• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestible Organic Matter

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Amount of Cassava Powder Fed as a Supplement Affects Feed Intake and Live Weight Gain in Laisind Cattle in Vietnam

  • Ba, Nguyen Xuan;Van, Nguyen Huu;Ngoan, Le Duc;Leddin, Clare M.;Doyle, Peter T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1143-1150
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    • 2008
  • An experiment was conducted in Vietnam to test the hypothesis that supplementation with cassava powder up to 2% of live weight (LW)/d (DM basis) would linearly increase digestible organic matter intake and LW gain of Laisind cattle. There were five treatments: a basal diet of elephant grass fed at 1.25% of LW and rice straw fed ad libitum or this diet supplemented with cassava powder, containing 2% urea, at about 0.3, 0.7, 1.3 or 2.0% LW. The cattle fed cassava powder at about 2.0% LW did not consume all of the supplement, with actual intake similar to the 1.3% LW treatment. Organic matter, digestible organic matter and digestible energy intakes increased (p<0.001) curvilinearly with increased consumption of cassava powder. Rice straw intake declined curvilinearly with increasing intake of cassava powder (p<0.001), and there was a small linear decline (p = 0.01) in grass intake. The substitution rate of cassava powder for forage was between 0.5 and 0.7 kg DM reduction in forage intake per kg DM supplement consumed, with no difference between treatments. Apparent digestibility of organic matter increased (p<0.001) in a curvilinear manner, while digestibility of neutral detergent fibre declined (p<0.001) in a curvilinear manner with increased consumption of cassava powder. Live weight gain increased (p<0.01) linearly with increased consumption of supplement. It was concluded that the amount of cassava powder fed should be limited to between 0.7 and 1.0% LW.

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Fresh, Ensiled and Pelleted Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Frond by Goats

  • Dahlan, I.;Islam, M.;Rajion, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1407-1413
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    • 2000
  • Oil palm frond (OPF) is a new non-conventional fibrous feed for ruminants. Evaluation on the nutritive values and digestibility of OPF was carried out using goats. In a completely randomised design, 20 local male goats were assigned to evaluate fresh and different types of processed OPF. A 60 day feeding trial was done to determine the digestible nutrient intake of fresh, ensiled and pelleted OPF and its response on live weight gain of goat. The pelleting of OPF increased (p<0.05) intake compared to fresh or ensiled OPF. The OPF based mixed pellet (50% OPF with 15% palm kernel cake, 6% rice bran, 6% soybean hull, 15% molasses, 2% fishmeal, 4% urea, 1.5% mineral mixture and 0.5% common salt) increased (p<0.05) nutrient intake, digestibility and reduced feed refusals. The mixed pellet also increased digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) at 80% and 63% level respectively than the fresh OPF. The increased digestible nutrient intake on the OPF based mixed pellet, resulted in increased live weight gain of goats. Furthermore, OPF has a good potential as a roughage source when it is used with concentrate supplement. OPF based formulated feed in a pelleted form could be used as a complete feed for intensive production of goat and other ruminants.

Influence of Dietary Butyrate on Growth Rate, Efficiency of Nutrient Utilization and Cost of Unit Gain in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Male Calves

  • Vidyarthi, V.K.;Kurar, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.474-478
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    • 2001
  • Eighteen Murrah male buffalo calves were allotted into three groups of six each. The calves in group I (control) were fed with whole milk, skim milk, calf starter and green maize fodder. The calves in group II (high butyric acid) and group III (low butyric acid) were fed with the same diet as control along with 24 ml and 12 ml of butyric acid/calf/day for 120 days, respectively for 120 days. Dry matter intake was higher in group II and III as compared with group I. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose was the highest in group II followed by group III and the control group. Body weight gain and conversion efficiency of dry matter, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients were better in group II. Cost of feed for per unit of live weight gain was the lowest in group II. It was concluded that dietary addition of butyric acid (24 ml/day) was economical and had positive effect on the performance of Murrah buffalo calves.

