• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dietary Protein

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Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels for Growth of Long-nosed Barbel, Hemibarbus longirostris

  • Kim, Yi-Oh;Hwang, Gyu-Deok;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2009
  • A 10-week feeding trial with four dietary protein levels (22%, 32%, 42% and 52%) and two dietary lipid levels (8% and 17%) was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for growth of long-nosed barbel fingerlings. Survival rate of fish was not affected by either the dietary protein or the dietary lipid level. Weight gain and feed efficiency were affected by the dietary protein level (P<0.01), but not by the lipid level, and increased with the dietary protein level at the both lipid levels. Weight gain and feed efficiency of fish fed the 52% protein diets with 8-17% dietary lipids were not significantly different from those of fish fed the 42% protein diets with 8-17% dietary lipids and 32% protein diet with 17% dietary lipid. Daily feed intake of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Protein efficiency ratio and protein retention rate of fish fed the 32% protein diet with 17% dietary lipid were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 52% protein diets with 8-17% dietary lipids. Moisture content of fish fed the diets containing 8% lipid were higher than those of fish fed the diets containing 17% dietary lipid at each protein level. Crude lipid content of fish fed the diets containing 17% dietary lipid were higher than that of fish the fed the diet containing 8% dietary lipid at each protein level. The results of this study indicated that 32% protein and 17% lipid could be the optimum dietary level for growth of juvenile long-nosed barbel.

Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth, Feed Utilization and Body Composition of Adult Starry Flounder (Platichthys stellatus)

  • Lee Jong Ha;Cho Sung Hwoan;Lim Han Kyu;Kim Kyoung-Duck;Lee Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2004
  • A 25-week feeding trial of two dietary protein (47 and $52\%$) and three dietary lipid level (7, 12 and $17\%$) factorial design with three replications were conducted to determine effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, feed utilization and body composition of adult starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), average initial weight 332 g, during the winter season. Survival of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio improved with dietary protein and lipid levels except for those of fish fed the $52\%$ protein diet with $17\%$ lipid. The best growth and feed utilization were observed in the $52\%$ protein diet with $12\%$ lipid, but were not significantly different from those of fish fed the $52\%$ protein diet with $17\%$ lipid or the $47\%$ protein diets with $17\%$ lipid levels. Hepatosomatic and visceral somatic indexes were significantly influenced by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level. None of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, or glycogen contents of dorsal muscle or liver in starry flounder except for crude lipid in dorsal muscle was significantly influenced by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly influenced by both dietary protein and dietary lipid levels. The results of this study suggest that the diets containing $47\%$ protein with $17\%$ lipid or $52\%$ protein with $12-17\%$ lipid are optimal for growth and feed utilization of adult starry flounder under these experimental conditions.

Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels for Growth of Juvenile Israeli Carp Cyprinus carpio

  • Aminikhoei, Zahra;Choi, Jin;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2015
  • A feeding trial of four dietary protein levels (20, 30, 40, and 50%) and two lipid levels (7 and 14%) with a factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile Israeli carp Cyprinus carpio. Triplicate groups of fish (average body weight, $1.3{\pm}0.02g$) were fed the experimental diets for 9 weeks. Survival of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Weight gain and feed efficiency increased as dietary protein levels increased up to 40 and 50%, respectively. Weight gain was higher in fish fed the high-lipid diets with 20 and 40% protein content. Feeding efficiency increased as the dietary lipid level increased for the 30, 40, and 50% protein diets. Daily feed intake decreased with increasing protein level and the minimum feed consumption was observed in fish fed the 50% protein diet with 14% lipid content. Moisture and lipid contents of the whole body were affected by both dietary protein and lipid levels. The crude lipid content of fish fed the 14% lipid diet was higher than that of fish fed the 7% lipid diet at each protein level. The results of this study indicate that a diet containing 40% protein with 14% lipid content is optimal for the growth and effective protein utilization of juvenile Israeli carp.

