MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
The purpose of this paper is to examine how the 'tradition' has been identified and used concretely on the protection system of cultural property. Firstly, this paper investigated the historical process and aspects that the 'cultural property' and the 'tradition' combined, each had different meaning at the beginning. And it investigated the linkage of them which effect to the protection system and to each other on the system operated. Then, it pointed out a rift within the discourse of tradition to which the system have held on, and the problems as its result. This paper applied the viewpoint of anti-essentialism that the tradition is presented with hegemonic act to raise the inevitable continuity with the past, instead of the common notion that the tradition is 'everything that is handed down from the past.' Because the cultural property is the product of the state system, to pursne the linkage of it and the tradition is identical to examine how the tradition have been officially defined in the national hegemony. Since the 1920s the tradition has defined as a fixed, essential, pure reality in the changing process of the protection system of cultural property. This essentialist viewpoint about the tradition have been continued as the institutional premise regardless of many critics, raised by studies focusing on the culture and cultural property. But we see now a rift on the discourse of tradition as the intellectual discourse has been supported to the system, that is caused by the fast-changing global economic environment and a rat race around the registration of intangible cultural heritage of UNESCO.
The Parmenidean tradition of logos which previous researches fail to fully appreciate has three dimensions of reality-knowledge-discourse. Parmenides is not just an ontologist, as the traditional view emphasizes, but also an epistemologist, as the revisionist view begins to emphasize, and, at the same time, a meta-discourser, as those two established views fail to embrace. In order to reach the third view which fully grasps such a dynamic and integrated feature of Parmenides, we should closely pay attention to the organic interconnectedness of three discourse parts of truth-doxa-proem, especially the significance of proem and meta-discourse. In the Eleatic tradition of discourse, the figure who clearly appreciated and further developed such an authentic feature of Parmenides' discourse is not, as one might easily expect, one of the second-generation Eleatics, but Gorgias who has commonly been positioned at the opposite side of Eleatism. This paper investigates how he actually both innovated and succeeded the Parmenidean tradition of logos; especially, it characterizes his discourse as an antilogy(antilogia) from within the tradition: as a 'devil' advocate' who complemented and completed Parmenidean persuasion by positing the Parmenidean tradition of logos as an arena of a huge intellectual discipline and cultivation, offering himself as a sparring partner to it, and bringing up an antilogy. In the process of this antilogy he performed in his rhetorical speeches such as the Encomium of Helen and the Defense of Palamedes he experimented and examined a possibility of persuasion operating independently from truth, which, however, is not merely sacrificing truth in favor of persuasiveness and probability (to eikos) as Plato criticized mainly focussing on his 'philosophical' writing On not-being. Rather, it was an 'opposition for opposition's sake' and serious play which purported to provide balance and flexibility to contemporary intellectual society which had too much inclined towards truth and knowledge and become stiff and to put weight on the opposite side of mainstream. It is wholly our eranos (i.e. our share of contribution) to summon and examine such sophistic tradition for the sake of the task of our times, not for the sake of Plato's task, that we should build up a healthy culture of discourse where we can share serious play.
The purpose of this study was to explore the various perspectives to read micro-history of Korean housing after the period of Opening the Port for foreigners. This study were designed to adapt original theory for exploring the unique housing perspectives without using strict basic assumption which were already developed in the area of sociology, history, anthropology and philosophy. Research method applied was literature review. Each perspective might give useful insight to read the micro-history of Korean housing on the way of change after the Period of Opening the Port in Korea. Adapted perspectives to housing history were critical theory perspective, microsociological perspective, everyday life perspective(phenomenology tradition, symbolic interaction tradition, Marxist tradition), discourse perspective, exchange theory perspective, conflict theory perspective, and life course perspective. Conclusively, each perspective must be adapted multi-supportively to read the housing phenomena, because housing change derived from complex causes and factors. The fruit of this study was to ensure the adaptable viewpoint to housing were useful to read the micro-history of housing change.
