• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestive tract cancer

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Emerging and Established Global Life-Style Risk Factors for Cancer of the Upper Aero-Digestive Tract

  • Gupta, Bhawna;Johnson, Newell W.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.5983-5991
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    • 2014
  • Introduction: Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. Methodological Approach: The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Risk Factors: Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Conclusions: Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

Meta-analysis of Association Studies of CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms with Digestive Tract Cancers Susceptibility in Chinese

  • Liu, Chang;Jiang, Zheng;Deng, Qian-xi;Zhao, Ya-nan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4689-4695
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    • 2014
  • Background: A great number of studies have shown that cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) genetic polymorphisms, CYP1A1 Msp I and CYP1A1 Ile/Val, might be risk factors for digestive tract cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cancer (GC), hepatic carcinoma (HC), as well as colorectal cancer (CC), but the results are controversial. In this study, a meta-analysis of this literature aimed to clarify associations of CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms with digestive tract cancers susceptibility in Chinese populations. Materials and Methods: Eligible case-control studies published until December 2013 were retrieved by systematic literature searches from PubMed, Embase, CBM, CNKI and other Chinese databases by two investigators independently. The associated literature was acquired through deliberate search and selection based on established inclusion criteria. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95%CIs). The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 12.0 softwares with stability evaluated by both stratified and sensitivity analyses. Moreover, sensitivity analysis and publication bias diagnostics confirmed the reliability and stability. Results: Eighteen case-control studies with 1,747 cases and 2,923 controls were selected for CYP1A1 MspI polymorphisms, and twenty case-control studies with 3, 790 cases and 4, 907 controls for the CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphisms. Correlation associations between CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphisms and digestive tract cancers susceptibility were observed in four genetic models in the meta-analysis (GG vs AA:OR= 2.03, 95%CI =1.52- 2.72; AG vs AA: OR=1.26, 95%CI =1.07-1.48; [GG+AG vs AA] :OR =1.42, 95%CI=1.20-1.68, [GG vs AA+AG]:OR=1.80, 95%CI =1.40-2.31). There was no association between CYP1A1 Msp I polymorphisms and digestive tract cancers risk. Subgroup analysis for tumor type showed a significant association of CYP1A1 Ile/Val genetic polymorphisms with EC in China. However, available data collected by the study failed to reveal remarkable associations of GC or HC with CYP1A1 Ile/Val genetic polymorphisms and EC, GC or CC with CYP1A1 MspI genetic polymorphisms. Conclusions: Our results indicated that CYP1A1 Ile/Val genetic polymorphisms, but not CYP1A1 Msp I polymorphisms, are associated with an increased digestive tract cancers risk in Chinese populations. Additional well-designed studies, with larger sample size, focusing on different ethnicities and cancer types are now warranted to validate this finding.

Patterns of Upper Aero-digestive Tract Cancers in Kamrup Urban District of Assam: A Retrospective Study

  • Sharma, Jagannath Dev;Kalita, Manoj;Barman, Debanjana;Sharma, Arpita;Lahon, Ranjan;Barbhuiya, Jamil Ahmed;Deka, Barsha;Kataki, Amal Chandra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7267-7270
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    • 2014
  • Background: The incidence of upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers, including C00-C14, C30-C32, C15 and C16, is increasing rapidly in Kamrup Urban District (KUD) of Assam, North East (NE) India. According to the NCRP (2013) report 37.6% of all cancers in both sexes are UADT cancers in the NE region, accounting for 53.3% in males and about 27.5% in females of the total cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted for patient information from the period of 2008-2011. Age-standardized or age-adjusted rates (ASR or AAR) (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated using the World Standard Population as proposed by Segi and modified by Doll et al. The registry population area at risk was estimated using the 1991 and 2001 census population by sex, as well as the growth rate during that interval using the difference distribution method. Results: There were 5,638 cases registered during the last four years of the study (2008-2011) accounting for 56.7% (3,198/5,638) of the total in males and 43.3% (2,440/5,638) in females. The male: female ratio was 1.31:1.00. The overall age adjusted rates (AAR) were 179.4 and 153.8 per 100 000 males and females respectively. Cancer of the oesophagus was most common in both sexes, with most appreciable gender variation for tongue and hypopharynx, presumably reflecting differential expsoure to risk factors.

NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T Gene Polymorphism Association with Digestive Tract Cancer: A Meta-analysis

  • Zhu, Cheng-Lin;Huang, Qiang;Liu, Chen-Hai;Lin, Xian-Sheng;Xie, Fang;Shao, Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2349-2354
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    • 2013
  • NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the risk for digestive tract cancer (DTC) in many studies; however, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to derive a more precise estimation of any associations. Electronic searches were conducted on links between this variant and DTC in several databases through April 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of associations in fixed or random effect models. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. A total of 21 case-control studies were identified, including 6,198 cases and 7,583 controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between the NQO1 C609T polymorphism and DTC risk (TT vs. CC: OR=1.224, 95%CI=1.055-1.421; TT/CT vs. CC: OR=1.195, 95%CI=1.073-1.330; TT vs. CT/CC: OR=1.183, 95%CI=1.029-1.359; T vs. C: OR=1.180, 95%CI=1.080-1.290). When stratified for tumor location, the results based on all studies showed the variant allele 609T might have a significantly increased risk of upper digest tract cancer (UGIC), but not colorectal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we observed a significantly risk for DTC in Caucasians. For esophageal and gastric cancer, a significantly risk was found in both populations, and for colorectal, a weak risk was observed in Caucasians, but not Asians. This meta-analysis suggested that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism may increase the risk of DTC, especially in the upper gastric tract.

Cyclooxygenase-2 Promoter 765C Increase of Digestive Tract Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population: a Meta-analysis

  • Xu, Yan-Song;Zhao, Bo;Long, Chen-Yan;Li, Hui;Lu, Xing;Liu, Gang;Tang, Xiao-Zhun;Tang, Wei-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4563-4566
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    • 2014
  • Background: To evaluate relationship between the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter 765G/C polymorphism and digestive cancer risk in China. Materials and Methods: A literature search through February 2014 was performed using PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, and a meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.2 software for odds ratios and 95%CIs. Results: In total, 9 articles with 3,263 cases and 4,858 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95%CIs) in the co-dominant model (GC vs GG) was 1.56 [1.19, 2.06], and in the dominant model ((CC+GC) vs GG), the pooled OR was 1.59 [1.21, 2.09] in overall cancers. In the subgroup analysis, stratified by cancer type, significant associations were found that the-765C allele had increased pancreatic cancer and gastric risk. No significant liver cancer and colorectal cancer risk of COX-2 -765G/C polymorphism was found. Conclusions: These findings suggest that COX-2-765*C is related to cancer susceptibility and may increase gastric and pancreatic cancer risk.

MiR-34b/c rs4938723 Polymorphism Significantly Decreases the Risk of Digestive Tract Cancer: Meta-analysis

  • Ji, Tian-Xing;Zhi, Cheng;Guo, Xue-Guang;Zhou, Qiang;Wang, Guo-Qiang;Chen, Bo;Ma, Fei-Fei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6099-6104
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    • 2015
  • Background: Previous studies investigating the association between miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and cancer risk showed inconclusive. Here, we performed meta-analysis to investigate the association between miR- 34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and digestive cancer risk. Materials and Methods: Literature database including PubMed, OVID, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for publications concerning the association between the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and digestive cancer risk. Results: A total of 6 studies consisting of 3246 cases and 3568 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The combined analysis suggested the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism significantly reduced digestive cancer risk under allelic model, homogeneous co-dominant model and recessive model (C vs T: OR=0.88, 95%CI=0.82-0.95, p-value=0.001; CC vs TT: OR =0.67, 95%CI=0.57-0.80, p-value=0.000; CC vs TT/TC: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.58-0.80, p-value=0.000). Q-test and I2 test revealed no significant heterogeneity in all genotype comparisons. The Begger's funnel plot and Egger's test did not show significant publication bias. Conclusions: The current evidence supports the conclusion that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism decreases an individual's susceptibility to digestive cancers.

Factors for Postoperative Gallstone Occurrence in Patients with Gastric Cancer: a Meta-analysis

  • Chen, Xiang-Jun;Li, Nian;Huang, Ying-De;Ren, Shuang;Liu, Fang;Chen, Lian;Wang, Yong;Chen, Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.877-881
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To evaluate risk factors for gallstones after gastrectomy. Methods: To identify documents published from 1990 to 2011 the Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Springer Link, CBM and WanFang databases were searched and a meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.2 software for odds ratios and 95%CIs. Results: Fifteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis. The pooled ORs [95%CIs] were 0.56 [0.43, 0.73], (P<0.0001) for digestive tract reconstruction, 0.80 [0.54, 1.17], (P=0.25) for pylorus preservation, 0.33[0.15, 0.75], (P=0.008) for resection scope of stomach, 0.33 [0.15, 0.75], (P=0.008) for lymphadenectomy, and 0.13 [0.05, 0.33], (P<0.0001) for vagotomy. Conclusions: Digestive tract physical reconstruction and vagus nerve preservation can reduce the morbidity of gallstones after gastrectomy. Total gastrectomy can add to the morbidity of galltones as does increasing the degree of lymph node dissection. There was no significant difference in gallstones with or without pylorus preservation.

