• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dietary fibre

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Dietary Fibre and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Case-Control Study

  • Song, Y;Liu, M;Yang, FG;Cui, LH;Lu, XY;Chen, C
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3747-3752
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in China. Dietary fibre has been thought to decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in Western countries. However, studies investigating the association between dietary fibre (particularly soluble and insoluble fibres) and colorectal cancer have hitherto been lacking in China. Objective: This case-control study examined the effect of dietary fibre intake on the risk of colorectal cancer, stratified by tumour site. Materials and Methods: The study included 265 cases (colon cancer, 105; rectal cancer, 144; colon and rectal cancer, 16) and 252 controls residing in Qingdao. A food frequency questionnaire that included 121 food items was used to collect dietary information. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: For food groups, controls in the study consumed more vegetables, soy food and total fibre than did colorectal cancer patients (p<0.05). The intakes of fruit, meat and sea-food did not differ significantly between cases and controls. However, we did not find any association between soy food intake and colon cancer. We observed inverse associations between total fibre intake and colorectal, colon and rectal cancer (Q4 vs Q1: OR=0.44, 95%CI, 0.27-0.73; OR=0.40, 95%CI, 0.21-0.76; OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.29-0.91). Vegetable fibre intake showed similar inverse associations (Q4 vs Q1: OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.31-0.85; OR=0.48, 95%CI, 0.25-0.91; OR=0.53, 95%CI, 0.29-0.97). In addition, inverse associations were observed between soluble fibre and insoluble fibre and both colorectal cancer and colon cancer. No relationship was found between colorectal cancer and fruit, soy or grain fibre intakewhen the results were stratified by tumour site. Conclusions: The present study suggests that vegetable fibre and total fibre play very important roles in protecting against colorectal cancer. Soluble and insoluble fibres were inversely associated with only colorectal cancer and colon cancer.

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets

  • Verma, Arun K.;Rajkumar, V.;Banerjee, Rituparna;Biswas, S.;Das, Arun K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.886-895
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I) and 1.0% (Treatment II) and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%), phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g) and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF) and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05) in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05) due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

Effect of wheat bran and dried carrot pomace addition on quality characteristics of chicken sausage

  • Yadav, Sanjay;Pathera, Ashok K.;Islam, Rayees Ul;Malik, Ashok K.;Sharma, Diwakar P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.729-737
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Effect of addition of wheat bran (WB) and dried carrot pomace (DCP) on sensory, textural, colour, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of chicken sausage were evaluated. Methods: WB and DCP were used as a source of dietary fibre at 3%, 6%, and 9% level individually. Different quality attributes of sausages were estimated. One product from each source with very good sensory acceptability was selected to analyze dietary fibre content and shelf life under refrigerated storage. Results: Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre enriched sausage was comparable with control and a further increase in fibre level resulted in a decrease in sensory acceptability. Fibre enriched sausages were significantly harder and less cohesive than control sausage. Significant increase in gumminess and chewiness was observed at 6% level in WB treated sausages and 9% level in DCP treated sausages. Moisture content decreased significantly in all treated sausages, protein content decreased significantly in DCP-2 and DCP-3 sausages while fat content decreased in all WB and DCP-3 treated sausages in comparison to control. The fibre enriched sausage had significantly higher dietary fibre and lower cholesterol content. Cooking yield and emulsion stability increased in treated sausages and a significant difference was noticed at 6% level in both types of sausages. pH of WB treated sausages was significantly higher and DCP treated sausage significantly lower in comparison to control. Conclusion: The results of present study indicate that fibre enriched chicken sausage with moderate acceptability can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP each up to 9% level. Chicken sausage with very good acceptability, higher dietary fibre content and storability up to 15 days at refrigerated temperature can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP at 6% level each.

Effects of Dietary Copper on Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility and Fibre Characteristics in Cashmere Goats

  • Zhang, Wei;Wang, Runlian;Zhu, Xiaoping;Kleemann, David O;Yue, Chungwang;Jia, Zhihai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1843-1848
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    • 2007
  • Thirty-six 1.5 year-old Inner Mongolian White Cashmere wether goats (body weight $28.14{\pm}1.33$ kg) were used to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) concentration on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and cashmere fibre characteristics. Wethers were fed a basal diet (containing 7.46 mg Cu/kg DM) that was supplemented with either 0 (control), 10, 20 or 30 mg Cu/kg DM. To ensure full consumption, animals were fed restrictedly with 0.75 kg feed (DM) in two equal allotments per day. The results indicated that: (1) supplemental 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the basal diet significantly (p<0.05) decreased ruminal fluid pH value and total VFA concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) increased on all Cu treatment groups. (2) Cu supplementation had no influence on DM intake and digestibility of DM, CP and ADF (p>0.05); however, NDF digestibility of groups supplemented with 10 and 20 mg Cu/kg DM were significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Apparent absorption and retention of copper were decreased with increasing level of supplementation. (3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM treatment significantly (p<0.05) improved cashmere growth rate, but cashmere diameter was not affected by Cu supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of cashmere goats with Cu at the rate of 10 to 20 mg/kg DM in the basal diet resulted in some changed rumen fermentation and was beneficial for NDF digestibility, while supplementation of 20 mg Cu/kg DM improved cashmere growth. Collectively, the optimal supplemental Cu level for cashmere goats during the fibre growing period was 20 mg/kg DM (a total dietary Cu level of 27.46 mg/kg DM).

