Several research cases using remote sensing methods to analyze changes of storage and dynamics of groundwater aquifer were reviewed in this paper. The status of groundwater storage, in an area with regional scale, could be qualitatively inferred from geological feature, surface water altimetry and topography, distribution of vegetation, and difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. These qualitative indicators could be measured by geological lineament analysis, airborne magnetic survey, DEM analysis, LAI and NDVI calculation, and surface energy balance modeling. It is certain that GRACE and InSAR have received remarkable attentions as direct utilization from satellite data for quantification of groundwater storage and dynamics. GRACE, composed of twin satellites having acceleration sensors, could detect global or regional microgravity changes and transform them into mass changes of water on surface and inside of the Earth. Numerous studies in terms of groundwater storage using GRACE sensor data were performed with several merits such that (1) there is no requirement of sensor data, (2) auxiliary data for quantification of groundwater can be entirely obtained from another satellite sensors, and (3) algorithms for processing measured data have continuously progressed from designated data management center. The limitations of GRACE for groundwater storage measurement could be defined as follows: (1) In an area with small scale, mass change quantification of groundwater might be inaccurate due to detection limit of the acceleration sensor, and (2) the results would be overestimated in case of combination between sensor and field survey data. InSAR can quantify the dynamic characteristics of aquifer by measuring vertical micro displacement, using linear proportional relation between groundwater head and vertical surface movement. However, InSAR data might now constrain their application to arid or semi-arid area whose land cover appear to be simple, and are hard to apply to the area with the anticipation of loss of coherence with surface. Development of GRACE and InSAR sensor data preprocessing algorithms optimized to topography, geology, and natural conditions of Korea should be prioritized to regionally quantify the mass change and dynamics of the groundwater resources of Korea.
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In modern times, children's trauma is increasing every year because of car accidents and life environment changes. There is a limit to prevent traumatic damage for oral cavity organization. The fundamental data of trauma treatment and prevention will be presented through the survey and analysis of traumatic teeth damage. I examined 113 patients from Oct. 4th, 2000 to Feb. 27th, 2004 at Dept. of Children's Dental Clinic, Kangnung National University. The results are as follows. (1) The trauma frequency of male subjects is higher than that of female at a rate of 2.05:1. The average age is 5.27 for men and 5.27 for women. The highest percentage of trauma patients is among 2 year old children. It is 21.2%. (2) A patient survey was taken at a trauma treatment hospital. On the first day 34.4% of the patients had come to receive treatment of their first set of teeth. However, after a week, 38.8% of the patients had received treatment on their permanent teeth. (3) As a result of falling, 59% of patients needing treatment on their first set of teeth. 55.1% of patients is permanent teeth. As a result of bump against physical solid, 26.6% of patients is the first set of teeth and 26.5% of patients is permanent teeth. (4) Teeth damage happened at home. 42.1% were male. 35.1% were female. According to trauma, 59.4% of teeth damage happened at home. 28.6% of permanent teeth damage happened at school or kindergarten. (5) According to trauma, the number of teeth damaged was in the first set of teeth are as follows: 56.3%, one-31.3%, three or four-6.3% each. For permanent teeth: two-46.9%, one-28.6%, four over-16.3% and three-8.2%. Over four teeth is larger number for permanent teeth. (6) 56% of first set of teeth patients and 43.4% of permanent teeth patients were male. 56.8% of first set of teeth patients and 43.2% of permanent teeth were female. Trauma happened to both male and female frequently in the first set of teeth. (7) Most of the tooth damage which was in the first set of teeth and permanent teeth was done to the upper jaw. 75% of patients are the first set of teeth. 63.8% of patients are permanent teeth. Trauma is very high in the two mid teeth of the upper jaw. (8) According to trauma survey, 30.2% is from impulse. 28.0% is from crown fracture, 14.7% is from depression. 8.9% is from concussion. 7.1% is from full dislocation of a joint. 2.2% of patients are extrusion. 1.8% is from displacement. According to teeth damage trauma, 35.8% is pulse in the first set of teeth. The breaking of the crown of a tooth happened a lot in permanent teeth. (9) According to data, 43.2% of teeth damage in the first set of teeth goes without treatment. In permanent teeth, it is 38.9%. After treatment, 22.0% of first set of teeth treatment requires a dental pulp treatment. In permanent teeth, which is used for temporary acid etching resin restoration.
The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70