• Title, Summary, Keyword: Distillers By-products

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The Apparent Digestibility of Corn By-products for Growing-finishing Pigs In vivo and In vitro

  • Guo, Liang;Piao, Xiangshu;Li, Defa;Li, Songyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2004
  • Two trials in vivo and in vitro were conducted, in vivo to determine the apparent digestibility of gross energy, crude protein, dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and apparent digestible energy in 10 corn by-products. In vivo the diets included one basal corn diet, four corn gluten meal diets, four corn distillers dried grains with solubles diets and two corn distillers dried grains diets using the different methods, 12 crossbred barrows weigh $40{\pm}$1.6 kg were allocated into individual metabolic crate, according to a $6{\times}6$ Latin square design. In vitro using flask technique, filter bag technique and dialysis tubing technique, the digestibilities of gross energy, crude protein and dry matter in corn gluten meal and corn distillers dried grains with solubles were investigated. Pepsin, pancreatin, intestinal fluid, rumen fluid and cellulase were used in incubation. The results showed that correlation coefficient was 0.73 in corn distillers dried grains with solubles between the digestibility of crude protein and acid detergent fiber in vivo (p<0.01); and correlation coefficient was 0.68 in corn distillers dried grains with solubles between the digestibility of gross energy and neutral detergent fiber in vivo (p<0.01). Apparent digestible energy (DE) of corn by-products in pig total tract was predicted by the percentage of crude protein (CP) and the content of gross energy (GE) in feedstuff. The equation: DE=5,601.09+26.69$\times$CP %-0.5904$\times$GE, ($R^2=0.72$). In vitro, filter bag technique was more convenient; furthermore, the digestibility for the treatments (pepsin+pancreatin+rumen fluid and pepsin+pancreatin+cellulase) was better.

Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

  • Kim, Ill Young;Ahn, Gyu Chul;Kwak, Hyung Jun;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Sang Suk;Kim, Jeong Hoon;Park, Keun Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.632-638
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    • 2015
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months ($495.1{\pm}91kg$) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up to 20% in TMR did not show any negative effect on the performance of Hanwoo steers.

In situ ruminal degradation characteristics of dry matter and crude protein from dried corn, high-protein corn, and wheat distillers grains

  • Lee, Y.H.;Ahmadi, F.;Choi, D.Y.;Kwak, W.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.9
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    • pp.33.1-33.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: The continuing growth of the ethanol industry has generated large amounts of various distillers grains co-products. These are characterized by a wide variation in chemical composition and ruminal degradability. Therefore, their precise formulation in the ruminant diet requires the systematic evaluation of their degradation profiles in the rumen. Methods: Three distillers grains plus soluble co-products (DDGS) namely, corn DDGS, high-protein corn DDGS (HP-DDGS), and wheat DDGS, were subjected to an in situ trial to determine the degradation kinetics of the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). Soybean meal (SBM), a feed with highly degradable protein in the rumen, was included as the fourth feed. The four feeds were incubated in duplicate at each time point in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated Hanwoo cattle for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Results: Wheat DDGS had the highest filterable and soluble A fraction of its DM (37.2 %), but the lowest degradable B (49.5 %; P < 0.001) and an undegradable C fraction (13.3 %; P < 0.001). The filterable and soluble A fraction of CP was greatest with wheat DDGS, intermediate with corn DDGS, and lowest with HP-DDGS and SBM; however, the undegradable C fraction of CP was the greatest with HP-DDGS (41.2 %), intermediate with corn DDGS (2.7 %), and lowest with wheat DDGS and SMB (average 4.3 %). The degradation rate of degradable B fraction ($%\;h^{-1}$) was ranked from highest to lowest as follows for 1) DM: SBM (13.3), wheat DDGS (9.1), and corn DDGS and HP-DDGS (average 5.2); 2) CP: SBM (17.6), wheat DDGS (11.6), and corn DDGS and HP-DDGS (average 4.4). The in situ effective degradability of CP, assuming a passage rate of $0.06h^{-1}$, was the highest (P < 0.001) for SBM (73.9 %) and wheat DDGS (71.2 %), intermediate for corn DDGS (42.5 %), and the lowest for HP-DDGS (28.6 %), which suggests that corn DDGS and HP-DDGS are a good source of undegraded intake protein for ruminants. Conclusions: This study provided a comparative estimate of ruminal DM and CP degradation characteristics for three DDGS co-products and SBM, which might be useful for their inclusion in the diet according to the ruminally undegraded to degraded intake protein ratio.

