• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dietary Cadmium

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Effect of Dietary Protein and Cysteine Levels on Cadmium Toxicity in Rats (식이 단백질과 cysteine 수준이 흰쥐의 Cadmium 중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.461-471
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary protein and cysteine levels on cadmium toxicity in rats. Seventy-two male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighting 171$\pm$3g were blocked into 12 groups according to body weight, and were raised for 30 days. cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 400ppm, protein at levels of 7, 15 and 40%, and cysteine was added(total dietary cysteine contents : 0.45%) to diet or not. The results are summarized as follow. Food intake, weight gain, food were lower than those of cadmium free group. But, these were increased with increasing dietary protein level and cysteine addition. Fecal cadmium excretion was remarkably increased in high protein (40%) groups. Thus, cadmium retention rates were decreased in high protein groups. Metallothionein concentrations in liver and kidney were increased in cysteine addition, and cadmium administration. Especially, these were remarkably increased in cadmium and cysteine added groups. Urinary calcium excretion was increased with cadmium administration, but urinary protein excretion and creatinine clearance were not changed in these animal. In conclusion, food intake, weight gain and organ weights were decreased with administration. Cadmium toxicity was alleviated by increasing fecal cadmium excretion, while cysteine addition increased metallothionein concentrations in liver and kidney. From these results, it was shown that cadmium toxicity was alliviated by synergistic effect of high protein level and cysteine addition.

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Protective effect of dietary chitosan on cadmium accumulation in rats

  • Kim, Mi Young;Shon, Woo-Jeong;Park, Mi-Na;Lee, Yeon-Sook;Shin, Dong-Mi
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cadmium is a toxic metal that is an occupational and environmental concern especially because of its human carcinogenicity; it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. Even low levels of exposure to cadmium could be harmful owing to its extremely long half-life in the body. Cadmium intoxication may be prevented by the consumption of dietary components that potentially reduce its accumulation in the body. Dietary chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from animal sources; it has been known for its ability to bind to divalent cations including cadmium, in addition to other beneficial effects including hypocholesterolemic and anticancer effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of dietary chitosan in reducing cadmium accumulation using an in vivo system. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cadmium was administered orally at 2 mg (three times per week) to three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: control, low-dose, and high-dose (0, 3, and 5%, respectively) chitosan diet groups for eight weeks. Cadmium accumulation, as well as tissue functional and histological changes, was determined. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, rats fed the chitosan diet showed significantly lower levels of cadmium in blood and tissues including the kidneys, liver, and femur. Biochemical analysis of liver function including the determination of aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels showed that dietary chitosan reduced hepatic tissue damage caused by cadmium intoxication and prevented the associated bone disorder. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary chitosan has the potential to reduce cadmium accumulation in the body as well as protect liver function and bone health against cadmium intoxication.

Effects of dietary Cadmium and Protein Levels on the Body Protein Metabolism and Cadmium Toxicity in Growing Rats (식이내 Cadmium과 단백질 수준이 흰쥐의 체내 단백질 대사 및 Cadmium 중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 이혜영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.410-420
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    • 1988
  • This study were performed to investigate effect of dietary cadmium(Cd) and protein levels on growth, body protein metabolism and Cd toxicity in growing rats. Forty eight male rats of Sprague-Dawley weighing 113$\pm$2g were blocked into 6 groups accoridng to body weight. Dietary protein were given at the levels of 7, 15 and 40% of diet and Cd (200ppm)were either added or not. The result obtained were summerized as follow; 1) Food intake, weight gain, FER PER, liver and kidney weight, weight and length of bones, hematocrit, and hemoglobin content in Cd-added groups were low than those in Cd-free groups. 2) Serum total protein showed no significant difference with Cd addition, but it was significantly lower in low protein diet groups. Liver protein in Cd-added groups was lower than Cd-free groups, and was tend to be increased with increasing dietary protein level. 3) Daily urinary and fecal nitrogen excretions in Cd-added groups were lower than Cd-free groups, and were increased with increasing dietary protein level. 4) Cadmium contents in blood, liver, kidney, and femur were tend to be decreased with increasing dietary protein level. Especially, Cd content in kidney of Cd-added groups was significantly decreased with increasing dietary protein level. 5) Daily urinary and fecal Cd excretions were tend to be increased with increasing dietary protein level, and Cd-added-high protein diet group showed the highest Cd excretion among the Cd-added groups, Cd absorption ration and Cd retention ratio were tend to be decreased with increasing dietary protein level.

