• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dissolved organic carbon

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Dissolved Organic Matters Characteristics in Freshwater

  • Park, Je-Chul;Oh, Young-Taek;Bae, Sang-Deuk;Ryu, Dong-Kyeong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.26-26
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of dissolved orgamc matters based on their origins. The dissolved organic carbon(DOC) represents an index for dissolved organic matter and basically regarded as a source of organic pollution. The monthly variations and vertical profiles of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) in Kumoh reservoir were surveyed from May 2001 to April 2002. In addition, other areas such as river, reservoir, sewage and industrial wastewater were also surveyed in summer 2001. Kumoh reservoir was divided with depth into three layers .: epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion. The proportion of total DOC(T-DOC) was classified by labile DOC(L-DOC) and refractory DOC(R-DOC) on the basis of long-term incubation. DOC of freshwater and Kumoh reservoir was ranged to be 1.6~4.1 mgC/L and 2.1~4.0 mgC/L, respectively. L-DOC accounted for 3~30% of DOC from watershed. Therefore, refractory dissolved organic carbon(R-DOC) was major component of DOC in the watershed. The decomposition rate(k) ranged from 0.008 $d^{-1}$ to 0.083 $d^{-1}$ in Kumoh reservoir. The highest decomposition rate(k) was observed at River Hoein III freshwater. Therefore, modified total organic carbon analyzer is needed to be applied for effective management of dissolved organic matter.

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Runoff Characteristics of Refractory Organic Matters from Kyongan River Watershed during Rainfall Event and Dry Season (경안천 유역의 강우 시, 비 강우 시 난분해성 유기물질 유출 특성)

  • Kim, Taewon;Gil, Kyungik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.397-404
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    • 2011
  • This research investigates the runoff characteristics of refractory organic matters from Kyongan river watershed. Samples were taken 27 times during dry season, 4 times during rain events and analyzed into flow rate, Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon (R-DOC), Refractory Particulate Organic Carbon (R-POC). R-DOC during dry season was the lowest in winter and showed a rising tendency in spring and R-POC changes less than R-DOC. The mass loading of Refractory Total Organic Carbon (R-TOC) in summer takes approximately 80% of 1 year mass loading. During rainy season, EMC of R-DOC was similar to R-DOC in dry season. But maximum EMC of R-POC was 12 times higher than that of R-POC in dry season. Results of the survey show that enhanced management of R-DOC in dry season and R-POC in rainy season is needed.

Molecular Weight Distribution Characterization of Organics for the Dongbok Lake Water by Coagulation and Adsorption of Activated Carbon (동복 호소수의 응집침전 및 활성탄 흡착에 의한 용존유기물 분자량 분포 특성)

  • 정경훈;최형일
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.104-111
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    • 1998
  • The Dongbok lake water before and after alum coagulation and activated carbon adsorption were analyzed in terms of organic contents, molecular weight distributuin (MWD), and UV-absorbance. Dissolved organic compounds in the Dongbok lake were fractionated into three molecular size classes by gel permeation chromatography. The fractionation was reasonably successful in isolating compounds with The bulk of the dissolved carbon was present in compounds of molecular weight in the range of 3,000~10,000. Alum coagulation preferentially treated molecules of high molecular weight, which has molecules larger than 10,000. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal after activated carbon adsorption was high in the Fraction B , IR . The $A_{260}$/DOC ratio after alum and activated carbon treatment the Fraction II, III. This results suggest that the organics remaining after each treatment has a trihalomethane formation potential

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Global Increases in Dissolved Organic Carbon in Rivers and Their Implications

  • Kang, Ho-Jeong;Jang, In-Young;Freeman, Chris
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.453-458
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    • 2010
  • DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) is an operational terminology for organic carbon molecules dissolved in natural waters. DOC has been studied by ecologists extensively, because it plays a key role in various ecological functions such as substrates for secondary production and the carbon cycle. DOC also represents a substrate for microbial growth within potable water distribution systems, and can react with disinfectants (e.g., chloride) to form harmful disinfection by-products. In addition, residual DOC may carry with it organically bound toxic heavy metals. DOC in aquatic ecosystems may ultimately be transported to the oceans, or released back to the atmosphere by heterotrophic respiration, which can accelerate global climate change. There is evidence that DOC concentrations in aquatic ecosystems are increasing in many regions of the world including Europe, North America, and even in Korea. Land use changes, elevated temperature, elevated $CO_2$, recovery from acidification, and nitrogen deposition have been proposed as mechanisms for the trend. However, the key driving mechanism is yet to be conclusively determined. We propose that more extensive and longer-term observations, research of chemical properties of DOC, impacts of elevated DOC on environmental issues and interdisciplinary approaches are warranted as future studies to fill the gaps in our knowledge about DOC dynamics.