Transmedia has become a significant theme in the media studies sector and an academic discourse itself since its wide diffusion through Henry Jenkins' seminar book Convergence Culture. The aim of this essay is to examine the authentic intention of the proposer to understand its profound meaning and value in the research discourse. Firstly, Transmedia has originated as a part of the convergence culture research context, which is an identical approach in the 'active audience' research tradition. Thus, a history of the research in terms of Birmingham Cultural Studies tradition and its implication is scrutinized. Secondly, in respect of Pierre Levy's 'collective intelligence' which made significant influence on the making of the Convergence Culture and Transmedia Storytelling, the meaing of the transmedia discourse is studied. Thirdly and finally, the implication of this concept as a critical theory or Critique in the Cultural Studies tradition, which has highlighted the importance of the revelation of the binary oppositions and structures of dominance/resistance, with the interpretation of the role of the collective intelligence idea in the transmedia discourse, is studied.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The purpose of this study is to mate a basic foundation for the discourse of Koreanness of contemporary Korean landscape architecture by way of searching the conceptual definitions of Koreanness through analysis of Koreanness discourses. The results are that discourses of Koreanness are to be classified in aesthetics type, spatial-temporal type, and cultural type. Aesthetics type is understood as style in terms of formal and design representation planning principles of spatial composition and immanence in terms of philosophy. Spatial-temporal type is understood as contemporaneity. This is classified as the concept of connoting of tradition, and separating and keeping a distance from tradition. Cultural type is prescribed as cultural identity. This is classified as unity, generality and individuality. The intension of Koreanness of these types is represented as an aspect changing and shifting from one regulation to another regulation. First, in the concerns of substantial archetypes like Korean original form, decorative element, spatial composition aesthetic perception and philosophy, Koreanness shifts to the point of view of contemporaniety which is created and defined in history. Second, Koreanness as contemporaniety shows a trend of shifting the point of view which is to be found through the reconsideration on modem history and modernism. Third, Koreanness defined as cultural identity shows a trend to emphasize the differences in other cultures and includes all the modem cultural agents. The number of views understood as individuality and denial are small but provide important points. Programmatic definition of Koreanness is not suitable. This basic study uses a stipulative or operational definition of Koreanness in many ways such as spatial and regional identity. Koreanness study for Korean contemporary landscape architecture requires a systematic understanding of modernity and colonization relating to identity. Also, it is needed to elaborate on the discourse to divide the meaning of a concept of identity.
Orientalness is a concept that expresses the collective identity of the Orient in relation to the West. The concept itself is mutable and defined by the relationship between the two regions at different points in time. Changes in the concept depend on a number of factors, such as cultural influence, the political balance of power between the two regions, and on the interpretative scheme that defines the relationship. In addition, the geographical notion of the concept evolves culturally, socially and politically. During this process, Oriental-ness becomes Oriental-ism at times. I will attempt to survey and measure the progression of Orientalness from its emergence in early 17th century to its subsequent transformation in modern Korea as reflected in art theory and art works. The recognition of the comparative characteristics of Oriental art began when the Orient was exposed to the art of the West in the late Ming dynasty during the early 17th century. The changes in the artistic climate in China affected the late Chosun. I will start with a brief introduction of this time and the birth of Orientalness. The concept gradually changed during the period of Enlightenment(開化期) towards the end of the 19th century, and during the colonial period( 1910-1945) it took on a new form. Establishment of the concept of "Orient"as a single, unifying concept spanning across cultures and national boundaries has been attributed to late Meiji period Japan, whose intention at that time is believed to have been to build a pan-Asia(亞細亞) empire with Japan at its commanding center. It has been stressed that the real motive behind the formation of one single cultural unit, where the shared common written language was Chinese and Confucianism and Taoism were the common metaphysical traditions, was to build one political unit. When the notion of a geographical unit of Asia was replaced by the concept of Asia as a cultural and political unit, a massive growth of interest and discourse were provoked around the concept of Orientalism. When Orientalism was being formulated, Korea automatically became member of "one Asia" when the country became colonized. For Koreans, the identity of the Orient had to be defined in cultural terms, as the political notion of a nation was non-existent at that time. The definition of identity was pursued at two levels, pan-Asian and local. If Orientalism was an elite discourse centered in pan-Asian philosophical and religious tradition, localized Orientalism was a popular discourse emphasizing locality as the byproduct of natural geographic