• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diffusion losses

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Comparison of Nano Particle Size Distributions by Different Measurement Techniques

  • Bae, Min-Suk;Oh, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.219-233
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    • 2010
  • Understanding the Nano size particles is of great interest due to their chemical and physical behaviors such as compositions, size distributions, and number concentrations. Therefore, accurate measurements of size distributions and number concentrations in ultrafine particles are getting required because expected losses such as diffusion for the instrument system from ambient inlet to detector are a significant challenge. In this study, the data using the computed settling losses, impaction losses, diffusion losses for the sampling lines (explored different sampling line diameters, horizontal length, number of bending, line angles, flow rates with and without a bypass), and diffusion losses for the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers are examined. As expected, the settling losses and impaction losses are very minor under 100 nm, however, diffusion loss corrections for the sampling lines and the size instrument make a large difference for any measurement conditions with high numbers of particles smaller mobility size. Both with and without the loss corrections, which can affect to size distributions and number concentrations are described. First, 80% or more of the smallest particles (less than 10 nm) can be lost in the condition of a flow rate of 0.3 liter per minute and the length of sampling line of 1.0 m, second, total number concentrations of measurements are quite significantly affected, and the mode structure of the size distribution changes dramatically after the loss corrections applied. With compared to the different measurements, statistically diffusion loss corrections yield a required process of the ambient particle concentrations. Based on the current study, as an implication, a possibility of establishing direct revelation mechanisms is suggested.

Prediction of Lithium Diffusion Coefficient and Rate Performance by using the Discharge Curves of LiFePO4 Materials

  • Yu, Seung-Ho;Park, Chang-Kyoo;Jang, Ho;Shin, Chee-Burm;Cho, Won-Il
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.852-856
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    • 2011
  • The lithium ion diffusion coefficients of bare, carbon-coated and Cr-doped $LiFePO_4$ were obtained by fitting the discharge curves of each half cell with Li metal anode. Diffusion losses at discharge curves were acquired with experiment data and fitted to equations. Theoretically fitted equations showed good agreement with experimental results. Moreover, theoretical equations are able to predict lithium diffusion coefficient and discharge curves at various discharge rates. The obtained diffusion coefficients were similar to the true diffusion coefficient of phase transformation electrodes. Lithium ion diffusion is one of main factors that determine voltage drop in a half cell with $LiFePO_4$ cathode and Li metal anode. The high diffusion coefficient of carbon-coated and Cr-doped $LiFePO_4$ resulted in better performance at the discharge process. The performance at high discharge rate was improved much as diffusion coefficient increased.

Radiation belt electron losses induced by wave-particle interactions

  • Summers, Danny
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.32.2-32.2
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    • 2009
  • We examine cyclotron resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with VLF chorus, plasmaspheric ELF hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Bounce-averaged diffusion rates depend on wave mode, equatorial pitch-angle, electron energy and L-shell. As well, diffusion rates can be sensitive to the latitudinal distributions of particle density and wave power. For different configurations of the plasmasphere, we calculate electron precipitation loss timescales due to combined scattering by VLF chorus, ELF hiss and EMIC waves.

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Off-design Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Pumps by Using TEIS model and Two-zone model (TEIS 모델과 두 영역 모델을 이용한 원심 펌프의 탈 설계 성능 예측)

  • Yoon, In-Ho;Baek, Je-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.574-579
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    • 2000
  • In this study. an off-design performance prediction program for centrifugal pumps is developed. To estimate the losses in an impeller flow passage, two-zone model and two-element in series(TEIS) model are used. At impeller exit. the mixing process occurs with an increase in entropy. In two-zone model. there are both primary zone and secondary zone for an isentropic core flow and an average of all non-isentropic streamtubes respectively. The level of the core flow diffusion in an impeller was calculated by using TEIS model. While internal losses in an impeller an automatically estimated by using the above models, some empirical correlations far estimating external losses. far example, disk friction loss, recirculation loss and leakage loss are used. In order to analyze the vaneless diffuser flow. the momentum equations for the radial and tangential directions are used and solved together with continuity and energy equations.

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Aerosol Losses in a 100L $Tedlar^{(R)}$ Bag

  • Oh, Sewon
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.E2
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2004
  • Aerosol losses in a 100L Tedlar$^{(R)}$ bag were investigated for the aerosols with number median diameter of 0.05 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and number concentration of 6.4 ${\times}$ 10$^4$ cm$^{-3}$ . Over a 1 hr period, loss of particles in the bag is apparent, and the volume decrease with time is significant. The number concentration, surface area, and volume concentration of the aerosols decreased to 34, 50, and 52% of the initial value in 30 min, respectively. This indicates that deposition to the walls was the main loss process for aerosols in the Tedlar$^{(R)}$ bag. Theoretical calculations showed that coagulations and deposition by diffusion and gravitational sedimentation would not change aerosol characteristics significantly, and the electrical force was the dominant loss process for particles in the Tedlar$^{(R)}$ bag over a 1 hr period.eriod.

