句麗) and illustrates the identity of Korean people from its historical origin. This book is worthy of adding to the Memory of the World Register. Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong is the oldest book printed by wooden type plates, and it is estimated to print in between 706 and 751. It contains several reasons and evidence to be worthy of adding to the list of the Memory of the World. It is the greatest documentary heritage that represents the first wooden printing book that still exists in the world as well as illustrates the history of wooden printing in Korea.

4 Weeks Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity Studies with LMK02-Jangwonhwan in SD Rats (LMK02의 Sprague-Dawley 랫드를 이용한 4 주간 반복 경구투여 DRF 독성시험)

  • Lyu, Yeoung-Su;Kim, Ji-Hwon;Park, Hyun-Je;Yi, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Jong-Hwa;Kang, Hyung-Won
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.1034-1041
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    • 2010
  • The oriental medicine Jangwonhwan, which is a boiled extract of 12 medicinal herbs/mushroom, has been prescribed for patients with cognitive dysfunction and it is originally from the Korean medical text, DonguiBogam(amnesia chapter). Recently, a modified recipe of Jangwonhwan (LMK02-Jangwonhwan) consisting of seven medicinal plants/mushroom, was shown to reduce ${\beta}$-amyloid deposition in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer disease. The toxicity of LMK02 was investigated in SD rats by oral repeated adminstration for 4 weeks and we tried to determine test does for 13 weeks repeated study. Quality control of tablet form of LMK02 was established by estimating indicative components, Ginsenoside Rg3 of Red Ginseng and Decursin of Angelicagigas Nakai. The toxicity of LMK02 was investigated in 6 weeks old specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprageu-Dawley rats by oral administration. Each test group were consist of 5 male and 5 female and they received doses of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day of test substance for 4 weeks. The clinical signs, death rate, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematological and serum biochemistry, organ weight and pathological changes were examined and compared with those of control group. Urinalysis : We observed increase of PRO(p<0.01), SG(p<0.01) in female rats of 1,000 mg/kg/day and 2,000 mg/kg/day(p<0.01). Also, we observed increase of pH and KET in female rats of 1,000 mg/kg/day(p<0.05) and of 2,000 mg/kg/day(p<0.01). WBC in female rats in 1,000 mg/kg/day and 2,000 mg/kg/day were on increase. Hematological test : We observed increase of MCV in male rats of 250 mg/kg/day. (p<0.05) Serum biochemistry test : We found increase of CHO in female rats of 2,000 mg/kg/day(p<0.05). During the experimental period, there were no animals dead or moribund. There were no treatment related changes of general symptom, food and water consumption, organ weight and autopsy According to the results of 4-week repeated dose range finding study, the highest dose was established as 1000 mg/kg for 13-week repeated dose toxicity study and we determined to put 2 more groups by common ratio two.

13 weeks repeated oral dose toxicity studies with LMK02-Jangwonhwan in SD rats (LMK02의 Sprague-Dawley 랫드를 이용한 13 주간 반복 경구투여 독성시험)

  • Kang, Hyung-Won;Jang, Hyun-Ho;Park, Jang-Ho;Kim, Tae-Heon;Lyu, Yeoung-Su
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.99-120
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The oriental medicine Jangwonhwan, a boiled extract of 12 medicinal herbs/mushrooms, has been prescribed to patients with cognitive dysfunction, as originally described in the Korean medical text, DonguiBogam(amnesia chapter). Recently, a modified formula of Jangwonhwan (LMK02-Jangwonhwan) consisting of seven medicinal plants/mushrooms, was shown to reduce the ${\beta}$-amyloid deposition in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. The toxicity of LMK02-Jangwonhwan was investigated in SD rats, by a daily oral administration for 13 weeks and NOAEL(No observed adverse effect dose), a definite toxic dose and target organ, as well. Methods : Quality control of the tablet form of LMK02-Jangwonhwan was established by estimating the indicative components, Ginsenoside Rg3 of Red Ginseng and Decursin of Angelicagigas Nakai. The toxicity of LMK02-Jangwonhwan was investigated in 6 week old, specific pathogen free (SPF), Sprageu-Dawley rats by oral administration. Each test group consisted of 10 male and 10 female rats. The groups received doses of 500, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg/day of test substance for 13 weeks. The clinical signs, death rate, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematological and serum biochemistry, organ weight and pathological changes were examined and compared with those of the control group. Results : The 13-week repeated oral treatment doses didn't result in any specific symptoms or death. There were no significant changes in the rat's weight and food consumption. Further, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematological, serum biochemistry test and organ weight revealed no significant differences. Conclusions : The no-observed-adverse-effect level(NOAEL) of LMK02 for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was determined as 2,000mg/kg/day and the target organ wasn't confirmed. Because no significant adverse effects were observed, the target organ could not be determined.

Pre-treatment of the White-Spotted Flower Chafer (Protaetia brevitarsis) as an Ingredient for Novel Foods (흰점박이꽃무지(Protaetia brevitarsis)의 식품원료화를 위한 전처리 조건 확립)

  • Kwon, Eun-Young;Yoo, Jeongmi;Yoon, Young-Il;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Goo, Tae-Won;Kim, Mi-Ae;Choi, Young-Cheol;Yun, Eun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 2013
  • The pharmacological efficacy of Protaetia (P.) brevitarsis larvae has been described in the Dongui Bogam. It is believed that the larvae are particularly useful for hepatic disorders. However, natural aversion has made it difficult to consume these larvae as food. Thus, we sought to make an eatable form of the larvae by establishing optimal conditions for larvae preparation. Larvae were selectively bred, sterilized, and a powder of larvae generated by freeze-drying. Afterward, the CellTiter $96^{(R)}$ AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) with the RAW 264.7 cell line was used to validate the safety of the powder as a food ingredient. We determined that oak sawdust sterilized by water vapor for 5 minutes could be used for larvae feed, and a feeding for 3~5 days followed by a fasting for 3 days were optimal conditions for larvae preparation. In addition, sterilization of larvae at $115^{\circ}C$ and $0.9kgf/cm^3$ (to avoid contamination of pathogenic bacteria and fungi) was successfully applied in the production of edible powder from P. brevitarsis. The optimized processes established in our experiments can be used in the industrial production of P. brevitarsis as a food ingredient.