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A absorbed and effective dose from the full-mouth periapical radiography using portable dental x-ray machine and panoramic radiography (ORIGINAL ARTICLE - 이동형 구내방사선촬영기로 촬영한 치근단 방사선촬영과 파노라마방사선촬영의 흡수선량과 유효선량 평가)

  • Han, Won-Jeong
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.420-430
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose and to calculate the effective dose for full-mouth periapical radiography using the portable dental x-ray machine and panoramic radiography Material and Method: Thermoluminescent chips were placed at 25sites throughout the layers of the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull phantom. The man phantom was exposed with the portable dental x-ray machine and panoramic unit. During full-mouth periapical radiography the exposure setting was 60 kVp, 2 mA and 0.15 ~ 0.25 seconds, while during panoramic radiography the selected exposure setting was 72 kVp, 8 mA and 18 seconds. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained and equivalent doses to individual organs were summed using ICRP 103 to calculate of effective dose. Result: In the full-mouth periapical radiography, the highest absorbed dose was recorded at the mandible body follow with submandibular glands and cheek. Using panoramic unit, the highest absorbed dose was parotid glands and the following was back of neck and submandibular glands. The effective dose in full-mouth periapical radiography using portable dental x-ray machine was 46 ${\mu}Sv$. In panoramic radiography, the effective dose was 38 ${\mu}pSv$. Conclusion: It was recommended to panoramic radiography for general check in the head and neck area because that the effect dose in the panoramic radiography was lower than the dose in the full-mouth periapical radiography using portable dental x-ray machine.

A Study on the Interest of SNS Users according to New Media Fashion Content Types -Focus on Vogue Korea's Official Instagram- (뉴미디어 패션 콘텐츠 유형에 따른 사용자의 SNS 관심도 연구 -보그 코리아 공식 인스타그램 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Chungsun;Lee, Seunghee
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to find trends in new media fashion content by analyzing the fashion content of the official Instagram accounts of domestic fashion magazines that are being transformed by digital media. The framework for these analysis of fashion content type and methods of production is based on one used in an earlier research project. Empirical analysis is conducted on Vogue Korea's official Instagram accounts, using the highest number of major views as the secondary measure of interest. After screening for fashion content in posts on the Vogue Korea account for four months, 291 short video postings were extracted to analyze the number of views the postings received. The results were categorized as 'star', 'show/exhibition', 'product', 'shop', 'fashion film', 'designer', or 'event', included in the data are the number of postings by type and the number of views by post. Based on the characteristics of the creator and the editing, the posts were classified into 'professional production highlight', 'professional production private', 'UCC' or 'GIF' videos, the number of views per post were also collected. The research results show different levels of interest depending on the type of fashion content, and also on the way the videos were produced. The study also investigated how the combination of these two factors affects interest. When producing a new media fashion content, combining a 'star' type post with 'professional production private' video content was most popular. The selection of production method is therefore important even given the same type of content.

A New Approach to Automatic Keyword Generation Using Inverse Vector Space Model (키워드 자동 생성에 대한 새로운 접근법: 역 벡터공간모델을 이용한 키워드 할당 방법)