DEVELOPMENT OF STRAW BASED RATION FOR FEEDING RUMINANTS

  • Kibria, S.S.;Islam, M.R.;Saha, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 1991
  • A CRD experiment with thirty growing cross bred calves were assigned at random to three treatments rations. 1) $T_0$, 0% Urea + 20% M. O. cake, 2) $T_1$, 1% Urea + 10% M. O. cake and 3) $T_2$, 2% Urea + 0% M. O. cake to develop a rice straw based ration for ruminants. Sweetish odour and yellowish colour were observed in good recovered silage. Organic matter varied from 87.45% to 89.63% whereas crude protein varied from 14.0% to 14.5% in each treatment. No significant differences were found among the nutrient composition of the ration. The dry matter in take (DMI) and dry matter digestibility was higher in $T_0$ (0% Urea) than those of ration containing 1% ($T_1$) and 2% Urea ($T_2$). The organic matter digestibility decreases with increasing doses of urea. The crude protein & nitrogen-free-extract digestibility were found higher in the ration $T_1$ containing 1% urea whereas crude fibre digestibility and available metabolizable energy (ME) were higher in $T_0$ containing no urea as compared to $T_1$ and $T_2$. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) decreases with the increase of urea level. The highest feed efficiency was found in $T_0$ having no urea and lowest was in $T_2$. The animals gained in weights from each ration. Highest gain in weight was found in $T_0$ ration, then followed $T_1$, and $T_2$. This is due to natural protein available in M. O. cake only. It is concluded that supplemetation of urea or M. O. cake with readily available energy source as molasses upto 20% of total dietary dry matter in a complete ration may increase the intake of low quality fibrous roughage only when nitrogen and mineral are not limiting factor.

Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, protein and energy of native Peruvian feedstuffs in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

  • Ortiz-Chura, Abimael;Pari-Puma, Ruth Milagro;Huanca, Francisco Halley Rodriguez;Ceron-Cucchi, Maria Esperanza;Aranibar, Marcelino Jorge Aranibar
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.32.1-32.7
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    • 2018
  • Trout production is a growing activity in recent years but requires new alternative sources of feed to be sustainable over time. The objective of this research was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and digestible energy (DE) of $ka{\tilde{n}}iwa$ (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sacha inchi, (Plukenetia volubilis L) and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) meal in juvenile rainbow trout. The experimental diets were composed of a 70% basal diet and 30% of any raw materials. The ADC was determined by the indirect method using insoluble ash as a non-digestible marker. Jumbo squid, sacha inchi and quinoa showed the highest values of ADC (%) of DM (84.5, 73.5 and 69.7), OM (89.1, 78.4 and 72.9), CP (93.2, 98.0 and 90.3), and DE (4.57, 4.15 and 2.95 Mcal/kg DM), respectively. The ADC values for $ka{\tilde{n}}iwa$, kiwicha and bean were significantly lower. In conclusion, quinoa meal and jumbo squid meal have an acceptable digestibility but sacha inchi meal is a potential alternative for rainbow trout feeding in the future.

Comparison of the Digestibility of Grain and Forage by Sheep, Red and Fallow Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Miao, Z.H.;Swanson, K.;Falkenberg, S.;Wyatt, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.800-805
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare digestibility of 12 diets in sheep, red and fallow deer. No differences (p>0.05) between sheep, red and fallow deer in digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and digestible energy content for all diets were found except for the sorghum diet and medic hay. Sheep and fallow deer digested the sorghum diet better than red deer. An in vitro study showed that sheep had a lower in vitro dry matter digestibility and digestible energy content than both red and fallow deer, with a significant interaction between animal species and feed ingredient. Deer digested straws and hays better (p<0.05) than sheep. In vitro digestibility was lower (p<0.05) than in vivo digestibility, but significantly correlated with in vivo digestibility for red and fallow deer. The in vitro method for digestibility estimation has potential as a rapid feed evaluation system for deer, but needs further validation.