condition. After the liberation in 1945 from colonial rule, a thrust of movement arose towards political nationalism. Two types of discourses on Orientalism, elite and popular, continued as central themes in art. Despite the effort to redefine the national identity by eradicating the cultural language of the colonial past, the past was enduring well into the present time. As discussed above, even when the painting themes were selected from Korean history, the tradition of using history painting as a manifestation of political policy to glorify the local identity had its founding during the Meiji period. The elevation of folk art to the level of high art also goes back to the colonial promotion of local color and local sentiment. Again, the succession of the past (colonial) ideal was defended as the tradition assumed a distinct modern shape that was abstract in style. The concept of the "Orient" is of relative and changing nature. It was formulated in relation to Western culture or civilization. Whatever the real motive of the adoption of them had been, the superiority of the Orient was emphasized at all times. The essence of the Orient was always perceived as the metaphysical tradition as a way to downgrade Western culture as materialistic. This view still prevails and the principle of Orient was always sought in Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. Even when Orientalism was employed by imperialist Japan in an effort to establish her position as the center of the Orient, the spiritual source was still in Chinese philosophy and religion. In art also, the Chinese literati tradition became the major platform for elite discourse. Orientalism was also defined locally, and the so-called local color was pursued in terms of theme and style. Thus trend continued despite the effort to eradicate the remnants of colonial culture long after liberation. These efforts are now being supported politically and also institutionalized to become the aesthetic ideal of the modern Korean art.
Through 1960 and 1970s, there had been constant endeavor in order to succeed the korean traditional architectural heritages. Among those efforts Ahn Yung Bae's book "Exterior Space in Traditional Korean Architecture"presented unique methodology utilizing abstraction of space and movement of subject. His method doesn't refer traditional form of architecture. He ignores formal elements. Instead, he reads space through subject's movement and this reading act creates meaning of space. So, he constructed knowledge not about the object of traditional architecture but the subject of today. Ahn's book opens new discourse based on traditional korean architecture. His analyses didn't deal with the form of traditional space, but the experiences of observer. However many historical documents related to architecture had not been interpreted until nineties and the succession of heritage became to be broken by modernity through 20th century. In this situation his book showed the unavoidable method, that is, the modernization of tradition.
This study attempts to give a review of social media users' choice of a particular name for the sake of signaling identity cues and interaction with the others. The social media names could be classified into different categories such as traditional/cultural anthroponyms, nicknames and fictitious IDs etc. Out of these categories, it is the phenomenon of choice and construction of fictitious social media IDs by Pakistani social media users which has been reviewed and scrutinized in this particular article. This study examined fictitious IDs of Pakistani social media users from Critical Discourse Analysis and System Functional Linguistics perspectives and demonstrates how nationalistic, ethnic and religious identities are negotiated, constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed by the social media users through a particular ID choice.
It seems that there has been a tendency of faction film which reveals imagination of state/nation. As typical examples, & would show the relationship between some factional imagination and the project of blockbuster. In this regard, I've researched the tradition of cinematic representation of state/nation and some historical aspects which reveal the being of official films ruled by oppressive political intention. As a kind of discourse dealing with state/nation, & have specific strategy of representation. The analysis about that process might enable us to understand what is nationalism and what is the nature of ideological discourse consumed by faction-related products.
This paper examines the tradition discourses in Korean modern drama of the late 19th and the early 20th. It focuses particularly on how key intellectuals differentiated the definition and interpreted 'Theater-Improvement' while they insisted on improving traditional performance. Tradition discourse focused on how to improve its contents of performances. There were three categories in discussion. First, Confucian intelligent insisted that traditional performance should be discarded, because it led to customs disorder among the public. Second, patriotic and progressive intellectuals led by Sin Chae-Ho(신채호) and Bak Yen-Sik(박은식), preferred the reformed content of traditional Korean performance dealing with historical heroes. in order to stimulate patriotism in the Korean. Third, Lee In-Jik(이인직) who had worked at a popular newspaper company in Japan tried to make 'New Theater' criticizing decayed officials and the stupid nation. He did not concern about the colonialism of Japan. In the late 19th and the early 20th in Korean modern drama history, tradition discourses faced different directions, dependent on their political positions, familiar foreign cultures, and their view on traditional cultures.
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