Studies on the production of Vinegar from Koryangju Distillers′ Grain (고량주박초 제조에 관한 연구)

  • 김해중;조재선
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 1981
  • In order to utilize the Koryangju distillers' grain for the acetic acid fermentation, the extracting methods and effects of the extracts on the fermentations were investigated. The result obtained are as follows. 1. Cold extracting method by which the distillers grain is extracted with 3 times of water for 60 hours at room temperature was better than hot extracting method in terms of the fermentation rate and the quality of vinegar product. 2. Optimum conditions and some results of surface fermentation based on the medium added by the extracts are as follows, optimum amount of the extracts to be added to the medium is 20-30% of total media; acetic acid production rate at log phase was 0.16g/100$m\ell$, hr.; recovery was 91.17%; and the time of 40 hours was required for the completion of fermentation. 3. Organoleptic quality of the vinegar which is produced by adding the extracts was superior to two commercial products examined.

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Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

  • Ahn, Gyu Chul;Kwak, Hyung Jun;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Jang, Sun Sik;Lee, Sang Suk;Park, Keun Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.530-538
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    • 2016
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months ($641{\pm}123kg$) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not different among treatments except the albumin concentration. In carcass characteristics, WDG 15 (30%) showed higher frequency of A-carcass yield grade than WDG 28 (15%) and control (7%), and WDG 28 (61%) showed higher frequency of $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$-carcass quality grade than WDG 15 (40%) and control (60%). In conclusion, using WDG up to 28% in TMR did not show any negative effect on the performance and blood metabolites, and improved carcass quality of Hanwoo steers. Therefore, WDG can be a useful feed ingredient for Hanwoo steers in mid-fattening period to slaughter.

Effects of Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract on In Situ Degradation of Feedstuffs

  • Chiou, P.W.S.;Chen, C.;Yu, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1076-1083
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    • 2000
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AFE) on in situ degradation of the various concentrates, forages and by-products in Taiwan. The in situ trial was conducted to determine the effect of AFE on the rate of ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of the various local available feedstuff commonly used for dairy cattle. Two ruminal fistulated cows were arranged into a two by two switchback trial. Two dietary treatments were control without AFE inclusion diet and diet with 3 g of AFE (Amaferm) added daily into the total mixed ration (TMR). Results showed that effect of AFE inclusion on the ruminal degradability of concentrates vary; soybean meal is the most responsive feedstuff, corn is the next, whereas full-fat soybean did not response the AFE inclusion at all. The inclusion of AFE significantly depressed most of the nutrient degradation of the concentrates of soybean meal in the first 12-hour in situ incubation. The effect declined in the next 12 hours. Rapeseed meal showed a different trend of response: addition of AFE improved its NDF degradation. The inclusions of AFE significantly improved ADF degradation of roughage after 24 or 48 hours of incubation. However, corn silage and peanut-vines showed a different trend. Effects of AFE inclusion on the by-products degradability were inconsistent. Most of nutrients in rice distillers grain and some in beancurd pomace did show increased degradation by the AFE inclusion.