  • Cho, Won-Chin;Rho, Sang-Kyu;Yun, Ji-Young Agnes;Park, Jin-Soo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.103-122
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    • 2011
  • Recently, numerous documents have been made available electronically. Internet search engines and digital libraries commonly return query results containing hundreds or even thousands of documents. In this situation, it is virtually impossible for users to examine complete documents to determine whether they might be useful for them. For this reason, some on-line documents are accompanied by a list of keywords specified by the authors in an effort to guide the users by facilitating the filtering process. In this way, a set of keywords is often considered a condensed version of the whole document and therefore plays an important role for document retrieval, Web page retrieval, document clustering, summarization, text mining, and so on. Since many academic journals ask the authors to provide a list of five or six keywords on the first page of an article, keywords are most familiar in the context of journal articles. However, many other types of documents could not benefit from the use of keywords, including Web pages, email messages, news reports, magazine articles, and business papers. Although the potential benefit is large, the implementation itself is the obstacle; manually assigning keywords to all documents is a daunting task, or even impractical in that it is extremely tedious and time-consuming requiring a certain level of domain knowledge. Therefore, it is highly desirable to automate the keyword generation process. There are mainly two approaches to achieving this aim: keyword assignment approach and keyword extraction approach. Both approaches use machine learning methods and require, for training purposes, a set of documents with keywords already attached. In the former approach, there is a given set of vocabulary, and the aim is to match them to the texts. In other words, the keywords assignment approach seeks to select the words from a controlled vocabulary that best describes a document. Although this approach is domain dependent and is not easy to transfer and expand, it can generate implicit keywords that do not appear in a document. On the other hand, in the latter approach, the aim is to extract keywords with respect to their relevance in the text without prior vocabulary. In this approach, automatic keyword generation is treated as a classification task, and keywords are commonly extracted based on supervised learning techniques. Thus, keyword extraction algorithms classify candidate keywords in a document into positive or negative examples. Several systems such as Extractor and Kea were developed using keyword extraction approach. Most indicative words in a document are selected as keywords for that document and as a result, keywords extraction is limited to terms that appear in the document. Therefore, keywords extraction cannot generate implicit keywords that are not included in a document. According to the experiment results of Turney, about 64% to 90% of keywords assigned by the authors can be found in the full text of an article. Inversely, it also means that 10% to 36% of the keywords assigned by the authors do not appear in the article, which cannot be generated through keyword extraction algorithms. Our preliminary experiment result also shows that 37% of keywords assigned by the authors are not included in the full text. This is the reason why we have decided to adopt the keyword assignment approach. In this paper, we propose a new approach for automatic keyword assignment namely IVSM(Inverse Vector Space Model). The model is based on a vector space model. which is a conventional information retrieval model that represents documents and queries by vectors in a multidimensional space. IVSM generates an appropriate keyword set for a specific document by measuring the distance between the document and the keyword sets. The keyword assignment process of IVSM is as follows: (1) calculating the vector length of each keyword set based on each keyword weight; (2) preprocessing and parsing a target document that does not have keywords; (3) calculating the vector length of the target document based on the term frequency; (4) measuring the cosine similarity between each keyword set and the target document; and (5) generating keywords that have high similarity scores. Two keyword generation systems were implemented applying IVSM: IVSM system for Web-based community service and stand-alone IVSM system. Firstly, the IVSM system is implemented in a community service for sharing knowledge and opinions on current trends such as fashion, movies, social problems, and health information. The stand-alone IVSM system is dedicated to generating keywords for academic papers, and, indeed, it has been tested through a number of academic papers including those published by the Korean Association of Shipping and Logistics, the Korea Research Academy of Distribution Information, the Korea Logistics Society, the Korea Logistics Research Association, and the Korea Port Economic Association. We measured the performance of IVSM by the number of matches between the IVSM-generated keywords and the author-assigned keywords. According to our experiment, the precisions of IVSM applied to Web-based community service and academic journals were 0.75 and 0.71, respectively. The performance of both systems is much better than that of baseline systems that generate keywords based on simple probability. Also, IVSM shows comparable performance to Extractor that is a representative system of keyword extraction approach developed by Turney. As electronic documents increase, we expect that IVSM proposed in this paper can be applied to many electronic documents in Web-based community and digital library.

HFC CATV 망의 전송 및 데이터 통신

  • 황승오;박종헌;박승권
    • Information and Communications Magazine
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.75-94
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    • 1998
  • In this paper, HFC CATV networks are introduced. HFC CATV networks are currently considered as a most effective and plausible solution for subscriber access networks in the information superhighway, among others such as ADSL and B-WLL. The advantages of HFC CATV networks include its broad upstream and downstream channel bandwidths, much wider than PSTN's and its readiness. The HFC CATV networks are already well spread among the general subscribers in Korea. This fact will shorten the installation period and significantly reduce its cost. In addition, The structure and channel environment of the HFC CATV networks are introduced. At the same time, in this paper included are major problems in the HFC CATV networks and the solutions for these problems. Also discussed are data transmission, medium access control, IEEE802.14, and MCNS for standardizations. Moreover, additional telecommunications service activities in both Korea and other countries, using HFC CATV networks are also included. The topics which are covered in detail are the ones such as interoperation between HFC CATV networks and trunk line and the digital transmission performance test for the CATV networks. In the performance test, it is concluded that HFC CATV networks can satisfy the QoS for various additional services if the number of the subscribers in a cell is limited to less than 500 and other minor requirements are satisfied. Based on all these discussions and conclusions, HFC CATV networks are suggested in this paper for the subscriber access networks of the so called information superhighway.

