• Title, Summary, Keyword: Displacement Limit

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Multivariate adaptive regression splines model for reliability assessment of serviceability limit state of twin caverns

  • Zhang, Wengang;Goh, Anthony T.C.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.431-458
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    • 2014
  • Construction of a new cavern close to an existing cavern will result in a modification of the state of stresses in a zone around the existing cavern as interaction between the twin caverns takes place. Extensive plane strain finite difference analyses were carried out to examine the deformations induced by excavation of underground twin caverns. From the numerical results, a fairly simple nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) has been used to relate the maximum key point displacement and the percent strain to various parameters including the rock quality, the cavern geometry and the in situ stress. Probabilistic assessments on the serviceability limit state of twin caverns can be performed using the First-order reliability spreadsheet method (FORM) based on the built MARS model. Parametric studies indicate that the probability of failure $P_f$ increases as the coefficient of variation of Q increases, and $P_f$ decreases with the widening of the pillar.

The Allowable Displacement Limit on the Approach Slab for a Railway Bridge with Ballastless Track (콘크리트궤도부설 교량의 접속슬래브 허용변위한도에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jin-Yu;Yang, Shin-Chu;Yoo, Jin-Young;Cho, Hyun-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1149-1155
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    • 2007
  • The transition area between a bridge and an earthwork is one of the weakest area of track because of the track geometry deterioration caused unequal settlement of backfill of abutment. In case of a ballastless track, the approach slab is installed to prevent the phenomenon. But, if there is occurred the inclined displacement on the approach slab by a settlement of the foundation or formation, the track is also under the inclined displacement. And this defect causes reducing the running stability of a vehicle, the riding comfort of passengers, and the deteriorations of track by excessive impact subjected to the track. In this study, parametric studies were performed to know what is the allowable displacement limit on the approach slab to avoid such a bad effect. The length and amount of unequal settlement of the approach slab was adopted as parameter for numerical analysis. And car body accelerations, variations of wheel force and rail stress and uplift force induced on a fastener clip are investigated. From the result, resonable settlement limits of an approach slab according to slab length was suggested.

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Shock absorption of concrete liquid storage tank with different kinds of isolation measures

  • Jing, Wei;Chen, Peng;Song, Yu
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.467-480
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    • 2020
  • Concrete rectangular liquid storage tanks are widely used, but there are many cases of damage in previous earthquakes. Nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is considered, Mooney-Rivlin material is used for rubber bearing, nonlinear contact is used for sliding bearing, numerical calculation models of no-isolation, rubber isolation, sliding isolation and hybrid isolation concrete rectangular liquid storage tanks are established; dynamic responses of different structures are compared to verify the effectiveness of isolation methods; and influences of earthquake amplitude, bidirectional earthquake and far-field long-period earthquake on dynamic responses are investigated. Results show that for liquid sloshing wave height, rubber isolation cause amplification effect, while sliding isolation and hybrid isolation have reduction effect; displacement of rubber isolation structure is much larger than that of sliding isolation with limiting-devices and hybrid isolation structure; when PGA is larger, wall cracking probability of no-isolation structure becomes larger, and probability of liquid sloshing wave height and structure displacement of rubber isolation structure exceeds the limit is also larger; under bidirectional earthquake, occurrence probabilities that liquid sloshing wave height and structure displacement of rubber isolation structure exceed the limit will be increased; besides, far-field long-period earthquake mainly influences structure displacement and liquid sloshing wave height. On the whole, control effect of sliding isolation is the best, followed by hybrid isolation, and rubber isolation is the worst.

A Study on the displacement characteristics of suspension elements for KTX (고속철도차량 현가계요소 변위특성 연구)

  • Hur H.M.;Kwon S.T.;Lee C.W.;Kim H.J.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.378-382
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    • 2005
  • The opening of high speed railway upgraded our land transportation speed limit, causing lots of changes including living and culture and also paving the way for stepping up the railway technology. However, it is also true that we had a limit to adopt the existing railway system structured for 150km/h to the new structure requiring a higher speed of approximate 300km/h due to technological, based on the time and experience. More importantly, heading toward a step of operating such a high speed railway system, it has been practically and quickly proposed that the railway needs high speed railway engineering, maintenance technology of parts of the vehicles to have a stable maintenance foundation and localization of major parts. Therefore, this study was intended to research the actual displacement characteristics in runningg on an actual track for the purpose of developing the protective and maintenance technology of springs and dampers, which are core parts among suspension elements of a high speed railway vehicle. For this, it was researched the actual vehicle test and its interpretation centered on primary spring, which is used for the suspension system of a bogie, body-body dampers and body-bogie yaw damper. Also, to analyze the displacement characteristics of suspension system in the actual conditions of high speed railway vehicles, a vehicle‘s dynamic characteristics was analyzed and interpreted. At the same time, a tester for measuring the actual displacement of such suspension elements was designed and attached to actual vehicles, to measure the displacements that occur in running it on the Seoul-Busan line, one of major lines serviced by KTX. The displacement data gained from the test with actual vehicles was analyzed for its displacement distribution depending on the service sections and frequency, with which the valuable data necessary for any potential breakdown or maintenance in the future could be obtained.