Biological stability in the ozone and peroxone pretreatment systems in river water (하천수 내 생물학적 안정성에 따른 유기물 특성변화와 오존산화기반 전처리 연구)

  • Park, Se-Hee;Noh, Jin-Hyung;Park, Ji-Won;Maeng, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2018
  • Climate change is believed to increase the amount of dissolved organic matter in surface water, as a result of the release of bulk organic matter, which make difficult to achieve a high quality of drinking water via conventional water treatment techniques. Therefore, the natural water treatment techniques, such as managed aquifer recharge (MAR), can be proposed as a alternative method to improve water quality greatly. Removal of bulk organic matter using managed aquifer recharge system is mainly achieved by biodegradation. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) can be used as water quality indicators for biological stability of drinking water. In this study, we compared the change of BDOC and AOC with respect to pretreatment methods (i.e., ozone or peroxone). The oxidative pretreatment can transform the recalcitrant organic matter into readily biodegradable one (i.e., BDOC and AOC). We also investigated the differences of organic matter characteristics between BDOC and AOC. We observed the decreases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the tryptophan-like fluorescence intensities. Liquid chromatographic - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis also showed the reduction of the low molecular weight (LMW) fraction (15% removed, less than 500 Da), which is known to be easily biodegradable, and the biopolymers, high molecular weight fractions (66%). Therefore, BDOC consists of a broad range of organic matter characteristics with respect to molecular weight. In AOC, low molecular weight organic matter and biopolymers fraction was reduced by 11 and 6%, respectively. It confirmed that biodegradation by microorganisms as the main removal mechanism in AOC, while BDOC has biodegradation by microorganism as well as the sorption effects from the sand. $O_3$ and $O_3+H_2O_2$ were compared with respect to biological stability and dissolved organic matter characteristics. BDOC and AOC were determined to be about 1.9 times for $O_3$ and about 1.4 times for $O_3+H_2O_2$. It was confirmed that $O_3$ enhanced the biodegradability by increasing LMW dissolved organic matter.

Distributions and Sources of Dissolved Organic Matter in Seawaters Surrounding Aqua Farms on the Haengwon-ri in Jeju-Island in Summer 2015 (2015년 하계 제주 행원리 일대 양식장주변 해수 중 용존유기물 분포와 기원)

  • Kim, Jeonghyun;Kim, Tae-Hoon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2017
  • Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved organic phosphate (DOP), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured in the coastal sea off inland aqua farms in northeastern Jeju Island in summer 2015. The highest concentrations of DOC, DON, and DOP were revealed in the surface water off Hado-ri where the lowest salinity conditions prevailed (31.6). The concentrations of DOC, DON, and DOP in the surface water were lower in the inner stations (SH1-1, 1-2, and 1-3) near the aqua farms of the Haengwon-ri than in the outer stations. The concentrations of DOC, DON, and DOP negatively correlated with salinity. These results indicate that the contribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the aqua farms seems to be not significant. On the other hand, the higher concentrations of DON and DOP in the inner stations of Hado-ri (HD 1-1) seem to be attributed to excrement of migrating birds. The three components of CDOM (T, M, and C peaks) showed no relationship with salinity, perhaps due to various in situ productions by marine organisms and decomposition by ultraviolet radiation. The observed lower C:M ratio, an indicator of terrestrial source, and the higher biological index (BIX) of CDOM in the station off Hado-ri indicate that DOM is produced mainly by biological activity. Based on the higher humification index (HIX) of CDOM and the higher DOC:DON ratio off Haengwon-ri, refractory DOM in the inland aqua farms is likely transported to the coastal sea.

Distribution of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon in the East China Sea in Summer (하계 동중국해에서의 용존 및 입자유기탄소의 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Soo-Kang;Choi, Young-Chan;Kim, Jin-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted around the southwest sea areas of Jeju and coastal sea areas of China in August 2003 and September 2004 to research distribution patterns of dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon. Distribution patterns of nutrients in the East China Sea in summer were shown to be influenced by water masses and phytoplankton. Water masses in the East China Sea in summer, except for coastal sea areas of china, showed less vertical mixing process, causing decline in the inflow of nutrients to surface water. Bottom water, however, showed high concentration, since nutrients made by dissolved organic matters from surface water were accumulated at the bottom. Sea areas with high concentration of chlorophyll a showed low concentration of nutrients and vice versa, indicating biological activities control dissolved inorganic nutrients. The distribution of dissolved organic carbon didn't show any correlation with salinity, temperatures, and water masses. Areas around the river mouth of the Changjiang showed high concentration of dissolved organic carbon more than $100{\mu}M$, but relatively low concentration in the southwest sea areas of Jeju, indicating that the river mouth of the Changjiang coastal water has a great influence on dissolved organic carbon in the East China Sea. Distribution patterns of particulate organic carbon in the research areas showed the highest concentration of average $9.23{\mu}M$ in coastal areas of China influenced by the river mouth of the Changjiang coastal water. By comparison, the concentration was relatively low at $3.04{\mu}M$ in the southeast sea areas of Jeju on which the Taiwan warm current has influence, and was $7.23{\mu}M$ in the central sea areas of Jeju. Thus, there is much indication that the river mouth of the Changjiang coastal water serves as a supplier of particulate organic carbon along with autogenous source. In general, if particulate organic carbon has a high correlation with the concentration of Chlorophyll a, it is thought that it is originated from autogenous source. However, the southeast sea areas of Jeju shows low salinity below 30, therefore it is proper to think that its origin is terrestrial source rather than that of autogenesis.