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Application of the QLF technology to monitor recovery rates of enamel caries lesions with human saliva (법랑질 병소 회복율 평가를 위한 QLF 기술의 적용)

  • Kim, Gyung-Min;Ku, Hye-Min;Lee, Eun-Song;Kang, Si-Mook;Jong, Elbert de Josselin de;Kwon, Ho-Keun;Kim, Baek-Il
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.156-164
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess changes in remineralization by stimulated human saliva over a short period of 48 hours with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology. Materials and Methods: Bovine incisor surfaces were demineralized for 10 days. Two types of stimulated saliva were collected from 7 healthy persons. 24 hours after tooth brushing (Stimulated saliva group) and immediately after tooth brushing with 1,000 ppm NaF dentifrice (Dentifrice saliva group). The specimens were immersed in saliva and fluorescence images were obtained by QLF-digital (QLF-D $biluminator^{TM}$,) at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours fluorescence loss (${\Delta}F%$) of the lesions. A paired t-test was performed to assess fluorescence differences between before (${\Delta}F_{baseline}$) and after (${\Delta}F_{treatment\;time}$) the remineralization process. Results: Before the remineralization, the mean ${\Delta}F_{baseline}$ of the initial demineralized specimens was $-18.42{\pm}0.15$ (%). In both groups, the ${\Delta}F$ values obtained at baseline and after 2 hours were statistically significant (P < 0.001), indicating recovery of the lesions by approximately 40% after 2 hours. After 48 hours, remineralization rates were slightly higher (49%) for the stimulated saliva group than for the dentifrice saliva group (41%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: With QLF minute degrees of remineralization by saliva can be measured in periods as short as 2 hours. Additionally no significantly higher effects of remineralization were observed in the dentifrice saliva group when compared to the stimulated saliva group.

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A Study on the Empowerment Experience of Parents in Poverty -An Example of Parents Participating in the We Start Program- (빈곤부모의 역량강화 경험 연구 -위스타트 사례관리 대상 부모를 중심으로-)

  • Nam, Soo-Huh;Heo, So-Young;Koh, Yun-Soon;Lee, Gyeong-uk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare
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    • no.40
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    • pp.167-199
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    • 2012
  • This study intends to investigate the empowerment experience of parents in poverty with a specific focus on those who participated in the We Start case management program. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. Study results are as follows. First, the empowerment stages were found to be 'being isolated and powerless at a dead-end', 'solving the problem together while receiving attention and respect', 'raising children with hope', and 'actively engaging with the world'. Second, the meaning of empowerment for parents in poverty was 'actively engaging with the world by raising children with hope'. Third, the results of empowerment were improved self-efficacy, improved relationships with children, improved cooperative relationship with the service provider, and participation in self-help groups and volunteer activities in the community. Fourth, empowerment process started through the 'development of trust relationship with service provider and getting help', and 'change in children.' Fifth, active formation of relationships with help professionals and provision of correct information facilitated parents' empowerment. Based on the study results, several suggestions were made for practitioners to empower parents in poverty.