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A Study on the Development of a Stability Chart for Yield Seismic Coefficient of Soil Slope Using Limit Analysis (한계해석을 이용한 토사면의 항복지진계수 산정도표 제안 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Ho;Kim, Jong-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2010
  • Yield seismic coefficient plays an important role in the estimation of permanent displacement of a soil slope subjected to earthquake using Newmark's sliding block theory. However, yield seismic coefficients currently used in practices are not mechanically rigorous since most of them are estimated using limit equilibrium methods considering equilibrium condition only. Therefore, estimation of permanent displacement of a soil slope based on existing yield seismic coefficient may cause problems. Limit analysis estimating the range of mechanically rigorous solution is thought to be effective in evaluating the validity of existing yield seismic coefficient. In this study, a simple stability chart for yield seismic coefficient useful in practices is proposed by considering various slope conditions including stability number, slope inclination, strength parameters, etc.

J and CTOD Estimation for Homogeneous and Bi-Material Fracture Toughness Testing Specimens

  • Lee, Hyungyil;Kim, Yun-Jae
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1079-1089
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    • 2001
  • This paper proposes J and CTOD estimation schemes applied to fracture toughness testing, covering typical homogeneous and bi-material specimens. Recommendations are based on the plastic limit analysis (either slip line field or finite element limit analyses), assuming the rigid plastic material behavior. The main outcome of the present study is that the J and CTOD estimation schemes (both codified and non-codified), recommended for homogeneous specimens, can be equally used for bi-material specimens with interface cracks. The effect of yield strength mismatch in bi-material specimens on the J-integral CTOD is discussed.

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Finite Element Analysis of Cracted Structural Steel Member (균열을 가진 강구조부재의 한계하중에 대한 유한요소해석)

  • 박용걸
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.123-126
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of the analysis is the numerical simulation of structures strained to the limit loads. The finite element calculations and experiments with cracked structures have been carried out yielding over limit strains between 10% and 15% by single peak load. Load versus displacement-diagrams and J-diagrams up to the limit load are calculated. By this way the influence of geometric parameters may be assessed in the post yield region. It is proposed to use such calculations to correlate experiments carried out with small specimens to experiments simulating the true dimensions of the design structure.

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Study on the Effective Stiffness of Base Isolation System for Reducing Acceleration and Displacement Responses

  • Kim, Young-Sang
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.586-594
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    • 1999
  • To limit both the large displacement and acceleration response of the structure efficiently, the relationships between acceleration and displacement responses of the structure under several earthquakes are investigated for various horizontal stiffness of the base isolation system to determine the effective stiffness of the base isolation system in this paper. An example structure is a five-storey steel frame building as the primary structure and the secondary structures are assumed to be located on the fifth floor of the primary structure. Input motions used in the structural analysis are El Centre 1940, Taft 1952, Mexico 1985, San Fernando 1971 Pacoima Dam, and artificially generated earthquakes. The relationships of the absolute peak acceleration and the displacement at the top of the structure are calculated for various natural periods of base isolators under various earthquakes. The peak acceleration response of the fifth floor in the base isolated structure is significantly reduced by a factor of 2.1 through 6.25. Also, the relative displacement response of the floor to the base of the superstructure is very small. The results of this study can be utilized to determine the effective stiffness of the base isolation system.

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The anchorage-slip effect on direct displacement-based design of R/C bridge piers for limiting material strains

  • Mergos, P.E.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.493-513
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    • 2013
  • Direct displacement-based design (DDBD) represents an innovative philosophy for seismic design of structures. When structural considerations are more critical, DDBD design should be carried on the basis of limiting material strains since structural damage is always strain related. In this case, the outcome of DDBD is strongly influenced by the displacement demand of the structural element for the target limit strains. Experimental studies have shown that anchorage slip may contribute significantly to the total displacement capacity of R/C column elements. However, in the previous studies, anchorage slip effect is either ignored or lumped into flexural deformations by applying the equivalent strain penetration length. In the light of the above, an attempt is made in this paper to include explicitly anchorage slip effect in DDBD of R/C column elements. For this purpose, a new computer program named RCCOLA-DBD is developed for the DDBD of single R/C elements for limiting material strains. By applying this program, more than 300 parametric designs are conducted to investigate the influence of anchorage slip effect as well as of numerous other parameters on the seismic design of R/C members according to this methodology.

Predictive models of ultimate and serviceability performances for underground twin caverns

  • Zhang, Wengang;Goh, Anthony T.C.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.175-188
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    • 2016
  • The construction of a new cavern modifies the state of stresses and displacements in a zone around the existing cavern. For multiple caverns, the size of this influence zone depends on the ground type, the in situ stress, the cavern span and shape, the width of the pillar separating the caverns, and the excavation sequence. Performances of underground twin caverns can be unsatisfactory as a result of either instability (collapse) or excessive displacements. These two distinct failures should be prevented in design. This study simulated the ultimate and serviceability performances of underground twin rock caverns of various sizes and shapes. The global factor of safety is used as the criterion for determining the ultimate limit state and the calculated maximum displacement around the cavern opening is adopted as the serviceability limit state criterion. Based on the results of a series of numerical simulations, simple regression models were developed for estimating the global factor of safety and the maximum displacement, respectively. It was proposed that a proper pillar width can be determined based on the threshold influence factor value. In addition, design charts with regard to the selection of the pillar width for underground twin rock caverns under similar ground conditions were also developed.