Investigating Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Fed on Heat Processed Diets Containing Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

  • Shim, YoungHo;Kim, JinSoo;Hosseindoust, Abdolreza;Choi, YoHan;Kim, MinJu;Oh, SeungMin;Ham, HyungBin;Kumar, Alip;Kim, KwangYeol;Jang, Aera;Chae, ByungJo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.629-635
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    • 2018
  • The present study investigated the effects of feed form and distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality and fatty acids profile of broiler chickens. A total of 720 broilers (Ross 308; average BW [body weight] $541{\pm}5.7g$) were randomly allotted to six treatments. Birds were fed three different feed forms (mash; SP, simple pellet; EP, expanded pellet) and DDGS (0 or $200g\;kg^{-1}$) in a $3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. The addition of DDGS and EP to the diet resulted in increased shear force of breast meat. Moreover, DDGS inclusion in the diet reduced the concentration of stearic acid and behenic acid in thigh meat. Pelleting (SP and EP) of the diets increased palmitic acid content in the thigh, whereas the linolenic acid content decreased. The breast mass was higher with EP and SP diets than with the mash diet. Feed processing led to increased pectoralis muscle and drum mass compared to mash-fed chickens. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that EP decreased thigh linolenic acid and meat shear force. In addition, DDGS supplementation in broiler hampers meat quality by increasing the shear force.

Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

  • Lopez-Soto, M.A.;Rivera-Mendez, C.R.;Aguilar-Hernandez, J.A.;Barreras, A.;Calderon-Cortes, J.F.;Plascencia, A.;Davila-Ramos, H.;Estrada-Angulo, A.;Valdes-Garcia, Y.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2014
  • As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers ($213{\pm}4$ kg) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, p<0.05). Ruminal digestion of OM, starch and feed N were not affected by urea combination or S:F ratio. The urea combination did not affect ADF ruminal digestion. ADF ruminal digestion decreased linearly (p = 0.02) as the S:F ratio increased. Compared to the urea treatment (p<0.05) and within the urea combination treatment (quadratic, p<0.01), the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN) to the small intestine and ruminal microbial efficiency were greater for the urea combination at a S:F ratio of 4.5. Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved (2.8%, p = 0.02) postruminal N digestion. As S:F ratio increased, OM digestion increased, but ADF total tract digestion decreased. The combination of urea at 4.5 S:F improved (2%, p = 0.04) the digestible energy (DE) more than expected. Combining urea and Optigen resulted in positive effects on the MN flow and DE of the diet, but apparently these advantages are observed only when there is a certain proportion of starch:ADF in the diet.

Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn Grain and Soybean Meal with Agricultural By-Product Feeds on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Optimum Levels of Mixing Ratio (농산부산물을 이용한 In Vitro 반추위발효 특성 및 적정 배합수준을 통한 옥수수 및 대두박 대체 효과)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Lim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Bum;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Hyun-June;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Cho, Won-Mo;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.441-450
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of partial replacement of corn grain and soybean meal with agricultural by-product feeds on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and optimum levels of mixing ratio. The agricultural by-products to examine the effectiveness of the partial replacement of concentrate were wheat bran, corn gluten feed, bakery waste, soybean curd, rice bran, green kernel rice, soybean hull, distillers' grain, and mushroom substrate. In the first experiment, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of feedstuffs were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after incubation. In the second experiment, fermentation characteristics were investigated with green kernel rice and soybean curd which replaced corn grain or soybean meal. Feed were formulated with 40% corn grain + 20% soybean meal (T1), 40% corn grain + 17.5% soybean meal + 2.5% soybean curd (T2), 25% corn grain + 20% soybean meal + 15% green kernel rice (T3), and 30% corn grain + 15% soybean meal + 6% green kernel rice + 9% soybean curd (T4), respectively, with forage source of 10% alfalfa hay, 20% timothy hay, and 10% corn silage as fed-basis. In 24 and 48 hour cultivations, T4 showed significantly lower pH compared to T1, whereas in 3 and 24 hour cultivations, T4 showed significantly higher DM degradation compared to T1. In addition, the gas production of T3 was also higher than T1 (p<0.05). Overall results of the present experiments indicated that green kernel rice and soybean curd as agricultural by-products have the possibility of partial replacements of corn grain and soybean meal.