Effects of dietary Cadmium and Protein Levels on the Body Protein Metabolism and Cadmium Toxicity in Growing Rats (식이내 Cadmium과 단백질 수준이 흰쥐의 체내 단백질 대사 및 Cadmium 중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 이혜영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.410-420
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    • 1988
  • This study were performed to investigate effect of dietary cadmium(Cd) and protein levels on growth, body protein metabolism and Cd toxicity in growing rats. Forty eight male rats of Sprague-Dawley weighing 113$\pm$2g were blocked into 6 groups accoridng to body weight. Dietary protein were given at the levels of 7, 15 and 40% of diet and Cd (200ppm)were either added or not. The result obtained were summerized as follow; 1) Food intake, weight gain, FER PER, liver and kidney weight, weight and length of bones, hematocrit, and hemoglobin content in Cd-added groups were low than those in Cd-free groups. 2) Serum total protein showed no significant difference with Cd addition, but it was significantly lower in low protein diet groups. Liver protein in Cd-added groups was lower than Cd-free groups, and was tend to be increased with increasing dietary protein level. 3) Daily urinary and fecal nitrogen excretions in Cd-added groups were lower than Cd-free groups, and were increased with increasing dietary protein level. 4) Cadmium contents in blood, liver, kidney, and femur were tend to be decreased with increasing dietary protein level. Especially, Cd content in kidney of Cd-added groups was significantly decreased with increasing dietary protein level. 5) Daily urinary and fecal Cd excretions were tend to be increased with increasing dietary protein level, and Cd-added-high protein diet group showed the highest Cd excretion among the Cd-added groups, Cd absorption ration and Cd retention ratio were tend to be decreased with increasing dietary protein level.

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Effects of Dietary Protein Levels on Organ Growth and Protein Metabolism in Early and Normally Weaned Rats (단백질 섭취수준이 조기 이유 및 정상이유 흰쥐의 기관성장과 단백질 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 박미나
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1998
  • This study was designed to examine how dietary protein levels affect organ growth and protein metabolism in early and normally weaned rats. Early and normally weaned rats separated fro the dam on the 15th and 121st day postpartum, respectively. were fed diets containing three levels of protein : low(10%) , normal (20%),and high(40%) . On the 35th day, the weight and DNA, RNA and protein contents in brain , liver, and kidney were determined to ascertain organ and cellular growth. Furthermore, serum total protein , albumin , $\alpha$-amino N and creatine and urinary urea N, and creatinine were determined in order to ascertain protein metabolism and renal functions. Dietary protein levels were not observed to significantly affect total DNA content, which may represent an index of cell number in the liver, brain and kidney. Fresh weight and protein/DNA ratio, which may represent indices of cell size, significantly increased in proportion to dietary protein in the kidney. As for the early weaned rats , the liver cell size significantly decreased. Dietary protein levels and weaning periods did not affect serum total protein and albumin . However, serum urea-N significantly increased in proportion to dietary protein levels whereas serum $\alpha$-amino N was decreased by early weaning . Nitrogen retention was lower in early weaned rats fed low or high levels of protein than in normally weaned rats. The results demonstrate that low or high levels of dietary protein have less desirable effects on protein metabolism in prematurely weaned rats.

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Optimum Dietary Protein Level of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) (은어 사료의 적정 단백질 함량)

  • 이상민;김경덕
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to determine the protein requirement of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis). Two replicate groups of fish initially averaging 6.6 g were fed the five isocaloric diets containing different protein level from 29% to 57% in a flow-through freshwater system for 25 days. White fish meal was used as a sole protein source. Weight gain and feed efficiency of fish increased significantly with dietary protein level up to 43% (P<0.05) with no additional response above this level. Protein and lipid retention, moisture, protein and lipid contents of body were not affected by dietary protein levels (P>0.05). Daily protein intake increased significantly with dietary protein level, whereas protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 57% dietary protein decreased (P<0.05). The data obtained in this study indicate that a 43% dietary protein level could be recommended for the optimum growth of ayu.

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Effect of dietary protein and fiber on the lead and protein metabolism in lead poisoning rats (식이 단백질 및 섬유질이 납중독 흰쥐의 단백질과 납대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김지희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 1991
  • This study wa performed to investigate the effects of dietary protein and fiber on the lead and protein metabolism in lead poisoning rats. Seventy male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing 172$\pm$2g were blocked into 14 gropus according to body weight. Protein(casein) was given at levels of 15 or 40%, and fibers(pectin, cellulose and CMC) were given at levels of 0, 4 or 10%. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio(FER) in groups fed high protein diets were higher than those in low protein groups. Liver weight in groups fed no dietary fiber was higher than that of animals fed fiber. Kidney and femur weights were greater in high protein groups. Tibia and femur lengths, and tibia weight were not significantly different among groups. 2. Hemoglobin content and hematocrit values showed no significant differance with dietary factors. 3. Total protein contents of serum and liver showed no significant difference, but tended to increase with increasing dietary protein level. Both daily urinary and fecal nitrogen excretions in high protein groups were higher than those in low protein groups. Especially daily fecal nitrogen excretions in high dietary fiber groups were significantly high. Body nitrogen absorption rate was the highest in animals fed no fiber. 4. Pb levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone tended to decrease with high dietary protein and fiber levels. Especially Pb level of kidney was high in all groups. Daily urinary Pb excretion showed no significant difference with dietary factors, but fecal Pb excretion increased significantly in high protein and fiber groups.