Effects of Amount of Concentrate Supplement on Forage Intake, Diet Digestibility and Live Weight Gain in Yellow Cattle in Vietnam

  • Ba, Nguyen Xuan;Van Huu, Nguyen;Ngoan, Le Duc;Leddin, Clare M.;Doyle, Peter T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1736-1744
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    • 2008
  • Two experiments were conducted in central Vietnam to test the hypothesis that supplementation with a concentrate, comprising rice bran (45% fresh basis), maize (49%), fish meal (3%), urea (2%) and salt (1%), up to 2% of live weight (LW)/d (dry matter (DM) basis) would linearly increase digestible organic matter intake and LW gain of yellow cattle. In both experiments, there were five treatments, namely a basal diet of fresh grass fed at 1.25% of LW (experiment 1, elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum; experiment 2, native grass) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) fed ad libitum or this diet supplemented with concentrate at about 0.3, 0.7, 1.3 or 2.0% LW. There were 4 male growing cattle per treatment in experiment 1 and 3 in experiment 2. Diets were fed for 44 (experiment 1) or 49 (experiment 2) days, with feed intake recorded daily, LW measured about weekly and digestibility measurements made over 7 days commencing on day 24 (experiment 1) or day 10 (experiment 2). The elephant grass and native grass had neutral detergent fibre (NDF) concentrations of 82 and 73% DM, and nitrogen concentrations of 1.3 and 1.8% DM, respectively. The rice straw used had a NDF concentration of 79-84% DM and nitrogen concentration of 0.8% DM. The concentrate had NDF and nitrogen concentrations of 33 and 2.8% DM. In both experiments, DM intake increased (p<0.001) linearly as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. Rice straw intake declined (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.24 to 0.48 kg DM/d; experiment 2: 0.95 to 0.50 kg DM/d) as concentrate intake increased. Grass intake was not significantly affected by concentrate intake in either experiment. The lowest amount of concentrate supplement increased forage intake, after which substitution rate increased as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. However, substitution rates at the highest amount of concentrate consumed were modest at 0.3 to 0.5 kg DM reduction in forage intake/kg DM supplement consumed. In both experiments, digestible organic matter intake increased linearly (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.16 to 2.38 kg/d; experiment 2: 1.30 to 2.49 kg/d) as the amount of supplement consumed increased, as did LW gain (experiment 1: 0.15 to 0.81 kg/d; experiment 2: 0.15 to 0.77 kg/d). This was associated with significant (p<0.01) linear increases in organic matter intake and apparent organic matter digestibility. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility declined as concentrate intake increased, but the effect was not significant (p = 0.051) in experiment 2. These results are discussed in relation to existing literature and potential to improve the profitability of cattle fattening in central Vietnam.

EFFECT OF LEVEL OF FEED INTAKE ON THE EXCRETION OF PURINE DERIVATIVES AND PURINE DERIVATIVES TO CREATININE RATIO IN THE URINE OF SHEEP

  • Han, Y.K.;Shin, H.T.;Landis, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.465-468
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    • 1992
  • Urinary purine derivatives and creatinine excretion was measured in a total of 4 white Alpine sheep. They were given diets 718 to 1060 g/kg dry matter (DM) of roughage. The crude protein content of this diets was on average $93.87{\pm}5.57g$ in kg DM. Purine derivatives-N excretion increased linearly with incremental DM intake and was significantly correlated (n = 16) with amounts of digestible organic matter (DOM) intake: allantoin-N (mg) = 1.205 (${\pm}0.070$) $\times$ DOM (g) - 136.709 (${\pm}37.399$), r = 0.9770, RSD = 22.97; uricacid-N (mg) = 0.131 (${\pm}0.041$) $\times$ DOM (g) + 11.380 (${\pm}21.881$), r = 0.6306, RSD = 13.44; Hypoxanthine-N (mg) = 0.049 (${\pm}0.014$) $\times$ DOM (g) - 28.640 (${\pm}7.708$), r = 0.6544, RSD = 4.73; total purine derivatives-N (mg) = 1.385 (${\pm}0.083$) $\times$ DOM (g) - 90.261 (${\pm}44.552$), r = 0.9706, RSD = 27.47. Microbial protein synthesis per kg DOM was estimated of 113 g. The urinary creatinine-N excretion was on average 9.10 mg/kg live weight (LW) with a standard error of 0.12 mg creatinine-N per kg LW. The excretion of creatinine excreton was not related to feed intake. Daily creatinine excretion (mg/d) was calculated from individual LW measurements and the average creatinine excretion (mg/kg LW). It was possible to predict the daily urinary purine derivatives excretion (r = 0.9720 for allantoin, r = 0.9886 for total purine derivatives) from the ratio of purine derivatives (mg/100 ml) and creatinine (mg/100 ml) in the urine and the daily creatinine excretion.