LCD 연구 개발 동향

  • 이종천
    • The Magazine of the IEIE
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.76-80
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    • 2002
  • 'Liquid Crystal의 상전이(相轉移)와 광학적 이방성(異方性)이 1888년과 1889년 F. Reinitzer와 O. Lehmann에 의해 Monatsch Chem.과 Z.Physikal.Chem.에 각각 보고된 후 부터 제2차 세계대전이 끝난 뒤인 1950년대 까지는 Liquid Crystal을 단지실험실에서의 기초학문 차원의 연구 대상으로만 다루어 왔다. 1963년 Williams가 Liquid Crystal Device로는 최초로 특허 출원을 하였으며, 1968년 RCA사의 Heilmeier등은 Nematic 액정(液晶)에 저주파(低周波) 전압(電壓)을 인가하면 투명한 액정이 혼탁(混濁)상태로 변화하는 '동적산란(動的散亂)'(Dynamic Scattering) 현상을 이용하여 최초의 DSM(Dynamic Scattering Mode) LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)를 발명하였다. 비록 150V 이상의 높은 구동전압과 과소비전력의 특성 때문에 실용화에는 실패하였지만 Guest-Host효과와 Memory효과 등을 발견하였다. 1970년대에 이르러 실온에서 안정되게 사용 가능한 액정물질들이 합성되고(H. Kelker에 의해 MBBA, G. Gray에 의한 Cyano-Biphenyl 액정의 합성), CMOS 트랜지스터의 발명, 투명도전막(ITO), 수은전지등의 주변기술들의 발전으로 인하여 LCD의 상품화가 본격적으로 이루어지게 되었다. 1971년에는 M. Shadt, W. Helfrich, J.L. Fergason등이 TN(Twisted Nematic) LCD를 발명하여 전자 계산기와 손목시계에 응용되었고, 1970년대 말에는 Sharp에서 Dot Matrix형의 휴대형 컴퓨터를 발매하였다. 이러한 단순 구동형의 TN LCD는 그래픽 정보를 표시하는 데에는 품질의 한계가 있어 1979년 영국의 Le Comber에 의해 a-Si TFT(amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistor) LCD의 연구가 시작되었고, 1983년 T.J. Scheffer, J. Nehring, G. Waters에 의해 STN(Super Twisted Nematic) LCD가 창안되었고, 1980년 N. Clark, S. Lagerwall 및 1983년 K.Yossino에 의해 Ferroelectric LCD가 등장하여 LCD의 정보 표시량 증대에 크게 기여하였다. Color화의 진전은 1972년 A.G. Ficher의 셀 외부에 RGB(Red, Green, Blue) filter를 부착하는 방안과, 1981년 T. Uchida 등에 의한 셀 내부에 RGB filter를 부착하는 방법에 의해 상품화가 되었다. 1985년에는 J.L. Fergason에 의해 Polymer Dispersed LCD가 발명되었고, 1980년대 중반에 이르러 동화상(動畵像) 표시가 가능한 a-Si TFT LCD의 시제품(試製品) 개발이 이루어지고 1990년부터는 본격적인 양산 시대에 접어들게 되었다. 1990년대 초에는 STN LCD의 Color화 및 대형화(大型化) 고(高)품위화에 힘입어 Note-Book PC에 LCD가 본격적으로 적용이 되었고, 1990년대 후반에는TFT LCD의 표시품질 대비 가격경쟁력 확보로 인하여 Note-Book PC 시장을 독점하기에 이르렀다. 이후로는 TFT LCD의 대형화가 중요한 쟁점으로 부각되고 있고, 1995년 삼성전자는 당시 세계최대 크기의 22' TFT LCD를 개발하였다. 또한 LCD의 고정세(高情細)화를 위해 Poly Si TFT LCD의 개발이 이루어졌고, 디지타이져 일체형 LCD의 상품화가 그 응용의 폭을 넓혔으며, LCD의 대형화를 위해 1994년 Canon에 의해 14.8', 21' 등의 FLCD가 개발되었다. 대형화 방안으로 Tiled LCD 기술이 개발되고 있으며, 1995년에 Sharp에 의해 21' 두장의 Panel을 이어 붙인 28' TFT LCD가 전시되었고 1996년에는 21' 4장의 Panel을 이어 붙인 40'급 까지의 개발이 시도 되었으며 현재는 LCD의 특성향상과 생산설비의 성능개선과 안정적인 공정관리기술을 바탕으로 삼성전자에서 단패널 40' TFT LCD가 최근에 개발되었다. Projection용 디스플레이로는 Poly-Si TFT LCD를 이용하여 $25'{\sim}100'$사이의 배면투사형과 전면투사형 까지 개발되어 대형 TV시장을 주도하고 있다. 21세기 디지털방송 시대를 맞아 플라즈마디스플레이패널(PDP) TV, 액정표시장치 (LCD)TV, 강유전성액정(FLCD) TV 등 2005년에 약 1500만대 규모의 거대 시장을 형성할 것으로 예상되는 이른바 '벽걸이TV'로 불리는 차세대 초박형 TV 시장을 선점하기 위하여 세계 가전업계들이 양산에 총력을 기울이고 있다. 벽걸이TV 시장이 본격적으로 형성되더라도 PDP TV와 LCD TV가 직접적으로 시장에서 경쟁을 벌이는 일은 별로 없을 것으로 보인다. 향후 디지털TV 시장이 본격적으로 열리면 40인치 이하의 중대형 시장은 LCD TV가 주도하고 40인치 이상 대화면 시장은 PDP TV가 주도할 것으로 보는 시각이 지배적이기 때문이다. 그러나 이러한 직시형 중대형(重大型)디스플레이는 그 가격이 너무 높아서 현재의 브라운관 TV를 대체(代替)하기에는 시일이 많이 소요될 것으로 추정되고 있다. 그 대안(代案)으로는 비교적 저가격(低價格)이면서도 고품질의 디지털 화상구현이 가능한 고해상도 프로젝션 TV가 유력시되고 있다. 이러한 고해상도 프로젝션 TV용으로 DMD(Digital Micro-mirror Display), Poly-Si TFT LCD와 LCOS(Liquid Crystals on Silicon) 등의 상품화가 진행되고 있다. 인터넷과 정보통신 기술의 발달로 휴대형 디스플레이의 시장이 예상 외로 급성장하고 있으며, 요구되는 디스플레이의 품질도 단순한 문자표시에서 그치지 않고 고해상도의 그래픽 동화상 표시와 칼라 표시 및 3차원 화상표시까지 점차로 그 영역이 넓어지고 있다. <표 1>에서 보여주는 바와 같이 LCD의 시장규모는 적용분야 별로 지속적인 성장이 예상되며, 새로운 응용분야의 시장도 성장성을 어느 정도 예측할 수 있다. 따라서 LCD기술의 연구개발 방향은 크게 두가지로 분류할 수 있으며 첫째로는, 현재 양산되고 있는 LCD 상품의 경쟁력강화를 위하여 원가(原價) 절감(節減)과 표시품질을 향상시키는 것이며 둘째로는, 새로운 타입의 LCD를 개발하여 기존 상품을 대체하거나 새로운 시장을 창출하는 분야로 나눌 수 있다. 이와 같은 관점에서 현재 진행되고 있는 LCD기술개발은 다음과 같이 분류할 수 있다. 1) 원가 절감 2) 특성 향상 3) New Type LCD 개발.

