• Title/Summary/Keyword: Disposal capacity

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The Status and Experiences of LILW Disposal Facility Construction (경주 중·저준위방사성폐기물 처분시설 시공사례 및 현황)

  • Shin, Younglim;Lee, Jongwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents the status and experiences of Low and Intermediate-level radioactive Waste(LILW) disposal facility in Korea. The LILW disposal facility of 800,000 drums (200 L/drum) is being constructed in the site of KORAD's LILW Disposal Center($206m^2$, Gyeongju-si). The first stage of the LILW facility construction was completed in June 2014, and approved for use by Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) in December 2014. The first stage of the LILW facility is a type of underground silo with disposal capacity of $35,200m^3$ (100,000 drums). The second stage of the LILW facility is under construction to be completed by December 2020. Site construction is currently underway. The second stage of the LILW facility is a type of near-surface disposal with disposal capacity of $32,875m^3$ (125,000 drums).

Reference Spent Fuel and Its Characteristics for a Deep Geological Repository Concept Development

  • Choi, Jong-Won;Ko, Won-Il;Kang, Chul-Hyung
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.23-38
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    • 1999
  • This study addresses the reference spent fuel and its characteristics for developing a geological repository concept. As a disposal capacity of the reference repository system to be developed, spent fuel inventories were projected based on the basis of the Nuclear Energy Plan of the Long-term National Power Program. The reference spent fuel encompassing a variability in characteristics of all existing and future spent fuels of interest was defined. Key parameters in the reference fuel screening processes were the nuclear and mechanical design parameters and the burnup histories for existing spent fuels as of 1996 and for future spent fuels with the more extended burnup the initial enrichment and its expected turnup. The selected reference fuel was characterized in terms of initial enrichment, bumup, dimension, gross weight and age. Also the isotopic composition and the radiological properties are quantitatively identified. This information provided in this study could be used as input for repository system development and performance assessment and applied in fuel material balance evaluation for the various types of back-end fuel cycle studies.

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Deployment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility with the Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in Kenya

  • Shadrack, A.;Kim, C.L.
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2013
  • This paper describes basic plans for the development of a radioactive waste disposal facility with the introduction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) for Kenya. The specific objective of this study was to estimate the total projected waste volumes of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) expected to be generated from the Kenyan nuclear power programme. The facility is expected to accommodate LILW to be generated from operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants for a period of 50 years. An on-site storage capacity of 700 $m^3$ at nuclear power plant sites and a final disposal repository facility of more than 7,000 $m^3$ capacity were derived by considering Korean nuclear power programme radioactive waste generation data, including Kori, Hanbit, and APR 1400 nuclear reactor data. The repository program is best suited to be introduced roughly 10 years after reactor operation. This study is important as an initial implementation of a national LILW disposal program for Kenya and other newcomer countries interested in nuclear power technology.

A Study on Ventilation System of Underground Low-Intermediate Radioactive Waste Repository (지하 동굴식 중-저준위 방사성 폐기물 처분장의 환기시스템 고찰)

  • Kim, Young-Min;Kwon, O-Sang;Yoon, Chan-Hoon;Kwon, Sang-Ki;Kim, Jin
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 2007
  • The pollutants (Rn, CH, CO, HS, radioactive gas from radiolysis) were generated from the process of construction and operation of underground repository, and after disposal of low-intermediate radioactive waste inside there must be controlled by a ventilation system to distribute them in area where enough air is supported. Therefore, a suitable technical approach is needed especially at an underground repository that is equipped with many entry tunnels, storage tunnels, exhaust-blowing tunnels, and vertical shafts in complicated network form. For the technical approach of such a ventilation system, WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in U. S and SFR (Slutforvar for Reaktorafall) low-intermediate radioactive waste repository in Sweden were selected as the models, for calculating the required air quantity, organizing a ventilation network considering cross section, length, surface roughness of the air passage, and describing a calculation of resistance of each circuit. Based on these procedures, a best suited ventilation system was completed with designing proper capacity of fans and operating plan of vertical shafts. As a result of comparing the two repositories based on the geometry dimensions and ventilation facility equipment operation, more parallel circuit as in WIPP, brought decrease in resistance for entire system leading to reduce of operating costs, and the larger cross-sectional area of the SFR, the greater the percentage of disposal capacity. Accordingly, the mixture of parallel circuit of WIPP repository for reducing resistance and SFR repository formation for enlargement of disposal capacity would be the most rational and efficient ventilation system.

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An Optimization Model for Assignment of Freight Trains to Transshipment Tracks and Allocation of Containers to Freight Trains (화물열차 작업선배정 및 열차조성을 위한 수리모형 및 해법)

  • Kim, Kyung-Min;Kim, Dong-Hee;Park, Bum-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.535-540
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    • 2010
  • We present an optimization model for how to assign the freight trains to transshipment tracks and allocate the containers to the freight trains in a rail container terminal. We formulate this problem as a multi-criteria integer programming to minimize the makespan of job schedule and simultaneously to maximize the loading throughput, i.e. the number of containers to be disposed per day. We also apply our model to the instance obtained from the real-world data of the Uiwang Inner Container Depot. From the experiments, we can see an improvement of approximately 6% in makespan, which means that our model can contribute to the improvement of the disposal capacity of containers without additional expansion of facilities.

