• Title, Summary, Keyword: Disposal capacity

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The Effect of Waste Disposal Volume on Earnings Management Behavior in the Construction Waste Disposal Industry - Focused on the Size of the Licensed Storage Capacity and the Location of the Waste Disposal Site - (건설폐기물 기업의 폐기물처리량이 이익조정에 미치는 영향 - 허용보관량 규모와 폐기물처리장 소재지를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Dae-Bong;Lee, Hyo-Ik
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.40-55
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse whether the waste disposal volume level in the construction waste disposal industry makes a different effect on earnings management behaviour by size of the licensed storage capacity and by location of the waste disposal site. The empirical results of this study are as follows. First, the waste disposal volume significantly influences earnings management behavior. When it comes to the size of licensed storage capacity in the small-sized capacity firms, the smaller waste disposal volume firms make more aggressive earnings management by using discretionary accruals. On the other hand, in the large-sized capacity firms, more waste disposal volume firms report higher earnings by adjusting more discretionary accruals. Second, the effects of waste disposal volume on the earnings management show different pattern depending on the location of waste disposal site. When the firms are located in the non-capital regions, the smaller waste disposal volume firms report higher earnings by adjusting discretionary accruals as well as by using real activities earnings management. However, the firms located in the capital regions show more aggressive earnings management when they have higher waste disposal volume level.

Deployment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility with the Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in Kenya

  • Shadrack, A.;Kim, C.L.
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2013
  • This paper describes basic plans for the development of a radioactive waste disposal facility with the introduction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) for Kenya. The specific objective of this study was to estimate the total projected waste volumes of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) expected to be generated from the Kenyan nuclear power programme. The facility is expected to accommodate LILW to be generated from operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants for a period of 50 years. An on-site storage capacity of 700 $m^3$ at nuclear power plant sites and a final disposal repository facility of more than 7,000 $m^3$ capacity were derived by considering Korean nuclear power programme radioactive waste generation data, including Kori, Hanbit, and APR 1400 nuclear reactor data. The repository program is best suited to be introduced roughly 10 years after reactor operation. This study is important as an initial implementation of a national LILW disposal program for Kenya and other newcomer countries interested in nuclear power technology.

The Status and Experiences of LILW Disposal Facility Construction (경주 중·저준위방사성폐기물 처분시설 시공사례 및 현황)

  • Shin, Younglim;Lee, Jongwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents the status and experiences of Low and Intermediate-level radioactive Waste(LILW) disposal facility in Korea. The LILW disposal facility of 800,000 drums (200 L/drum) is being constructed in the site of KORAD's LILW Disposal Center($206m^2$, Gyeongju-si). The first stage of the LILW facility construction was completed in June 2014, and approved for use by Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) in December 2014. The first stage of the LILW facility is a type of underground silo with disposal capacity of $35,200m^3$ (100,000 drums). The second stage of the LILW facility is under construction to be completed by December 2020. Site construction is currently underway. The second stage of the LILW facility is a type of near-surface disposal with disposal capacity of $32,875m^3$ (125,000 drums).

Thermal Properties of Buffer Material for a High-Level Waste Repository Considering Temperature Variation (고준위폐기물 처분시설 완충재의 온도변화에 따른 열물성)

  • Yoon, Seok;Kim, Geon-Young;Park, Tae-Jin;Lee, Jae-Kwang
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2017
  • The buffer is one of the major components of an engineered barrier system (EBS) for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As the buffer is located between a disposal canister and host rock, it is indispensable to assure the disposal safety of high-level radioactive waste. It can restrain the release of radionuclide and protect the canister from the inflow of groundwater. Since high quantity of heat from a disposal canister is released to the surrounding buffer, thermal properties of the buffer are very important parameters for the analysis of the entire disposal safety. Especially, temperature criteria of the compacted bentonite buffer can affect the design of HLW repository facility. Therefore, this paper investigated thermal properties for the Kyungju compacted bentonite buffer which is the only bentonite produced in South Korea. Hot wire method and dual probe method were used to measure thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the compacted bentonite buffer according to the temperature variation. Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity were decreased dramatically when temperature variation was between $22^{\circ}C{\sim}110^{\circ}C$ as degree of saturation decreased according to the temperature variation. However, there was little variation under the high temperature condition at $110^{\circ}C{\sim}150^{\circ}C$.

A Prediction of Specific Heat Capacity for Compacted Bentonite Buffer (압축 벤토나이트 완충재의 비열 추정)

  • Yoon, Seok;Kim, Geon-Young;Baik, Min-Hoon
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2017
  • A geological repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste is generally constructed in host rock at depths of 500~1,000 meters below the ground surface. A geological repository system consists of a disposal canister with packed spent fuel, buffer material, backfill material, and intact rock. The buffer is indispensable to assure the disposal safety of high-level radioactive waste, and it can restrain the release of radionuclides and protect the canister from the inflow of groundwater. Since high temperature in a disposal canister is released to the surrounding buffer material, the thermal properties of the buffer material are very important in determining the entire disposal safety. Even though there have been many studies on thermal conductivity, there have been only few studies that have investigates the specific heat capacity of the bentonite buffer. Therefore, this paper presents a specific heat capacity prediction model for compacted Gyeongju bentonite buffer material, which is a Ca-bentonite produced in Korea. Specific heat capacity of the compacted bentonite buffer was measured using a dual probe method according to various degrees of saturation and dry density. A regression model to predict the specific heat capacity of the compacted bentonite buffer was suggested and fitted using 33 sets of data obtained by the dual probe method.