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Evaluation of Pretreatment Processes for Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal in a Desalination Process (해수담수화에서 용존유기물을 제거하기 위한 전처리 공정의 평가)

  • Kim, Woo-Hang;Mitsumasa, Okada
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.447-451
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    • 2004
  • The various pretreatment processes were evaluated to remove organic pollutants of weathered oil contaminated seawater(WOCS) for reverse osmosis desalination process, Biodegradation, coagulation, ultrafiltration, advanced oxidation processes and granular activated carbon filtration were used to evaluate the potential of organic pollutants removal in WOCS. Dissolved Organic Carbon(DOC) was almost not removed by biodegradation in WOCS. DOC was removed by 25% and 10% with the addition of $FeCl_3$ and PAC in WOCS, respectively. The removal efficiency using ultrafiltration(WOCS 500) was about 20% of DOC and 40% of $E_{260}$, respectively. In AOP application of WOCS, the removal of organic materials was improved up to 60% by the combination of $UV/O_3$ compared to UV process. However, 98% of DOC in woes could be removed by granular activated carbon filtration. It is revealed that activated carbon filtration is the best process for the pretratment of DOC removal.

Analysis of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Characteristics in the Geum River (금강 수계 자연유기물 특성 분석)

  • Yu, Soon-Ju;Kim, Chang-Soo;Ha, Sung-Ryong;Hwang, Jong-Yeon;Chae, Min-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2005
  • Natural organic matter(NOM) is defined as the complex matrix of organic material and abundant in natural waters. It affects the performance of unit operations for water purification. Several kinds of analytical indicators such as DOC, specific ultraviolet absorbance(SUVA), apparent molecular weight (AMW), fractionation and high performance size exclusive chromatography(HPSEC) have been used to understand characteristics and variations of NOM. This study aims to evaluate the characteristics of NOM in the Geum River system comprising with stream flows and reservoirs. It was identified that SUVA denoting the portion of humic substance in water ranged within 1.60~3.36. Using resin adsorbents, dissolved organic carbon(DOC) was fractionated into three classes: hydrophobic bases(HOB), hydrophobic acids(HOA) and hydrophilic substances(HI). HI dominates in all samples, collectively accounting for more than 62% of the DOC. HOA was the second dominated fraction and it varied considerably but accounted for about 30% of the DOC. The distribution of high molecular weight(HMW) measured by HPSEC being used to determine the molecular weight distribution of aquatic humic substances was 40.1% and 38.7% in reservoir and stream flow, respectively. The distribution of low molecular weight(LMW) in stream flow was 13.2% higher than that in reservoir. And apparent molecular weight less than 1KDa, which include the molecular weight of hydrophilic organic matter, occupied with 69.2% and 68.2% in stream flow and reservoir, respectively. While the molecular weight of 1 to 100 KDa including humic substances ranged with 18.6% and 21.6% in stream flow and reservoir, respectively. Seasonal variation of refractory dissolved organic carbon was similar to that of SUVA.

The Removal Characteristics of Organic Matter in Drinking Water Source by Coagulation and Ultrafiltration Process (응집 및 한외여과 공정에 의한 상수원수의 유기물질 제거 특성)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sik;Lim, Ji-Young;Kim, Jin-Han
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.5-10
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    • 2018
  • This study was evaluated the characteristics of organic materials in the water source and the removal characteristics of organic materials by ultrafiltration including mixing and coagulation process. As a results of the study, it was found that the total organic carbon in the water source was mostly caused by the dissolved organic materials. As the specific ultraviolet absorbance value of the raw water was low, we found the soluble organic material has a high hydrophilic and low molecular material composition ratio. As a result of ultrafiltration experiment including mixing and coagulation process, the average removal rate of total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 were 37.9%, 30.3%, and 28.2%, respectively.