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Patient dose in adult and pediatric dental panoramic radiography in Korea (성인과 소아에서 치과 파노라마방사선검사의 환자선량)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung;Han, Won-Jeong;Kim, Kyoung-A;Lee, Wan;Yoon, Suk-Ja;Hwang, Eui-Hwan;Kim, Gyu-Tae;Heo, Min-Suk;An, Chang-Hyeon;An, Seo-Young;Han, Jin-Woo;Jung, Yun-Hoa
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.55 no.8
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    • pp.516-526
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To suggest diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for dental panoramic radiography in adults and children through the nationwide survey in Korea. Materials and Methods: Two hundred twelve dental institutions on a national basis were visited. The radiographic examination protocols were surveyed and their patient doses at the clinical exposure setting for adult and children (5- and 10-year old) were measured at 244 panoramic radiographic equipment. The measured DAP were analyzed and compared according to age group, the size of hospital, the type of radiographic system, the installation duration of equipment. Results: The mean exposure parameters were 70.1 kV, 9.2 mA, 14.4 second for adult and 66.6 kV, 7.9 mA, 13.8 second for 10-year old child and 65.5 kV, 7.3 mA, 13.7 second for 5-year old child. The mean and third quartile patient DAPs were $138.3mGy\;cm^2$ and $151.0mGy\;cm^2$ for adult, $99.5mGy\;cm^2$ and $104.8mGy\;cm^2$ for 10-year old child and $89.5mGy\;cm^2$ and $95.5mGy\;cm^2$ for 5-year old child. The mean patient dose at the university dental hospital was lower than that at the dental clinic (p<0.05). The mean patient dose of direct digital radiography type was higher than that of film-based type. However, the difference did not show statistically significance. Conclusion: DRLs for dental panoramic radiography in adult, 10- and 5-year old child were suggested to be $151mGy\;cm^2$, $105mGy\;cm^2$, and $96mGy\;cm^2$ in Korea based on this nationwide survey.

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