Effect of Lateral Diffusion on Hydrogen Permeation Measurement in Thick Steel Specimens

  • Traidia, A.;El-Sherik, A.M.;Attar, H.;Enezi, A.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2017
  • A finite element analysis is proposed to study the effect of specimen dimensions on lateral diffusion of hydrogen during hydrogen permeation flux measurements. The error of measurement on thick specimens because of 1D diffusion approximation may be as much as 70%. A critical condition for accurate measurements is to designate the area of hydrogen monitoring/exit surface smaller than the area of hydrogen charging/entry surface. For thin to medium thickness specimens (ratio of thickness to specimen radius of 5:10 and below), the charging surface should be maximized and the monitoring surface should be minimized. In case of relatively thick specimens (ratio of thickness to specimen radius above of 5:10), use of a hydrogen-diffusion barrier on the specimen boundaries is recommended. It would completely eliminate lateral losses of hydrogen, but cannot eliminate the deviation towards 2D diffusion near the side edges. In such a case, the charging surface should be maximized and the monitoring surface should be as closer in dimension as the charging surface. A regression analysis was carried out and an analytical relationship between the maximum measurement error and the specimen dimensions is proposed.

THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF RELATIVISTIC PARTICLES IN AN INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM OF THE COMA CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

  • Kim, K.T.
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 1991
  • In the presence of synchrotron losses, diffusion of an ensembel of relativistic particles in an intraculster medium is investigated. The diffusion coefficient in the medium is found to be constrained by $28.8\;{\pm}\;0.4\;{\leq}\;Log\;D\;{\leq}\;30.5\;{\pm}\;0.4\;cm^2s^{-1}$ with the energy dependency of $D_0{\varepsilon}^{\mu}$ of ${\mu}=0.4{\pm}0.2$ as the previous observations suggested. As an important implication of the result, the brightest head-tail radio source NGC 4869, whose radio tail structure is indicative for its orbit within the cluster core, is considered to be the major contributor of particles for the formation of the Coma radio halo.

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Analysis of Agricultural Regional Economic Effect by Spatial Dispersal of Wildfire in Korea (산불의 공간적 확산이 농촌지역경제에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Kwon, J. Younghyun;Kim, Euijune
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to estimate regional economic effects of spatial diffusion of wildfire using Cobb-Douglas production function of agriculture and forestry. The analysis is applied to Gangwon and Gyeongbuk provinces where are the most damaged of wildfire in Korea. The damaged areas are derived from multiplied by the occurrence probability of wildfire and diffusion areas of wildfire for micro-spatial unit level with ArcGIS techniques. The models of wildfire provides that the spatial diffusion of wildfire increases with the rising of highest temperature and average wind speed. Through the production function, value added of Agriculture and Forest sectors get damaged where the Cos-converted slope aspect of mountains are toward the South. The production model provides reductions of regional value added by increasing damaged areas of wildfire. It reveals that the most damaged region is Andong city in Gyeongbuk province, where value added loss is 1.25 billion Won, which is about 0.72% of total value added in agriculture and forestry of the city. As a view of policy makers, it needs to be considered to establish prevention policies against wildfires because regional economic losses from wildfire are depending on geographical conditions and performances of the major industry related to wildfire's diffusion such as agriculture or tourism sector according to the result of analysis.

ENERGY SPECTRUM OF NONTHERMAL ELECTRONS ACCELERATED AT A PLANE SHOCK

  • Kang, Hye-Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2011
  • We calculate the energy spectra of cosmic ray (CR) protons and electrons at a plane shock with quasi-parallel magnetic fields, using time-dependent, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) simulations, including energy losses via synchrotron emission and Inverse Compton (IC) scattering. A thermal leakage injection model and a Bohm type diffusion coefficient are adopted. The electron spectrum at the shock becomes steady after the DSA energy gains balance the synchrotron/IC losses, and it cuts off at the equilibrium momentum $p_{eq}$. In the postshock region the cutoff momentum of the electron spectrum decreases with the distance from the shock due to the energy losses and the thickness of the spatial distribution of electrons scales as $p^{-1}$. Thus the slope of the downstream integrated spectrum steepens by one power of p for $p_{br}$ < p < $p_{eq}$, where the break momentum decreases with the shock age as $p_{br}\;{\infty}\;t^{-1}$. In a CR modified shock, both the proton and electron spectrum exhibit a concave curvature and deviate from the canonical test-particle power-law, and the upstream integrated electron spectrum could dominate over the downstream integrated spectrum near the cutoff momentum. Thus the spectral shape near the cutoff of X-ray synchrotron emission could reveal a signature of nonlinear DSA.

Performance Evaluation Method of Self-Healing Concrete Using Gas Diffusion Experiment (기체확산 실험을 활용한 자기치유 콘크리트의 성능평가 방법)

  • Lee, Do-Keun;Shin, Kyung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2020
  • Recently, research on self-healing concrete has been actively conducted, and various methods have been attempted for use in the maintenance of structures. However, contrary to the technical development of self-healing concrete, the method for evaluating the performance is insufficient. Although surface observation and permeability experiments are widely used to observe the healing of cracks, microscopic observation of surface may be insufficient to assess the overall performance. Also, permeation experiments should consider the losses caused by the dissolution of self-healed product and viscosity of water. Although a gas diffusion experiment have been proposed to overcome the shortcomings of these two test methods, verification has not been made on specimens with actual healing. Therefore, in this study, gas diffusion experiments were performed on the mortar specimens that had healed, and the adequacy of self-healing evaluation by the gas diffusion experiment was verified.