• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dissociative Electron Attachment

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Effect of Low-Energy Electron Irradiation on DNA Damage by Cu2+ Ion

  • Noh, Hyung-Ah;Park, Yeunsoo;Cho, Hyuck
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2017
  • Background: The combined effect of the low energy electron (LEE) irradiation and $Cu^{2+}$ ion on DNA damage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized pBR322 plasmid DNA films with various concentrations (1-15 mM) of $Cu^{2+}$ ion were independently irradiated by monochromatic LEEs with 5 eV. The types of DNA damage, single strand break (SSB) and double strand break (DSB), were separated and quantified by gel electrophoresis. Results and Discussion: Without electron irradiation, DNA damage was slightly increased with increasing Cu ion concentration via Fenton reaction. LEE-induced DNA damage, with no Cu ion, was only 6.6% via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process. However, DNA damage was significantly increased through the combined effect of LEE-irradiation and Cu ion, except around 9 mM Cu ion. The possible pathways of DNA damage for each of these different cases were suggested. Conclusion: The combined effect of LEE-irradiation and Cu ion is likely to cause increasing dissociation after elevated transient negative ion state, resulting in the enhanced DNA damage. For the decrease of DNA damage at around 9-mM Cu ion, it is assumed to be related to the structural stabilization due to DNA inter- and intra-crosslinks via Cu ion.

XPS STUDY ON DNA DAMAGE BY LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON IRRADIATION

  • Noh, Hyung-Ah;Cho, Hyuck
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.190-194
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    • 2011
  • After the first report that electrons with sub-ionization energy of DNA could cause single strand breaks or double strand breaks to DNA, there have been various studies to investigate the mechanisms of DNA damage by low-energy electrons. In this paper, we examined the possibility of using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to analyze the dissociation patterns of the molecular bonds by electron irradiation on DNA thin films and tried to establish the method as a general tool for studying the radiation damage of biomolecules by low energ yelectrons. For the experiment, pBR322 plasmid DNA solution was formed into the films on tantalum plates by lyophilization and was irradiated by 5-eV electrons. Un-irradiated and irradiated DNA films were compared and analyzed using the XPS technique.

XPS STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON IRRADIATION ON DNA DAMAGE BY Fe3+ ION

  • Noh, Hyung-Ah;Park, Yeun-Soo;Cho, Hyuck
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2015
  • We have employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique to examine the combined effects of low-energy electron (LEE) irradiation and $Fe^{3+}$ ion on DNA damage. pBR322 plasmid DNA extracted from E. coli ER2420 was used for preparing DNA-$Fe^{3+}$ sample. The C1s XPS spectra were scanned for LEE-irradiated and LEE-unirradiated samples and then curve-fitted. For the samples with LEE irradiation only or with Fe ion only, no significant changes from pure DNA samples were observed - a single effect of either $Fe^{3+}$ ion or LEE irradiation did not cause a significant damage. However, when these two components were combined, the DNA damage was increased quite significantly, compared to the sum of DNA damages caused by $Fe^{3+}$ ion and by LEE irradiation independently. This observation is consistent with our previous results [Radiat. Res. 177, 775 (2012)] which was done using gel-electrophoresis technique. Partial interpretation of the observed spectrum peaks was also attempted.

Dissociation of Thymine by Low-Energy Electrons

  • Cho, Hyuck;Noh, Hyung-Ah
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2020
  • Background: There have been various studies to investigate the mechanisms of DNA damage from low-energy electrons. To understand the mechanism of these strand breaks, it is necessary to investigate the dissociation mechanism of the DNA constituents, that is, bases, sugars, and phosphates. Materials and Methods: We studied the dissociation of thymine base upon interaction with low-energy electrons. For this experiment, thymine powder was pressed onto the indium base and irradiated by 5 eV electrons. Results and Discussion: Non-irradiated and irradiated thymine samples were compared and analyzed using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic technique to analyze the dissociation patterns of the molecular bonds after low-energy electron irradiation of thymine. Conclusion: With 5 eV electron irradiation, C-C and N-C = O bonds are the primary dissociations that occur in thymine molecules.

Theoretical Studies of the Electrical Discharge Characteristics of Sulfur Hexafluoride

  • Radmilovic-Radjenovic, Marija;Radjenovic, Branislav
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.288-294
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    • 2017
  • This paper contains results of the theoretical studies of the electrical breakdown properties in sulfur hexafluoride. Since the strong interaction of high-energy electrons with the polyatomic sulfur hexafluoride molecule causes their rapid deceleration to the lower energy of electron capture and dissociative attachment, the breakdown is only possible at relatively high field strengths. From the breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields that characterize secondary electron productions have been estimated. Values of the effective yields are found to be more consistent if they are derived from the experimentally determined values of the ionization coefficient and the breakdown voltages. In addition, simulations were performed using an one-dimensional Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision code. The obtained simulation results agree well with the available experimental data with an error margin of less than 10% over a wide range of pressures and the gap sizes. The differences between measurements and calculations can be attributed to the differences between simulation and experimental conditions. Simulation results are also compared with the theoretical predictions obtained by using expression that describes linear dependence of the breakdown voltage in sulfur hexafluoride on the pressure and the gap size product.

DNA Damage by X-ray and Low Energy Electron Beam Irradiation (X선과 저에너지 전자선에 의한 DNA 손상)

  • Park, Yeun-Soo;Noh, Hyung-Ah;Cho, Hyuck;Dumont, Ariane;Ptasinska, Sylwia;Bass, Andrew D.;Sanche, Leon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2008
  • We observed DNA damages as a function of mean absorbed dose to identify the indirect effect of high-energy radiation such as x-ray. Monolayer films of lyophilized pGEM-3Zf(-) plasmid DNA deposited on tantalum foils were exposed to Al $K{\alpha}$ X-ray (1.5 keV) for 0, 3, 7 and 10 min, respectively, in a condition of ultrahigh vacuum state. We compared DNA damages by X-ray irradiation with those by 3 eV electron irradiation. X-ray photons produced low-energy electrons (mainly below 20 eV) from the tantalum foils and DNA damage was induced chiefly by these electrons. For electron beam irradiation, DNA damage was directly caused by 3 eV electrons. Irradiated DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and quantified by ImagaQuant program. The quantities of remained supercoiled DNA after irradiation were linearly decreased as a function of mean absorbed dose. On the other hand, the yields of nicked circular (single strand break, SSB) and interduplex crosslinked form 1 DNA were linearly increased as a function of mean absorbed dose. From this study, it was confirmed that DNA damage was also induced by low energy electrons ($0{\sim}10\;eV$) even below threshold energies for the ionization of DNA.

Decomposition of Chlorinated Methane by Thermal Plasma (열플라즈마에 의한 클로로메탄의 분해)

  • Kim, Zhen Shu;Park, Dong Wha
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2007
  • The decomposition of chlorinated methanes including $CCl_4$, $CCl_3H$, and $CCl_2H_2$ was carried out using a thermal plasma process and the characteristics of the process were investigated. The thermal equilibrium composition was analyzed with temperature by Fcatsage program. The decomposition rates at various process parameters including the concentration of reactants, flow rate of carrier gas, and quenching rate, were evaluated, where sufficiently high conversion over 92% was achieved. The generation of main products was strongly influenced by the reaction atmosphere; carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen chloride at neutral condition; carbon dioxide, chlorine, and hydrogen chloride at oxidative condition. The decomposition mechanism was speculated considering the results from Factsage and the identification of generated radicals and ionic species. The main decomposition pathways were found to be dissociative electron attachment and oxidative by radicals formed in a plasma state.