Estimation on Bearing Capacity of Waste Landfill Reinforced by Geosynthetics Using Numerical Analysis (수치해석에 의한 토목섬유 보강 폐기물 매립지반의 지지력 평가)

  • Shin, Eunchul;Park, Jeongjun
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2008
  • Many industrialized countries of the world have many problems about the reuse of waste landfill area because of the increase of terminated waste disposal landfill. Especially, the effective use of the terminated waste disposal landfill nearby the urban area has been demanded, because of the lack of the usable land. However, in case of the construction of the building on such a landfill, ground settlement and reduced bearing capacity would be occurred without ground stabilization and proper reinforcement. This study is to evaluate the applicability of geosynthetics for the increment of bearing capacity of solid waste landfill ground. A numerical simulation has been undertaken to model a layer of weathered soil overlaying a layer of geosynthetic reinforcement and waste disposal ground. The proposed analytical model can be used to obtain surface settlement characteristic in the two-dimensional deformation related reinforcement.

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Bearing Capacity of Waste Landfill Reinforced by Geosynthetics (토목섬유로 보강된 폐기물 매립지반의 지지력 특성)

  • Shin, Eun-Chul;Park, Jeong-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2007
  • Many industrialized countries of the world have many problems about the reuse of waste landfill area because the increase of terminated waste disposal landfill. Especially, the effective use of the terminated waste disposal landfill nearby the urban area has been demanded, because of the lack of the usable land. However, the reuse of terminated waste disposal landfill site is needed an adequate stabilization of ground for increasing the bearing capacity and reduce the allowable settlement for the given structure. This study is to evaluate the applicability of geosynthetics for the increment of bearing capacity of solid waste landfill ground. The in-situ cyclic plate loading tests were performed to determine the dynamic and static behaviors of reinforced ground with geosynthetics. Four series of test were conducted with variations of geosynthetics, number of geogrid layer. Based on the cyclic plate load test results, the bearing capacity ratio, subgrade modulus of ground, and the elastic rebound ratio were determined.

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Evaluation of Water Suction for the Compacted Bentonite Buffer Considering Temperature Variation (온도 변화를 고려한 압축 벤토나이트 완충재의 수분흡입력 평가)

  • Yoon, Seok;Go, Gyu-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Owan;Kim, Geon-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2019
  • The compacted bentonite buffer is one of the major components of an engineered barrier system (EBS) for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and it is considered the best candidate for the buffer material. The buffer is located between disposal canisters and near-field rock mass, and it interrupts the release of radionuclide from disposal canisters and protect them from the penetration of groundwater. At initial disposal condition, degree of saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer decreases because of high thermal quantities released from the disposal canisters. However, the degree of saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer gradually increases caused by inflow of groundwater. The saturated and unsaturated behavior of the buffer is a very important input data since it can determine the safety performance of EBS. Therefore, this paper investigated water retention capacity (WRC) for the Korean compacted bentonite buffer. The WRC of the compacted bentonite buffer was derived by measuring volumetric water content and water suction when temperature variation was between 24℃~125℃ considering decrease of degree of saturation with respect to temperature increase. The WRC was also derived with the same volumetric water content under the room temperature condition, and it showed 1~15% larger water suction than high temperature condition.

PLUTONIUM MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: LIABILITY OR RESOURCE

  • Bairiot, Hubert
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.9-20
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    • 2008
  • Since plutonium accounts for 40-50% of the power produced by uranium fuels, spent fuel contains only residual plutonium. Management of this plutonium is one of the aspects influencing the choice of a fuel cycle back-end option: reprocessing, direct disposal or wait-and-see. Different grades and qualities of plutonium exist depending from their specific generation conditions; all are valuable fissile material. Safeguard authorities watch the inventories of civil plutonium, but access to those data is restricted. Independent evaluations have led to an estimated current inventory of 220t plutonium in total (spent fuel, separated civil plutonium and military plutonium). If used as MOX fuel, it would be sufficient to feed all the PWRs and BWRs worldwide during 7 years or to deploy a FBR park corresponding to 150% of today' s installed nuclear capacity worldwide, which could then be exploited for centuries with the current stockpile of depleted and spent uranium. The energy potential of plutonium deteriorates with storage time of spent fuel and of separated plutonium, due to the decay of $^{241}Pu$, the best fissile isotope, into americium, a neutron absorber. The loss of fissile value of plutonium is more pronounced for usage in LWRs than in FBR. However, keeping the current plutonium inventory for an expected future deployment of FBRs is counterproductive. Recycling plutonium reduce the required volume for final disposal in an underground repository and the cost of final disposal. However, the benefits of utilizing an energy resource and of reducing final disposal liabilities are not the only aspects that determine the choice of a back-end policy.

Comprehensive Development Plans for the Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Korea and Preliminary Safety Assessment (우리나라 중·저준위 방사성폐기물 처분시설 종합개발계획(안)과 예비안전성평가)

  • Jung, Kang Il;Kim, Jin Hyeong;Kwon, Mi Jin;Jeong, Mi Seon;Hong, Sung Wook;Park, Jin Beak
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.385-410
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    • 2016
  • The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.