Feeding Dry Sows Ad libitum with High Fibre Diets

  • Ru, Y.J.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.283-300
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    • 2004
  • Currently commercial dry sows are housed in individual stalls and subject to restricted feeding. These sows often show stereotypic behaviours which increase their maintenance energy requirement. Group housing is desirable to improve animal welfare and public perception. However, under restricted feeding systems, group-housed dry sows are also aggressive. The feed intake of these sows is variable, depending on their social rank, which results in different milk production and variable piglet performance. These problems can be solved by ad libitum feeding systems, but the large capacity of intake by dry sows will not allow this feeding system to be practical as high feeding level during pregnancy can reduce reproduction performance of sows. Current research indicates that feeding high fibre diets to dry sows enables sows to be fed ad libitum, but the effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and nutrient utilisation is dependent on the quality of fibre sources. Most research has focused on sugar beet pulp, straw, lucerne meal and by-products, but there is a need to identify and evaluate some widely available and cheap fibre materials and feed grains for developing the best strategy to control nutrient intake of dry sows while feeding ad libitum.

Duckweed as a Protein Source for Fine-Wool Merino Sheep: Its Edibility and Effects on Wool Yield and Characteristics

  • Damry, J.V. Nolan;Bell, R.E.;Thomson, E.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.507-514
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether duckweed is useful as a dietary protein source for fine-wool Merino sheep and to evaluate its effects on wool yield and characteristics. In Experiment 1, the sheep were given one of three maintenance diets consisting of oaten chaff (520-700 g/d) supplemented with 16-32 g crude protein/d in the form of fresh (1 kg/d) or sun-dried (50-100 g/d) duckweed. Each ration was estimated to provide 5.4 MJ (1.3 Mcal)/d of metabolisable energy (ME). The sheep readily ingested the fresh or dried duckweed. None of the wool measures (yield, rate of fibre elongation, fibre diameter) differed (p>0.05) between dietary treatments. In Experiment 2, oaten-chaff-based diets (800 g/d) supplying 6.5-7.2 MJ (1.6-1.7 Mcal)/d of ME were supplemented with iso-nitrogenous amounts (4-5 g N) either of urea (8 g), cottonseed meal (60 g) or dried duckweed (100 g). In this experiment, the rate of wool fibre elongation, thought to be related to intestinal amino acid absorption, was lower (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given either oaten chaff/cottonseed meal or oaten chaff/duckweed for which the rates did not differ (p>0.05). Fibre diameter, which ranged from 16.0-16.7 mm, did not differ (p>0.05) between diets, but tended to be lower on the oaten chaff/urea diet so that volume of wool produced was also significantly lower (p<0.05) on this diet than on the diets containing duckweed or cottonseed meal. Rumen ammonia concentrations at 4.5 and 7.5 h after feeding were higher (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given the other two diets. A comparison of the rumen ammonia concentrations, wool growth rate and predicted flows of amino acids from the rumen of sheep supplemented with duckweed rather than cottonseed meal suggested that duckweed is a valuable source of 'escape protein' for ruminants.

Influence of Dietary Butyrate on Growth Rate, Efficiency of Nutrient Utilization and Cost of Unit Gain in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Male Calves

  • Vidyarthi, V.K.;Kurar, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.474-478
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    • 2001
  • Eighteen Murrah male buffalo calves were allotted into three groups of six each. The calves in group I (control) were fed with whole milk, skim milk, calf starter and green maize fodder. The calves in group II (high butyric acid) and group III (low butyric acid) were fed with the same diet as control along with 24 ml and 12 ml of butyric acid/calf/day for 120 days, respectively for 120 days. Dry matter intake was higher in group II and III as compared with group I. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose was the highest in group II followed by group III and the control group. Body weight gain and conversion efficiency of dry matter, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients were better in group II. Cost of feed for per unit of live weight gain was the lowest in group II. It was concluded that dietary addition of butyric acid (24 ml/day) was economical and had positive effect on the performance of Murrah buffalo calves.

Effect of Dietary Structural to Nonstructural Carbohydrate Ratio on Rumen Degradability and Digestibility of Fiber Fractions of Wheat Straw in Sheep

  • Tan, Z.-L.;Lu, D.-X.;Hu, M.;Niu, W.-Y.;Han, C.-Y.;Ren, X.-P.;Na, R.;Lin, S.-L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1591-1598
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    • 2002
  • The effect of different dietary structural carbohydrate (SC) to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) ratios on fiber degradation, digestion, flow, apparent digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics was studied with a design using 18 wethers fitted with permanent rumen and duodenum cannulae. All sheep were divided into six groups randomly, receiving six diets with varying SC to NSC ratios. All diets contained the same proportion of wheat straw and concentrate. The dietary SC to NSC ratios were adjusted by adding cornstarch to the concentrate supplements. The duodenal and fecal flows of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose (HC) and cellulose (CEL) were estimated using chromium-mordanted wheat straw as a flow marker. The degradation parameters of wheat straw DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL were determined by incubating the ground wheat straw in nylon bags in the rumen for different periods of time. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the different dietary SC to NSC ratios on rumen pH or $NH_3$-N, but acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were significantly affected (p<0.05 or p<0.01) by dietary SC to NSC ratios in the rumen fluid. When the dietary SC to NSC ratio was 2.86, the highest rumen degradability of wheat straw DM, NDF, ADF and CEL was found, but the highest apparent rumen digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL occurred at a 2.64 SC to NSC ratio. However, because of compensatory digestion in the hindgut, the apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL were highest when the dietary SC to NSC ratio was 2.40. In conclusion, there is a optimal range of dietary SC to NSC ratios (between 2.86 and 2.40) that is beneficial to maximize wheat straw fiber degradation and apparent digestibility.