A Study on the Plannings for the Sustainable Tourism Development of Korean Coastal Wetlands - Focused on Youngjong Island and its neighboring areas - (우리 나라 연안습지의 지속가능한 관광개발 방안에 관한 연구 - 영종도 주변지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Tae-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.74-82
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    • 1999
  • This study is aimed to establish the development plannings for the sustainable tourism of Yongyoo Island and Mooeui Island, neighboring areas of Youngjong Island, for the conservation and environmentally friendly use of Korean coastal wetlands. The concepts of sustainable tourism is described. The current development status and its problems of Youngjong Island and its neighboring areas are analysed. The development plannings for sustainable tourism of Yongyoo Island and Mooeui Island are suggested as follows : (1) The small scale tourism development projects, which are able to represent region's own characteristics, instead of large scale ones, should be performed. (2) The participation of community people should be guaranteed at the beginning stage of the decision making processes for tourism development projects. Additionally, the profits of the development should be fairly distributed among community people. (3) The coastal wetlands should be conserved and their sewage disposal capacity should be protected by way of the minimization of reclamation. (4) The coastal wetlands should be developed into the tourist resorts utilizing migratory birds as tourism resources. In addition, the carrying capacity of the coastal wetlands, which is based on the current status of ecosystems and the Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA), should be calculated.

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IoT(Internet of Things)-based Smart Trash Can (사물인터넷 기반의 스마트 휴지통)

  • Kim, Tae-Kook
    • Journal of The Korea Internet of Things Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2020
  • This paper is about IoT(Internet of Things)-based smart trash can. In modern society, waste disposal creates several social problems. In particular, large floating populations cause a problem in the city center on weekends as the waste disposal capacity cannot keep up with the amount of waste discharged. There are problems such as stinks, unpleasant aesthetics, and insects caused by overflowing garbage. To solve this problem, a smart trash can was proposed. The proposed smart trash can provide a garbage compression function, an automatic opening and closing of the trash can lid, a display of the amount of garbage, and monitoring and control of the trash can. It is expected that the proposed 'smart trash can' can be usefully used for outdoor waste disposal with a large floating population.

Analysis of multi-facet drill(MFD) performance and optimization of MFD geometry (다면 드릴의 성능 해석과 최적화)

  • 이상조;윤영식
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1523-1532
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    • 1990
  • The objective of this study is to develope an optimized multi-facet drill (MFD). The principal factors that affect drilling performance are its geometry and the cutting conditions. In particular, the helix angle in the total twist angle of the twist drill, affects much morgen influence on the dynamic and static stiffness and on determining the characteristics of the chip disposal capacity of the drill. In this study, considering the helix angle as a major parameter, the model was developed. From this model, the deformation of transverse direction was simulated with the bending forces applied. The performance of a drill largely depends upon drilling forces. Comprehensive models for predicating the drilling thrust and torque are developed for the different drill geometries. The effects of MFD geometric parameters on thrust and torque are also deduced from the prediction models, from which an optimal drill geometry is found with the emphasis on minimum drilling forces.

Korean Status and Prospects for Radioactive Waste Management

  • Song, M.J.
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • The safe management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Since the initial introduction of nuclear power to Korea in 1978, rapid growth in nuclear power has been achieved. This large nuclear power generation program has produced a significant amount of radioactive waste, both low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); and the amount of waste is steadily growing. For the management of LILW, the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center, which has a final waste disposal capacity of 800,000 drums, is under construction, and is expected to be completed by June 2014. Korean policy about how to manage the SNF has not yet been decided. In 2004, the Atomic Energy Commission decided that a national policy for SNF management should be established considering both technological development and public consensus. Currently, SNF is being stored at reactor sites under the responsibility of plant operator. The at-reactor SNF storage capacity will run out starting in 2024. In this paper, the fundamental principles and steps for implementation of a Korean policy for national radioactive waste management are introduced. Korean practices and prospects regarding radioactive waste management are also summarized, with a focus on strategy for policy-making on SNF management.

Quantitative Assessments and Spatial Pattern Analyses of Weed Seed Banks of Arable Peat in Selangor, Malaysia (말레이지아 세랑고지역 부식질토양경지 매립잡초종자에 대한 정량생태분석)

  • Bakar, Baki Bin;Kwon, Yong-Woong;Yin, Fenny Wong Nyuk
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.269-280
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    • 1997
  • Collated data from the 1995-1996 field surveys of weed seeds buried in the plough layer of peat soil in Selangor district were analysed to assess species-dominance and spatial pattern of distribution of weed seeds based on selected quantitative indices and index of dispersion. Forty five species within 14 families were recorded of which 24 were broadleaves, 12 grasses and 9 sedges. They comprised ca. 53.2, 31.2 and 15.6%, respectively based on total population counts. Total seed population was ca. $8.14{\times}10^7$ seeds/ha within the fast 25cm soil depth. Wide variabilities in population counts were registered among species ranging from < $7.0{\times}10^4$ seeds/ha for Amaranthus gracilis to ca. $5.64{\times}10^6$ seeds/ha for Heteropogon contortus. Seeds of Cleome rutidesperma was the most abundant(ca. $2.347{\times}10^7$ seeds/ha). Difference in seed population counts may be attributed to inherent variation in fecundity, population fluxes, their spatial distribution patterns and the agronomic practices prevailing in the areas of survey. The profile distribution of soil seed banks was skewed within the first 0 - 10cm depth, comprising ca. 69% of the total seed counts. Seed counts in the 10 - 15, 15 - 20 and 20 - 25cm soil profiles were in the order of 17.9, 8.6 and 4.0% of the total populations, respectively. Weed seeds of all species displayed different degree of aggregated pattern of distribution with variance-to-mean ratios of > 1 and Lloyd's mean crowding($m^*$) values from 1.244 for Cyperus iria, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus urinaria, Scirpus grosses and urinaria lagopodiodes to 9607.7 for Cleome rutidosperma. Lloyd's patch indices(Ip) ranging from 5.1 for Aeschynomene indica to 188.5 for Bracharia reptans were registered. Differences in the VMR, $m^*$ and Ip values among species suggested inter-alia inherent variabilities in their disposal capacity from seed source and different agronomic practices prevailing in the areas surveyed.

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