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Effect of dietary Calcium Level on Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Rats (식이내 Calcium 수준이 흰쥐의 카드뮴과 납중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.958-970
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary calcium level on cadmium and lead toxicity in rats. Fifty-four male rats of Sprague-Dawely strain weighing 152$\pm$12g were blocked into 9 groups according to body weight, and were raised for 30 days. Nine experimental diets different with cadmium(0%, 0.04%), lead (0%, 0.071%) and calcijm(0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) levels were prepared. The results are summarized as follow. Weight gain, F.E.R.(food efficiency ratio), and weights of liver, kidney and femur were lower in cadmium exposed groups than those of heavy metal free groups. Weight gain F.E.R. and ash weight of lead groups were lower than those of heavy metal free groups. But, these were increased with increasing dietary calcium level. Cadmium and lead concentrations in blood, liver, kidney and femur were lower in rats fed 1.5% calcium than 0.5% calcium diet. Fecal cadmium and lead excretions were remarkably increased in 1.5% calcium groups, and cadmium and lead retention rates were decreased in 1.5% calcium groups. Metallothionein concentrations in liver, kidney and small intestine were higher in rats exposed to cadmium and lead. Calcium content in blood, femur and daily urinary and fecal calcium excretion were decreased by cadmium and lead additions, and increased in 1.5% calcium groups. Creatinine clearance were decreased with cadmium administratino and calcium addition. In conclusion, weight gain and organ weights were decreased with cadmium or lead administration. But, cadmium administration was more toxic than lead adminstration. Cadmium or lead toxicity was alleviated by increasing dietary calcium level. Especially, lead toxicity was alleviated in proportion to dietary calcium level.

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Effect of Dietary Cadmium Levels on Cadmium Accumulation in Feeding Mice (식이내(食餌內) Cadmium 수준차이(水準差異)에 따른 생쥐 체내(體內)에서의 Cadmium 축적(蓄積)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Seong-Jo;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Kook, Joong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 1991
  • An animal experiment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary cadmium on growth rates and cadmium accumulations in internal organic tissues and blood by feeding mice with dietary $cdcl_2$ additives and/or brown rice with high cadmium content as during a 12-week feeding period. The results were as follows : Mice weights decreased with increasing levels of dietary cadmium at the end of a 9-week feeding period. The weights of mice organs in the cadmium-free feeding group were higher than in the cadmium-added groups, and the weights of mice organs did not show any significant differences among feeding groups with different levels of dietary cadmium. The concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver were much higher than in other internal organs and blood, and the next higher concentration was in the heart. The cadmium accumulation in all internal organs and blood increased with increasing dietary cadmium levels, respectively. The ratios of cadmium accumulation in organ tissues and total blood of cadmium-added groups increased with decreasing dietary cadmium levels.

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Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Source on Cadmium Intoxicification in Rats (식이내 단백질의 수준과 종류가 흰쥐의 Cadmium중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.578-589
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to invstigate the effect of dietary protein level and source on cadmium intoxicification in rats. Forty-eight male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing 171$\pm$3g were blocked into 8 groups of 6 animals according to body weigth, and were raised for 30days. Eight experimental diets different with cadmium(0ppm, 400ppm)and protein(15%, 40%) levels and protein source[casien, I.S.P.(isolated soy protein)] were given to animals for 30days. Food intake, weight gain, food efficiency ratio, liver weight, kidney weight and femur weight were lower in cadmium added group, and higher in high protein groups(40% protein) than medium protein groups(15% protein). But, dietary protein source had no influence on them. Cadmium concerntration of liver was higher in rats fed casein than I.S.P. groups, and cadmium concentration in intestine was higher in high protein groups. In femur both high protein and I.S.P.diets increased cadmium concentrations. MT concdentrations in liver, kidney and intestine were higher in cadmium added group, and kidney intestine MT concentration were higher in high protein group. Absorption and retention rates of cadmium were lower in rat fed I.S.P. than animal fed casein among medium protein groups and cadmium concentration in blood and liver of I.S.P groups were lower than casein groups. But absorption and retention rates of cadmium were similar in high casein and I.S.P. groups. Renal damage by cadmium administration was not seen in all groups. Absorption rates of zinc and copper competing with cadmium in absorption process were lower in high protein groups than medium protein groups and lower in rats fed I.S.P. than casein. In conclusion, weight gain, F.E.R, and MT concentraion of high protein groups were higher than those of medium protein groups and absorption and retention rates of cadmium were lower in high protein groups. From these results, it was shown that cadmium toxicity was alleviated by high dietary protein. Meanwhile, the effect of dietary source on the cadmium toxicity was different with protein level. In medium protein groups absorption and retention rates of cadmium were much lower in rats fed I.S.P. than casein. In high protein groups, cadmium toxicity was not influenced by protein source and absorption and retention rates of cadmium were not different between casein and I.S.P. groups.