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EFFECTS OF DIETARY CELLULOSE AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN CHICKENS

  • Siri, S.;Tobioka, H.;Tasaki, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 1994
  • Effects of dietary cellulose and protein levels on nutrient utilization in chickens were investigated. Four experimental diets containing 5% (low cellulose) or 20% (high cellulose) cellulose in combination with 10% (low protein) or 20% (high protein) protein of 70 g/day were alternatively forced-fed to eight colostomized White Leghorn cockerels once a day to make $4{\times}4$ Latin-square design. The digestibilities of DM and energy decreased with the increase in cellulose level, but not affected by dietary protein level. Ether extract digestibility was higher in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose protein level. Ether extract digestibility was higher in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose diets. The digestibility of nitrogen free extract had the same trend with the digestibility of DM and energy. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber was not so much different among the diets, but the NDF digestibility was lower in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose diets, due to the low hemicellulose digestibility. The true digestibility of protein was influenced by both of the dietary protein and cellulose levels, and their interaction was found. The dietary protein level affected the biological value of protein but the dietary cellulose level did not, and consequently the biological value of protein in the low protein diets was lower than in the high protein diets.

Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Sub-adult Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus During the Summer Season

  • Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Kang, Yong-Jin;Lee, Jong-Yun;Kim, Kang-Woong;Choi, Se-Min
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 2008
  • A $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the proper dietary protein and lipid levels for the growth of sub-adult flounder Paralichthys olivaceus reared during the summer season. Six experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (45%, 50% and 55%) and two levels of lipid (9% and 14%). Duplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 298 g) were hand-fed to apparent satiation during the summer season ($21.8{\pm}1.7^{\circ}C$) for 60 days. Survival of each group was over 83% and there was not significant difference among all groups. Weight gain of fish fed the 45% protein diet with 14% lipid was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 50% and 55% protein diets with 9% and 14% lipids, but weight gain of fish fed the 45% protein diet with 9% lipid was significantly lower than that of fish fed the 55% protein diets with 14% lipid. Feed efficiency tended to increase with increasing dietary lipid level at each protein levels, although no significant differences were observed at 50% and 55% protein levels. Protein efficiency ratio, daily feed intake, condition factor and hepatosomatic index were not significantly affected by dietary protein and lipid levels. Crude lipid content of the liver tended to increase with increasing dietary lipid level at the same protein levels, but the opposite appearance was found for moisture content. The contents of moisture, crude protein and crude lipid of the dorsal muscle were not significantly affected by dietary protein and lipid levels. Based on data obtained form this study, inclusion of dietary protein at level of 45% appears sufficient to support optimal growth, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 14% has beneficial effects on feed utilization of sub-adult flounder during the summer season.

Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Milk Composition and Postnatal Growth in Rats (흰쥐에서 식이 단백질 수준이 유즙 성분과 새끼의 영양상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 김화영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.855-863
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    • 1999
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary protein level throughout gestation and lactation on milk composition and on postnatal growth in infants, using rats as an animal model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with either high(25% ISP(Isolated Soy Protein)diet) or low protein diet(10% ISP diet) throughout gestation and lactation. Milk samples were taken for analysis from the lactating rats at days of 7, 14, 21, of lactation. Dams and some pups were killed after 4 weeks from parturtion (Experiment 1). Pups from dams of each diet groups were randomly selected and reared with 25% or 10% ISP diet for 4 more weeks (Experiment 2). In experiment 1, maternal protein intake and body weight gain throughout gestation and lactation was higher in 25% ISP group. Serum protein, Ca, Fe, Zn, K concentrations were significantly higher in 25% ISP group. There was no difference in birth weight between two groups, however the mean body weight at 4 weeks postpartum were significantly higher in 25% ISP group. Serum profiles of pups at weaning were similar to that of dams. Milk compositions were changed during lactation processes and were affected by dietary protein level. Lactose and Ca, Cu, Fe concentrations in milk were higher in 25% ISP group, whereas, lipid, triglyceride were higher in 10% ISP group. In experiment 2, food intake was higher in milk were higher in 25% ISP group but was unaffected by pup's dietary protein level after weaning. The weights of liver and kidney were affected by maternal protein intake. The weight of intestine was affected by pup's dietary protein level after weaning. The weight of femur and scapula were affected by maternal protein intake. There were no differences between four groups in serum profiles. Therefore, as mentioned above, it seemed that the effect of maternal protein malnutrition to fetus was able to be overcome to some extent by high protein diet intake after weaning. In conclusion, 1) Dietary protein level throughout gestation and lactation affected both nutritional status of dams and pups and milk composition: 25% ISP groups supported better nutritional status than 10% ISP group 2) It seemed that effect of dietary protein level after weaning on pups was able to be overcome the influence of maternal diet in fetus to some extent.

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