Effects of particle size and adaptation duration on the digestible and metabolizable energy contents and digestibility of various chemical constituents in wheat for finishing pigs determined by the direct or indirect method

  • Fan, Yuanfang;Guo, Panpan;Yang, Yuyuan;Xia, Tian;Liu, Ling;Ma, Yongxi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.554-561
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted as a $3{\times}2{\times}2$ factorial design to examine the effects of particle size (mean particle size of 331, 640, or $862{\mu}m$), evaluation method (direct vs indirect method) and adaptation duration (7 or 26 days) on the energy content and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of various chemical components in wheat when fed to finishing pigs. Methods: Forty-two barrows ($Duroc{\times}Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) with an initial body weight of $63.0{\pm}0.8kg$ were individually placed in metabolic cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets with 6 pigs fed each diet. For the indirect method, the pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal based basal diet or diets in which 38.94% of the basal diet was substituted by wheat of the different particle sizes. In the direct method, the diets contained 97.34% wheat with the different particle sizes. For both the direct and indirect methods, the pigs were adapted to their diets for either 7 or 26 days. Results: A reduction in particle size linearly increased the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents as well as the ATTD of gross energy, crude protein, organic matter, ether extract (EE) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (p<0.05), and had a trend to increase the ATTD of dry matter of wheat (p = 0.084). The DE, ME contents, and ATTD of gross energy, crude protein, dry matter and organic matter were higher (p<0.05) when determined by the direct method, but the ATTD of ADF, EE, and neutral detergent fiber were higher when determined by the indirect method (p<0.05). Prolongation of the adaption duration decreased the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber (p<0.05) and had a trend to increase the ATTD of EE (p = 0.061). There were no interactions between particle size and the duration of the adaptation duration. The ATTD of EE in wheat was influenced by a trend of interaction between method and adaptation duration (p = 0.074). The ATTD of ADF and EE in wheat was influenced by an interaction between evaluation method and wheat particle size such that there were linear equations (p<0.01) about ATTD of ADF and EE when determined by the direct method but quadratic equations (p = 0.073 and p = 0.088, respectively) about ATTD of ADF and EE when determined by the indirect method. Conclusion: Decreasing particle size can improve the DE and ME contents of wheat; both of the direct and indirect methods of evaluation are suitable for evaluating the DE and ME contents of wheat with different particle sizes; and an adaptation duration of 7 d is sufficient to evaluate DE and ME contents of wheat in finishing pigs.

A Comparative Study on the Nutritive Value of Oak Browse (참나무 수엽의 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • 이인덕;이중해;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 1993
  • Browse from Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus mongolica Fisch.. Quercus serrata Thunb., Quercus acutissima Carruth., Quercus variabilies Blume, and Quercus dentata Thunb. were analyzed for crude protein (CP). crude fiber(CF). neutral detergent fiber(NDF). acid detergent fiber(ADF). cellulose. lignin, in vitro dry matter digestibility(DMD), and tannin acid equivalents(TAE). According to the chemical composition and DMD. the total digestible nutrients(TDN). digestible energy(DE), and metabolizable energy(ME) were estimated. Oak browse samples were collected from May through October from 1990 to 1992 in Mt. Kyeryong. Browse from Quercus aliena, Quercus acutissima, and Quercus serrata contained higher levels of CP, DMD. TDN, DE. and ME. but lower levels of CF, NDF. ADF, and TAE as compared with other oak browse. Differences among seasons and years in the concentration of CP. NDF, and organic matter digestibility(0MD) were significantly appeared in all oak browse(P<0.05). The order of preference ratings of oak browse were Quercus aliena ) Quercus acutissima ) Quercus serrata ) Quercus mongollca ) Quercus variabilies ) Quercus dentata. As the results of this study, it could be considered that Quercus aliena and Quercus acutisslma were more valuable browse source than others.

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