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Effect of Dietary Fibers Isolated from Tangerine Peels on Lipid and Cadmium Metabolism in the Rat (감귤과피로부터 분리한 식이섬유가 흰쥐의 지방 및 Cadmium 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.229-243
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of dietary fibers from tangerine peels on lipid and cadmium metabolism. And effects were compared with those of commercial dietary fibers($\alpha$-cellulose, citrus pectin). Sixty male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing 186.7$\pm$2.6g were blocked into 12 groups according to body weight, and were raised for 2 weeks. Cadmium chloride was given at the levels of 0 of 400 ppm in diet. Various dietary fibers were given at the level of 0 or 4%(w/w) of diet. The results are summarized as follow. In lipid metabolism, insoluble fibers[insoluble dietary fibers from tangerine peels(IDE), $\alpha$-celluolse] increased fecal excretion of lipids by inhcreasing feces weight, and decreased the concentrations of serum triglyceride and liver lipids. Soluble dietary fibers from tangerine peels(SDF) decreased the concentrations of serum cholesterol and liver lipids by increasing fecal lipids, too. In cadmium metabolism, soluble fivers(SDF, pectin) inhibited Cd absorption by increasing fecal Cd excretion and decreased Cd concentrations of intestion, liver and kidney. In conclusion, among the extracted fibers, SDF were more effective on lipid and Cd lowering activity and IDF had effect of increasing fecal lipid excretion. This result is useful to reduce food waste and utilize waste products.

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Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium

  • Kim, You-Jin;Kwon, Sang-Hee;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris(chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium(Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats weighing $415.0{\pm}1.6\;g$ were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing(AIN-93G) diet without(n=10) or with(n=40) dietary Cd(200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without(n=10) and with(n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats.

The Effect of Dietary Protein and Calcium Levels on Metallothionein and Histopathological Changes during Cadmium Intoxication in Rats (식이 단백질과 Ca 수준이 흰쥐의 Cd 중독과정중 Metallothionein 과 조직의 형태변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 권오란
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.360-378
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    • 1992
  • This study was performed to investigate effect of dietary protein and calcium levels on cad-mium intoxication in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rate(245$\pm$21g) were blocked into 18 groups of 7 animals according to body weight Nine experimental diets different with protein(40%, 15%, 7%) and calcium (1.3%, 0.6%, 0.1%) levels were prepared. Nine groups of animals were fed each diet with 50ppm cadmium in drinking water and the other 9 groups without cadmium for 30days. Results were summarized as follows: 1) Body weight gain F. E. R(Food Efficiency Ratio) and weights of liver kidney and femur were higher in high protein groups among cadmium exposed groups. 2) Cadmium contents in liver and intestine were higher in rats fed high protein diet or low calcium diet among cadmium exposed groups. Fecal cadmium excretion was highest in high protein-high calcium diet group among cadmium exposed animals. Metallothionein contents in liver kidney and intestine were higher in animals exposed to cadmium and fed high protein diets. 3) Gel filtration chromatography of cytosolic solution showed that the higher dietary protein and calcium levels were the more cadmium was found in metallothionein fractions. 4) No gross histopathological change was seen in liver kidney and intestine of cadmium exposed rats. However a significant increase of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which was alleveated by high protein-high calcium diet was observed. Results obtained indicated that not only high protein diet but also high calcium diet showed preventive effect on cadmium intoxication by increasing the induction of metallothionein syn-thesis and decreasing the cadmium absorption.

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Effect of Dietary Cysteine Level on Cadmium on Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Rats (식이내 Cysteine 수준이 흰쥐의 카드뮴과 납중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 류정미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.597-607
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    • 1996
  • This study has been investigated the potenial of increased dietary cysteine to alter the effects of cadmium and lead on tissure and bone metal concentrations, excretion and tissue metallothionein(MT) concentrations. Fifty-four male rats of Sprgue-Dawley strain weighing 149$\pm$17g were divided into 9 groups according to body weight. Nine experimental diets with different cadmium (0ppm, 400ppm), lead(0ppm, 710ppm) and cysteine (0.06%, 0.45%, 0.90%) levels were given to rats for 30 days ; Food intake, weight gain, F.E.R, and weights of liver, kidney and femur were decreased in cadmium supplied groups than in cadmium free groups. Urinary and fecal cadmium excretions were increased and MT synthesis we induced in liver, kidney and small intestine in cadmium supplied groups. In lead supplied groups, weight gain and F.E.R were decreased. With cysteine supplementation in cadmium supplied groups, weight gain and F.E.R, and weights of liver, kidney and femur were increased. Cadmium excretion in feces and MT concentrations in liver and kidney were also increased with cysteine supplementation. In lead supplied groups, there was no significant increase in food intake, weight gain and F.E.R with cysteine supplementation. Lead excretion in feces was increased in cysteine supplemented groups. In conclusion, effect of cadmium administration was more toxic than lead adminstration. Cysteine alleviated cadmium and lead toxicity by increasing metallothionein concentration and fecal excretions of heavy metals. Especially, effect of cysteine supplementation was more effective in cadmium groups than in lead groups. Effect of cysteine supplementation was not different with level of cysteine supplementation in both cadmium and lead groups.

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