A Case of Small Bowel GIST Initially Suspected as Peritoneal Seeding of Gastric Cancer

  • Jo, Dae-Hyeun;Song, Jeong-Yoon;Kim, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.137-140
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    • 2010
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) constitute the most common primary mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract and characteristically express c-kit (CD117). GISTs are the most common non-epithelial tumor of the GI tract and frequently originate from the stomach and small bowel. Specifically, the synchronous occurrence of a GIST with other epithelial tumors is rarely reported. Recently, we discovered one case of a concurrent gastric cancer and a small bowel GIST that was initially suspected to be peritoneal seeding from gastric cancer. The patient was initially admitted with epigastric pain. Gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding was suspected after an evaluation. Following a laparoscopic examination, a distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and small-intestine segmental resection was performed. The final pathologic diagnosis was early gastric cancer and high-risk small bowel GIST. The patient refused adjuvant therapy for the GIST, and currently shows no other marked indisposition. He has been disease-free for 14 months.

Gemcitabine Alone or in Combination with Cisplatin for Advanced Biliary Tract Carcinomas: an Overview of Clinical Evidence

  • Sun, Tian-Tian;Wang, Ji-Lin;Fang, Jing-Yuan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.877-883
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    • 2013
  • Background and Objective: There has been no universally agreed standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with advanced biliary tract carcinomas (BTC). We aimed to fully display and evaluate the clinical evidence for gemcitabine or gemcitabine-cisplatin combination for advanced BTC. Methods: Systematic searches were performed to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and uncontrolled trials. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rates (ORR), tumor control rates (TCR), and toxicity were evaluated. Evidence levels of the results were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results: Results of the eleven gemcitabine-cisplatin trials and ten gemcitabine trials showed both chemotherapy regimens had benefits with reference to mean OS (8.63 vs. 8.79 months), mean PFS (4.86 vs. 4.72 months), pooled ORR (25.3% vs. 19.6%) and TCR (55.2% vs. 53.1%). Two RCTs showed the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination to prolong the mean PFS (mean difference [MD] 2.57, 95%CI 1.69 3.45), substantially increasing the mean OS (MD 3.59, 95% CI 3.48 3.71), and producing a similar effect in ORR (risk ratio [RR] 1.59, 95%CI 1.04 2.43), increasing TCR (RR 1.15, 95%CI 1.02 1.31) compared with gemcitabine alone, with generally manageable grade 3 or 4 adverse events. The evidence level of OS was moderate, and other outcomes (ORR, PFS, TCR, anaemia, neutropenia) were at low evidence levels. Conclusion: Available evidence was limited with low quality, which showed that both gemcitabine-cisplatin and gemcitabine alone had clinical activity with acceptable safety profiles, and gemcitabine-cisplatin appeared to be more useful for advanced BTC patients than gemcitabine alone.

Population Based Study of the Association Between Binge Drinking and Mortality from Cancer of Oropharynx and Esophagus in Korean Men: the Kangwha Cohort Study

  • Jung, Sang Hyuk;Gombojav, Bayasgalan;Park, Eun-Cheol;Nam, Chung Mo;Ohrr, Heechoul;Won, Jong Uk
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3675-3679
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    • 2014
  • We assessed the association between frequency of heavy binge drinking and mortality from oropharynx and esophagus cancer after controlling for the total volume of alcohol intake among Korean men. The cohort comprised 2,677 male residents in Kangwha County, aged 55 or older in March 1985, for their upper digestive tract cancer mortality for 20.8 years up to December 31, 2005. For daily binge drinkers versus non-drinkers, the hazard ratios (95% Cls) for mortality were 4.82 (1.36, 17.1) and 6.75 (1.45, 31.4) for oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers, respectively. Even after adjusting for the volume of alcohol intake, we found the hazard ratios for frequency of binge drinking and mortality of oropharyngeal or esophageal cancer to not change appreciably: the hazard ratios were 4.90 (1.00, 27.0) and 7.17 (1.02, 50.6), respectively. For esophageal cancer, there was a strong dose-response relationship. The frequency of heavy binge drinking and not just the volume of alcohol intake may increase the risk of mortality from upper digestive tract cancer, particularly esophageal cancer in Korean men. These findings need to be confirmed in further studies with a larger sample size.